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Setting Theoretical Egos Aside: Issues and Theory in North American Archaeology

  • Michelle Hegmon (a1)

Abstract

Theory in North American archaeology is characterized in terms of foci and approaches manifested in research issues, rather than in explicit or oppositional theoretical positions. While there are some clear-cut theoretical perspectives—evolutionary ecology, behavioral archaeology, and Darwinian archaeology—a large majority of North American archaeology fits a broad category here called “processual-plus.” Among the major themes that crosscut many or all of the approaches are interests in gender, agency/practice, symbols and meaning, material culture, and native perspectives. Gender archaeology is paradigmatic of processual-plus archaeology, in that it draws on a diversity of theoretical approaches to address a common issue. Emphasis on agency and practice is an important development, though conceptions of agency are too often linked to Western ideas of individuals and motivation. The vast majority of North American archaeology, including postprocessual approaches, is modern, not postmodern, in orientation. The relative dearth of theoretical argument positively contributes to diversity and dialogue, but it also may cause North American theory to receive inadequate attention and unfortunate misunderstandings of postmodernism.

Résumé

La teoría en la arqueología de Norte América está caracterizada en términos de enfoques y consideraciones manifestados en problemáticas de investigación, más que en posiciones teóricas explícitas u opuestas. En tanto que hay algunas perspectivas teóricas definidas—ecología evolucionaria, arqueología del comportamiento, y arqueología Darviniana—la gran mayoría de la arqueología de Norte América encaja en una categoría amplia que aquí se denomina como “procesual-plus.” Entre los temas principales que entrecruzan muchos o todos los enfoques están los que se interesan en el género, en el organismo o en la práctica, el que se centra en los símbolos y significados, el enfocado en la cultura material, y en las perspectivas indígenas. La arqueología de género es paradigmá tica de la arqueología procesual-plus, en la medida en que se extiende en la diversidad de enfoques teóricos para atender a una problemática común. El énfasis en el organismo y la práctica es un desarrollo importante, aunque las concepciones sobre el agente son vinculadas con mucha frecuencia a las ideas occidentals de individuos y de motivación. La gran mayoría de la arqueología de Norte América, incluyendo el enfoque postprocesual, es moderno, pero no postmoderno, en orientación. La relativa escasez de argumentos teó ricos contribuye positivamente a la diversidad y al diálogo, pero también puede causar a la teoría Norteamericana el recibir una atención inadecuada y puede llevar desafortunadamente a malentender el postmodernismo.

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