Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-79b67bcb76-5vsr4 Total loading time: 0.213 Render date: 2021-05-15T04:28:26.825Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

The Behavioral Immune System Shapes Political Intuitions: Why and How Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Underlie Opposition to Immigration

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 April 2017

LENE AARØE
Affiliation:
University of Aarhus
MICHAEL BANG PETERSEN
Affiliation:
University of Aarhus
KEVIN ARCENEAUX
Affiliation:
Temple University

Abstract

We present, test, and extend a theoretical framework that connects disgust, a powerful basic human emotion, to political attitudes through psychological mechanisms designed to protect humans from disease. These mechanisms work outside of conscious awareness, and in modern environments, they can motivate individuals to avoid intergroup contact by opposing immigration. We report a meta-analysis of previous tests in the psychological sciences and conduct, for the first time, a series of tests in nationally representative samples collected in the United States and Denmark that integrate the role of disgust and the behavioral immune system into established models of emotional processing and political attitude formation. In doing so, we offer an explanation for why peaceful integration and interaction between ethnic majority and minorities is so hard to achieve.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

Acknowledgements: The research reported in this article was made possible by funding from the Danish Council for Independent Research, the Velux Foundation and the Temple University Behavioral Foundations Lab. The authors would like to acknowledge the helpful guidance and advice received from Ted Brader, Ryan Enos, Stanley Feldman, John Hibbing, Leonie Huddy, Cindy Kam, Robert Kurzban, Richard Lau, Mark Schaller, Jim Sidanius, Kevin Smith, Joshua Tybur, Nicholas Valentino, participants at the Interacting Minds Seminars at Aarhus University, participants in the American Politics Colloquium at Temple University, participants at the Human Evolution Lunch Lecture at the Centre for Biocultural History at Aarhus University, participants at Evolutionary Psychology Laboratory at Harvard University, participants at the Working Group in Political Psychology and Behavior at Harvard University, the anonymous reviewers, as well as APSR co-editors Valerie J. Martinez-Ebers and Ingo Rohlfing. We are grateful to Dan Nguyen, Klaus Juul and Julie Joenson for their research assistance.

References

Aarøe, Lene, Osmundsen, Mathias, and Petersen, Michael B.. 2016. “Distrust as a Disease-Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust.” Frontiers in Psychology 7: 1038.Google ScholarPubMed
Albertson, Bethany, and Gadarian, Shana Kushner. 2015. Anxious Politics: Democratic Citizenship in a Threatening World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Shawaf, Laith, and Lewis, David M. G.. 2013. “Exposed Intestines and Contaminated Cooks: Sex, Stress, and Satiation Predict Disgust Sensitivity.” Personality and Individual Differences 54 (6): 698702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allport, Gordon W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
Arceneaux, Kevin. 2012. “Cognitive Biases and the Strength of Political Arguments.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (2): 271–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balzer, Amanda, and Jacobs, Carly M. 2011. “Gender and Physiological Effects in Connecting Disgust to Political Preferences.” Social Science Quarterly 92 (5): 1297–313.Google Scholar
Banks, Antoine J., and Valentino, Nicholas A. 2012. “Emotional Substrates of White Racial Attitudes.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (2): 286–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bargh, John A., and Chartrand, Tanya L.. 1999. “The Unbearable Automaticity of Being.” American Psychologist 54 (7): 462–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkow, J., Cosmides, Leda, and Tooby, John, eds. 1992. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bartels, Larry. 2013. “Your Genes Influence your Political Views. So what?” Monkey Cage November 12, 2013, Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2013/11/12/your-genes-influence-your-political-views-so-what/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhojani, S., D'Costa, S., and Gupta, A.. 2008. “Hand Hygiene: Simple, Inexpensive and an Effective Tool.” British Journal of Infection Control 9 (5): 15–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brader, Ted. 2006. Campaigning for Hearts and Minds: How Emotional Appeals in Political Ads Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Brader, T., and Marcus, George E.. 2013. “Emotions and Political Psychology.” In Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology, second edition, eds. Huddy, Leonie, Sears, David, and Levy, Jack. New York: Oxford University Press, 165204.Google Scholar
Brader, Ted, Valentino, Nicholas A., and Suhay, Elizabeth. 2008. “What Triggers Public Opposition to Immigration? Anxiety, Group Cues, and Immigration Threat.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (4): 959–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, S. J., Savov, V., Allzén, E., Benedict, C., Fredriksson, R., and Schiöth, H. B.. 2012. “Exposure to Subliminal Arousing Stimuli Induces Robust Activation in the Amygdala, Hippocampus, Anterior Cingulate, Insular Cortex and Primary Visual Cortex: A Systematic Meta-analysis of fMRI Studies.” NeuroImage 59 (3): 2962–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cacioppo, John T., Tassinary, Louis, and Bernston, Gary. 2007. “Psychophysiological Science: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Classic Questions About the Mind.” In Handbook of Psychophysiology, 3rd ed, eds. Cacioppo, John T., Tassinary, Louis, and Bernston, Gary. New York: Cambridge University Press, 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip E., Miller, Warren E., and Stokes, Donald E.. 1960. The American Voter. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
Cesario, Joseph, Plaks, Jason E., Hagiwara, Nao, Navarrete, Carlos D., and Higgins, E. Tory 2010. “The Ecology of Automaticity: How Situational Contingencies Shape Action Semantics and Social Behavior.” Psychological Science 21 (9): 1311–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Citrin, Jack, Green, Donald P., Muste, Christopher, and Wong, Cara. 1997. “Public Opinion Towards Immigration Reform: The Role of Economic Motivations.” Journal of Politics 59 (3): 858–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coenders, Marcel, and Scheepers, Peer. 2003. “The Effect of Education on Nationalism and Ethnic Exclusionism: An International Comparison.” Political Psychology 24 (2): 313–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Converse, Philip E. 1964. “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” In Ideology and its Discontents, ed. David Apter. New York, NY: Free Press, 207–61.Google Scholar
Cottrell, Catherine A., and Neuberg, Steven L.. 2005. “Different Emotional Reactions to Different Groups: A Sociofunctional Threat-Based Approach to Prejudice.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88 (5): 770–89.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Curtis, V., de Barra, Micheál, and Aunger, Robert. 2011. “Disgust as an Adaptive System for Disease Avoidance Behaviour.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366 (1563): 389401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duncan, Lesley A., Schaller, Mark, and Park, Justin H.. 2009. “Perceived Vulnerability to Disease: Development and Validation of a 15-Item Self-Report Instrument.” Personality and Individual Differences 47 (6): 541–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Espenshade, Thomas J., and Calhoun, Charles A.. 1993. “An Analysis of Public Opinion Toward Undocumented Immigration.” Population Research and Policy Review 12 (3): 189224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Espenshade, Thomas J., and Hempstead, Kathrine. 1996. “Contemporary American Attitudes Toward U.S. Immigration.” International Migration Review 30 (2): 535–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Faulkner, Jason, Schaller, Mark, Park, Justin H., and Duncan, Lesley A.. 2004. “Evolved Disease Avoidance Mechanisms and Contemporary Xenophobic Attitudes.” Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 7 (4): 333–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feldman, Stanley, and Johnston, Christopher. 2014. “Understanding the Determinants of Political Ideology: Implications of Structural Complexity.” Political Psychology 35 (3): 337–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fessler, Daniel M., Eng, Serena J., and Navarrete, Carlos D.. 2005. Elevated Disgust Sensitivity in the First Trimester of Pregnancy: Evidence Supporting the Compensatory Prophylaxis Hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior 26 (4): 344–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fessler, Daniel M. T., and Navarrete, Carlos D. 2003. ”Meat is Good to Taboo: Dietary Proscriptions as a Product of the Interaction of Psychological Mechanisms and Social Processes.” Journal of Cognition and Culture 3 (1): 140.Google Scholar
Fincher, Corey L., and Thornhill, Randy. 2012. “Parasite-Stress Promotes In-Group Assortative Sociality: The Cases of Strong Family Ties and Heightened Religiosity.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (2): 6179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fiske, Susan, Cuddy, Amy J. C., and Glick, Peter. 2007. “Universal Dimensions of Social Cognition: Warmth and Competence.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (2): 7783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fowler, James H., and Schreiber, Darren 2008. “Biology, Politics, and the Emerging Science of Human Nature.” Science 322 (5903): 912–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freud, Sigmund. 1915. The Unconscious. S.E., 14. London: Hogarth, 159204.Google Scholar
Givens, Terri, and Luedtke, Adam 2004. “The Politics of European Union Immigration Policy: Institutions, Salience, and Harmonization.” Policy Studies Journal 32 (1): 145–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray, Jeffrey. 1987. The Psychology of Fear and Stress. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Green, David. 2016. “The Trump Hypothesis: Testing Immigrant Populations as a Determinant of Violent and Drug-Related Crime in the United States.” Social Science Quarterly 97 (3): 506–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, Eva G. T., Krings, Franciska, Staerklé, Christian, Bangerter, Adrian, Clémence, Alain, Wagner-Egger, Pascal, and Bornand, Tierry. 2010. “Keeping the Vermin Out: Perceived Disease Threat and Ideological Orientations as Predictors of Exclusionary Immigration Attitudes.” Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 20 (4): 299316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haidt, Jonathan, McCauley, Clark, and Rozin, Paul. 1994. “Individual Differences in Sensitivity to Disgust: A Scale Sampling Seven Domains of Disgust Elicitors.” Personality and Individual Differences 16 (5): 701–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hainmueller, Jens, and Hiscox, Michael J.. 2007. “Educated Preferences: Explaining Attitudes toward Immigration in Europe.” International Organization 61 (2): 399442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hainmueller, Jens, and Hiscox, Michael J.. 2010. “Attitudes toward Highly Skilled and Low-Skilled Immigration: Evidence from a Survey Experiment.” American Political Science Review 104 (1): 6184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hibbing, John R., Smith, Kevin B., and Alford, John R.. 2014. “Differences in Negativity Bias Underlie Variations in Political Ideology.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3): 297307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hodson, Gordon, Choma, Becky L., Boisvert, Jacqueline, Hafer, Carolyn L., MacInnis, Cara C., and Costello, Kimberly. 2013. “The Role of Intergroup Disgust in Predicting Negative Outgroup Evaluations.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49 (2): 195205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, Julie Y., Sedlovskaya, Alexandra, Ackerman, Joshua M., and Bargh, John A.. 2011. “Immunizing Against Prejudice Effects of Disease Protection on Attitudes Toward Out-Groups.” Psychological Science 22 (12): 1550–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Inbar, Yoel, Pizarro, David A., and Bloom, Paul. 2009. “Conservatives are More Easily Disgusted than Liberals.” Cognition and Emotion 23 (4): 714–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inbar, Yoel, Pizarro, David, Iyer, Ravi, and Haidt, Jonathan. 2012. “Disgust Sensitivity, Political Conservatism, and Voting.” Social Psychological and Personality Science 3 (5): 537–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jensen, Carsten, and Petersen, Michael Bang. 2017. “The Deservingness Heuristic and the Politics of Health Care.” American Journal of Political Science 61 (1): 6883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jost, John T., Glaser, Jack, Kruglanski, Arie W., and Sulloway, Frank J.. 2003. “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition.” Psychological Bulletin 129 (3): 339–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jumaa, P. A. 2005. “Hand Hygiene: Simple and Complex.” International Journal of Infectious Diseases 9 (1): 314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
Kam, Cindy D., and Estes, Beth A.. 2016. “Disgust Sensitivity and Public Demand for Protection.” Journal of Politics 78 (2): 481–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenrick, Douglas T., Griskevicius, Vladas, Neuberg, Steven L., and Schaller, Mark. 2010. “Renovating the Pyramid of Needs: Contemporary Extensions Built Upon Ancient Foundations.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 5 (3): 292314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Key, V. O. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Alfred A. Knopff.Google Scholar
Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles S.. 2013. The Rationalizing Voter. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malhotra, Neil, Margalit, Yotam, and Mo, Cecilia H.. 2013. “Economic Explanations for Opposition to Immigration: Distinguishing between Prevalence and Conditional Impact.” American Journal of Political Science 57 (2): 391410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malka, Ariel, Soto, Christopher J., Inzlicht, Michael, and Lelkes, Yphtach. 2014. “Do Needs for Security and Certainty Predict Cultural and Economic Conservatism? A Cross-National Analysis.” Journal Of Personality and Social Psychology 106 (6), 1031–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marcus, George E., Neuman, W. Russell, and MacKuen, Michael. 2000. Affective Intelligence and Political Judgment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
McDermott, Rose. 2009. “Mutual Interests: The Case for Increasing Dialogue between Political Science and Neuroscience.” Political Research Quarterly 62: 571–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaren, Lauren. 2001. “Immigration and the New Politics of Inclusion and Exclusion in the European Union.” European Journal of Political Research 39: 81108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mondak, Jeffery J., Hibbing, Matthew V., Canache, Damarys, Seligson, Mitchell A., and Anderson, Mary R.. 2010. “Personality and Civic Engagement: An Integrative Framework for the Study of Trait Effects on Political Behavior.” American Political Science Review 104: 85110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Navarrete, Carlos D., and Fessler, Daniel M. T. 2006. “Disease Avoidance and Ethnocentrism: The Effects of Disease Vulnerability and Disgust Sensitivity on Intergroup Attitudes.” Evolution and Human Behavior 27 (4): 270–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oaten, Megan, Stevenson, Richard J., and Case, Trevor I.. 2009. “Disgust as a Disease-Avoidance Mechanism.” Psychological Bulletin 135 (2): 303–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olatunji, Bumni O., Williams, Nathan L., Tolin, David F., Sawchuk, Craig N., Abramowitz, Jonathan S., Lohr, Jeffrey M., and Elwood, Lisa S.. 2007. “The Disgust Scale: Item Analysis, Factor Structure, and Suggestions for Refinement.” Psychological Assessment 19 (3): 281–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Open Science Collaboration. 2015. “Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science.” Science 349 (6251), aac4716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oxley, Douglas R., Smith, Kevin B., Alford, John R., Hibbing, Matthew V., Miller, Jennifer L.. 2008. ”Political Attitudes Vary with Physiological Traits.” Science 321: 1667–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Park, Justin H., Faulkner, Jason, and Schaller, Mark. 2003. “Evolved Disease-Avoidance Processes and Contemporary Anti-Social Behavior: Prejudicial Attitudes and Avoidance of People with Physical Disabilities.” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 27 (2): 6587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, Justin H., Schaller, Mark, and Crandall, Christian S.. 2007. “Pathogen-Avoidance Mechanisms and the Stigmatization of Obese People.” Evolution and Human Behavior 28 (6): 410–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petersen, Michael B. 2012. “Social Welfare as Small-Scale Help: Evolutionary Psychology and the Deservingness Heuristic.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (1): 116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, Michael B. 2015. ”Evolutionary Political Psychology: On the Origin and Structure of Heuristics and Biases in Politics.” Political Psychology 36 (S1): 4578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pettigrew, Thomas F., and Tropp, Linda R.. 2006. “A Meta-analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (5): 751–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pettigrew, Thomas F., Tropp, Linda R., Wagner, Ulrich, and Christ, Oliver. 2011. “Recent Advances in Intergroup Contact Theory.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations 35 (3): 271–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reid, Scott A., Zhang, Jinguang, Anderson, Grace L., Gasiorek, Jessica, Bonilla, Douglas, and Peinado, Susana. 2012. “Parasite Primes make Foreign-Accented English Sound More Distant to People who are Disgusted by Pathogens (but not by Sex or Morality).” Evolution and Human Behavior 33 (5): 471–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rozin, Paul, Haidt, Jonathan, and McCauley, Clark R.. 2000. “Disgust.” In Handbook of Emotions, 2nd edition, eds. Lewis, Michael and Haviland-Jones, Jeannette M.. New York: Guilford Press, 637–53.Google Scholar
Ryan, Stephen, Oaten, Megan, Stevenson, Richard J., and Case, Trevor I.. 2012. “Facial Disfigurement is Treated Like an Infectious Disease.” Evolution and Human Behavior 33 (6): 639–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaller, Mark 2006. “Parasites, Behavioral Defenses, and the Social Psychological Mechanisms Through Which Cultures Are Evoked.” Psychological Inquiry 17 (2): 96137.Google Scholar
Schaller, Mark, and Duncan, Lesley A.. 2007. “The Behavioral Immune System: Its Evolution and Social Psychological Implications.” In Evolution and The Social Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and Social Cognition, eds. Forgas, Joseph P., Haselton, Martie G., and von Hippel, William. London: Psychology Press, 293307.Google Scholar
Schaller, Mark, and Neuberg, Steven L.. 2012. “Danger, Disease, and the Nature Prejudice(s).” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 46: 154.Google Scholar
Smith, Kevin B., Oxley, Douglas, Hibbing, Matthew V., Alford, John R., and Hibbing, John R.. 2011. “Disgust Sensitivity and The Neurophysiology of Left-Right Political Orientations.” PLOS One 6 (10): e25552.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sniderman, Paul, Hagendoorn, Louk, and Prior, Markus. 2004. “Predispositional Factors and Situational Triggers: Exclusionary Reactions to Immigrant Minorities.” American Political Science Review 98 (1): 3550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sniderman, Paul, Petersen, Michael Bang, Slothuus, Rune, and Stubager, Rune. 2014. Paradoxes of Liberal Democracy: Islam, Western Europe and the Danish Cartoon Crisis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sniderman, Paul M., and Hagendoorn, Louk. 2007. When Ways of Life Collide: Multiculturalism and its Discontents in the Netherlands. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Stanovich, Keith E., and West, Richard F. 2000. “Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23: 645726.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Terrizzi, John A. Jr, Shook, Natalie J., and McDaniel, Michael A.. 2013. “The Behavioral Immune System and Social Conservatism: A Meta-analysis.” Evolution and Human Behavior 34 (2): 99108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Treier, Shawn, and Hillygus, Sunshine D.. 2009. “The Nature of Political Ideology in the Contemporary Electorate.” Public Opinion Quarterly 73 (4): 679703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomkins, Silvan S., and McCarter, Robert. 1964. “What and Where are the Primary Affects? Some Evidence for a Theory.” Perceptual and Motor Skills 18 (1): 119–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tooby, John, and Cosmides, Leda. 2008. “The Evolutionary Psychology of the Emotions and Their Relationship to Internal Regulatory Variables.” In Lewis, Michael, Haviland-Jones, Jeannette M., Barrett, Lisa Feldman, eds., Handbook of Emotions, 3rd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 114–37.Google Scholar
Tybur, Joshua M., and Lieberman, Debra. 2016. “Human Pathogen Avoidance Adaptations.” Current Opinion in Psychology 7 (February): 611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tybur, Joshua M., Lieberman, Debra, and Griskevicius, Vladas. 2009. “Microbes, Mating, and Morality: Individual Differences in Three Functional Domains of Disgust.” Personality Processes and Individual Differences 97 (1): 103–22.Google ScholarPubMed
Tybur, Joshua M., Lieberman, Debra, Kurzban, Robert, and DeScioli, Peter. 2013. “Disgust: Evolved Function and Structure.” Psychological Review 120 (1), 6584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valentino, Nicholas A., Brader, Ted, Groenendyk, Eric W., Gregorowicz, Krysha, and Hutchings, Vincent L.. 2011. “Election Night's Alright for Fighting: The Role of Emotions in Political Participation.” Journal of Politics 73 (1): 156–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Overveld, Mark, de Jong, Peter J., Peters, Madelon L., and Schouten, Erik. 2011. “The Disgust Scale-R: A Valid and Reliable Index to Investigate Separate Disgust Domains?Personality and Individual Differences 51 (3), 325–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiner, Bernard. 1995. Judgements of Responsibility: A Foundation for a Theory of Social Conduct. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Welch, Susan, Sigelman, Lee, Bledsoe, Timothy, and Combs, Michael. 2001. Race and Place: Race Relations in an American City. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, Robin Murphy Jr.. 1964. Strangers Next Door: Ethnic Relations in American Communities. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Wilson, Edward O. 1999. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York : Vintage.Google Scholar
Wright, Matthew, Citrin, Jack, and Wand, Jonathan. 2012. “Alternative Measures of American National Identity: Implications for the Civic-Ethnic Distinction.” Political Psychology 33 (4): 469–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: Link

Aaroe et al. Dataset

Link
Supplementary material: File

Aarøe supplementary material

Online Appendix

Download Aarøe supplementary material(File)
File 308 KB

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Behavioral Immune System Shapes Political Intuitions: Why and How Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Underlie Opposition to Immigration
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The Behavioral Immune System Shapes Political Intuitions: Why and How Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Underlie Opposition to Immigration
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The Behavioral Immune System Shapes Political Intuitions: Why and How Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Underlie Opposition to Immigration
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *