Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-x5fd4 Total loading time: 0.516 Render date: 2021-03-02T23:25:25.193Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

The Missionary Roots of Liberal Democracy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 May 2012

ROBERT D. WOODBERRY
Affiliation:
National University of Singapore
Corresponding

Abstract

This article demonstrates historically and statistically that conversionary Protestants (CPs) heavily influenced the rise and spread of stable democracy around the world. It argues that CPs were a crucial catalyst initiating the development and spread of religious liberty, mass education, mass printing, newspapers, voluntary organizations, and colonial reforms, thereby creating the conditions that made stable democracy more likely. Statistically, the historic prevalence of Protestant missionaries explains about half the variation in democracy in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania and removes the impact of most variables that dominate current statistical research about democracy. The association between Protestant missions and democracy is consistent in different continents and subsamples, and it is robust to more than 50 controls and to instrumental variable analyses.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Acemoglu, Daron, and Johnson, Simon. 2007. “Disease and Development: The Effect of Life Expectancy on Economic Growth.” Journal of Political Economy 115: 925–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James A.. 2001. “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development.” American Economic Review 91: 13691401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James A.. 2002. “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 117: 1231–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, Robinson, James A., and Yared, Pierre. 2008. “Income and Democracy.” American Economic Review 98: 808–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, Daron, and Robinson, James A.. 2005. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aggarwal, S. K. 1988. Press at the Crossroads in India. Delhi, India: UDH Publishing House.Google Scholar
Albouy, David. 2008. The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Investigation of the Settler Mortality Data. NBER Working Paper 14130.Google Scholar
Ali, Muhammad Mohar. 1965. The Bengali Reaction to Christian Missionary Activities, 1833–1857. Chittagong, India: Mehrub Publications.Google Scholar
Altman, Albert A. 1966. “The Emergence of the Press in Meiji, Japan.” Ph.D. diss. Princeton University.Google Scholar
Anderson, John. 2004. “Does God Matter, and If So Whose God? Religion and Democratization.” Democratization 11: 192217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anheier, Helmut K. 1989. “Private Voluntary Organizations and Development in West Africa.” In The Nonprofit Sector in International Perspective, ed. Estelle, James. New York: Oxford University Press, 337–57.Google Scholar
Anheier, Helmut K., and Salamon, Lester M.. 1998. The Nonprofit Sector in the Developing World. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Annis, Sheldon. 1987. God and Production in a Guatemalan Town. Austin, TX: Austin University Press.Google Scholar
Anstey, Roger T. 1975. The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Bacchus, M. Kazim. 1988. “The Role of Denominational Bodies in the Development of Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean.” In Christianity and Educational Provision in International Perspective, eds. Tulasiewicz, W. and Brock, C.. London: Routledge, 217–69.Google Scholar
Bai, Ying, and Kai-Sing Kung, James. 2011. “Diffusing Knowledge while Spreading God's Message: Protestantism and Economic Prosperity in China, 1840–1920.” Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
Barrett, David B. 1982. World Christian Encyclopedia. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Barrett, David B., Kurian, George Thomas, and Johnson, Todd M., eds. 2001. World Christian Encyclopedia, 2nd ed.New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Barro, Robert J. 1999. “Determinants of Democracy.” Journal of Political Economy 107: S15883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barro, Robert J., and Lee, Jong-Wha. 1994. “Data Set for a Panel of 138 Countries.” http://www.nber.org/pub/barro.lee/ (accessed January 10, 2012).Google Scholar
Bayly, C.A. 2004. The Birth of the Modern World 1780–1914. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Bebbington, David. 2006. “The Growth of Voluntary Religion.” In The Cambridge History of Christianity, Vol. 8, eds. Gillery, S. and Stanley, B.. New York: Cambridge University Press, 5369.Google Scholar
Becker, Sascha O., and Woessmann, Ludger. 2009. “Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 124 (2): 531–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bekkers, René, and Schuyt, Theo. 2008. “And Who is Your Neighbor? Explaining Denominational Differences in Charitable Giving and Volunteering in the Netherlands.” Review of Religious Research 50: 7496.Google Scholar
Berman, Harold J. 1983. Law and Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Berman, Joshua A. 2008. Created Equal: How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blunch, Niels-Hugo. 2008. “Religion and Human Capital in Ghana.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans.Google Scholar
Boix, Carles. 2003. Democracy and Redistribution. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boli, John, Loya, Thomas A., and Loftin, Teresa. 1999. “National Participation in World-polity Organization.” In Constructing World Culture, eds. Boli, John and Thomas, George M.. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 5077.Google Scholar
Bollen, Kenneth A. 1979. “Political Democracy and the Timing of Development.” American Sociological Review 44: 572–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bollen, Kenneth A. 2001. Cross-national Indicators of Liberal Democracy, 1950–1990 [Computer file]. 2nd ICPSR version. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina [producer], 1998. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor].Google Scholar
Bollen, Kenneth A. 2009. “Liberal Democracy Series I, 1972–1988: Definition, Measurement, and Trajectories.” Electoral Studies 28: 368–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bollen, Kenneth A., and Jackman, Robert W.. 1985. “Political Democracy and the Size Distribution of Income.” American Sociological Review 50: 438–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bollen, Kenneth A., and Paxton, Pamela. 1998. “Detection and Determinants of Bias in Subjective Measures.” American Sociological Review 63: 465–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bollen, Kenneth A., and Paxton, Pamela. 2000. “Subjective Measures of Liberal Democracy.” Comparative Political Studies 33: 5886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Botticini, Maristella, and Eckstein, Zvi. 2005. “Jewish Occupational Selection: Education, Restrictions, or Minorities?Journal of Economic History 65: 922–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradley, Ian. 2006. The Call to Seriousness: The Evangelical Impact on the Victorians. Oxford: Lion Hutson.Google Scholar
Bradley, James E. 1990. Religion, Revolution, and English Radicalism: Non-conformity in Eighteenth-century Politics and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradley, James E. 2005. “The Public, Parliament, and the Protestant Dissenting Deputies, 1732–1740.” Parliamentary History 24: 7190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradley, James E., and Van Kley, Dale K., eds. 2001. Religion and Politics in Enlightenment Europe. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
Brown, Candy Gunther. 2004. The Word in the World: Evangelical Writing, Publishing, and Reading in America, 1789–1880. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Brown, David S. 2000. “Democracy, Colonization, and Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Studies in Comparative International Development 35: 2040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brusco, Elizabeth E. 1995. The Reformation of Machismo. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Butler, Jon. 2004. “Jack-in-the-box Faith: The Religious Problem in Modern American History.” Journal of American History 90: 1357–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capoccia, Giovanni, and Ziblatt, Daniel. 2010. “The Historical Turn in Democratization Studies: A New Research Agenda for Europe and Beyond.” Comparative Political Studies 43: 931–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chabbott, Colette. 1999. “Development INGOs.” In Constructing World Culture, eds. Boli, John and Thomas, George M.. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 222–48, 319–20.Google Scholar
Chang, Wen-Chung. 2006. “Determinants of Religious Giving in an Eastern-culture Economy.” Review of Religious Research 47: 363–79.Google Scholar
Chaudhuri, Tripti. 1998. “Missionaries and the Peasant Question.” Currents in World Christianity Paper #88. Cambridge University.Google Scholar
Choi, Myung Keun. 1997. Changes in Korean Society between 1884–1910 as a Result of the Introduction of Christianity. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Clague, Christopher, Gleason, Suzanne, and Knack, Stephen. 2001. “Determinants of Lasting Democracy in Poor Countries.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 773: 1641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, J. C. D. 1994. The Language of Liberty 1660–1832. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Clarke, Peter B. 1997. West Africa and Christianity. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Clements, Keith. 1999. Faith on the Frontier: A Life of J. H. Oldham. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.Google Scholar
Cook, David J. 1975. “The Influence of Livingstonia Mission upon the Formation of Welfare Associations in Zambia, 1912–31.” In Themes in the Christian History of Central Africa, eds. Range, Terence and Weller, John. London: Heinemann, 98134.Google Scholar
Curtis, James E., Baer, Douglas E. and Grabb, Edward G.. 2001. “Nations of Joiners: Explaining Voluntary Association Membership in Democratic Societies.” American Sociological Review 66: 783805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daughton, J. P. 2006. An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880–1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, Daniel M. 1988. The Life and Thought of Henry Gerhard Appenzeller (1858–1902). Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen.Google Scholar
Davis, Daniel M. 1994. “The Impact of Christianity upon Korea.” Journal of Church and State 36: 795820.Google Scholar
Deol, Harnik. 2000. Religion and Nationalism in India. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deaton, Angus. 2010. “Instruments, Randomization and Learning about Development.” Journal of Economic Literature 48: 424–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dick, Devon. 2002. Rebellion to Riot: The Jamaican Church in Nation Building. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle.Google Scholar
Drescher, Seymour. 1986. Capitalism and Antislavery. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drummond, Richard H. 1971. A History of Christianity in Japan. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.Google Scholar
Duchesne, Ricardo. 2006. “Asia First?Journal of the Historical Society 6: 6991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunch, Ryan. 2001. Fuzhou Protestants and the Making of Modern China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Ecklund, Elaine Howard, and Park, Jerry Z.. 2007. “Religious Diversity and Community Volunteerism among Asian Americans.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46: 233–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. 1979. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ellens, J. P. 1994. Religious Routes to Gladstonian Liberalism. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Engerman, Stanley L. and Sokoloff, Kenneth L.. 2008. “Debating the Role of Institutions in Political and Economic Development.” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 119–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ertman, Thomas. 2010. “The Great Reform Act of 1832 and British Democratization.” Comparative Political Studies 43: 1000–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Etherington, Norman. 2005. Missions and Empire. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Fairbank, John King. 1985. “Introduction: The Place of Protestant Writing in China's Cultural History.” In Christianity in China, eds. Wilson Barnett, Suzanne and Fairbank, John King. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 118.Google Scholar
Fails, Matthew D., and Krieckhaus, Jonathan. 2010. “Colonialism, Property Rights, and the Modern World Income Distribution.” British Journal of Political Science 40: 487508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Febvre, Lucian, and Martin, Henri-Jean. 1976. The Coming of the Book. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Fitzgerald, Scott T., and Glass, Jennifer. 2008. “Can Early Family Formation Explain the Lower Educational Attainment of U.S. Conservative Protestants?Sociological Spectrum 28 (5): 556–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fredrickson, George M. 2002. Racism: A Short History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Frykenberg, Robert Erik. 1999. “India.” In A World History of Christianity, ed. Hastings, Adrian. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 147–91.Google Scholar
Frykenberg, Robert Erik. 2008. Christianity in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fung, Archon. 2003. “Associations and Democracy.” Annual Review of Sociology 29: 515–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallego, Francesco, and Woodberry, Robert D.. 2010. “Christian Missions and Education in Former African Colonies: How Competition Mattered.” Journal of African Economies 19 (3): 294319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gasiorowski, Mark J., and Power, Timothy J.. 1998. “The Structural Determinants of Democratic Consolidation: Evidence from the Third World.” Comparative Political Studies 31 (6): 740–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geddes, Barbara. 1999. “What Do We Know about Democratization after Twenty Years?Annual Review of Political Science 2: 115–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghosh, Anindita. 2003. “An Uncertain ‘Coming of the Book’: Early Print Cultures in Colonial India.” Book History 6: 2355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, Anthony. 1998. Rendering unto Caesar: The Catholic Church and the State in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Gladwin, Michael. 2007. “The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, Abolition and English Public Life, 1816–1833.” Master's thesis. Australian National University.Google Scholar
Gombrich, Richard and Obeyesekere, Gananath. 1988. Buddhism Transformed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Gorski, Philip S. 2003. The Disciplinary Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, Andrew C. 1999. Origins of Liberal Dominance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grabb, Edward G. and Curtis, James E.. 1992. “Voluntary Association Activity in English Canada, French Canada, and the United States.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 17: 371–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graff, Harvey J. 1987. The Legacies of Literacy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Grant, Kevin. 2005. A Civilized Savagery: Britain and the New Slaveries in Africa, 1884–1926. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Grayson, James Huntley. 2002. Korea: A Religious History. New York: Routledge Curzon.Google Scholar
Green, Nile. 2009. “Journeymen, Middlemen: Travel, Transculture, and Technology in the Origins of Muslim Printing.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 41: 203–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenlee, James G. and Johnston, Charles M.. 1999. Good Citizens: British Missionaries and Imperial States 1870 to 1918. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.Google Scholar
Habermas, Jürgen. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Trans. Burger, Thomas with Lawrence, Frederick. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Hadenius, Axel. 1992. Democracy and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Peter Dobkin. 1992. Inventing the Nonprofit Sector. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Hall, Peter Dobkin. 1994. “Religion and the Origin of Voluntary Association in the United States.” Program on Non-profit Organizations Working Paper #213. Yale University.Google Scholar
Hamburger, Philip. 2002. Separation of Church and State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Hane, Mikiso. 1982. Peasants, Rebels and Outcastes: The Underside of Modern Japan. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
Harland-Jacobs, Jessica L. 2007. Builders of Empire: Freemasonry and British Imperialism, 1717–1927. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Hastings, Adrian. 1994. The Church in Africa: 1450–1950. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Helmstadter, Richard, ed. 1997. Freedom and Religion in the Nineteenth Century. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Higgs, Robert. 1971. “Race, Skills, and Earnings: American Immigrants in 1909.” Journal of Economic History 31 (2): 420–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hincks, Craig W. 2009. Quest for Peace: An Ecumenical History of the Church in Lesotho. Morija, Lesotho: HCL and CCLGoogle Scholar
Hochschild, Adam. 1998. King Leopold's Ghost. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Houston, R. A. 2002. Literacy in Early Modern Europe: Culture and Education 1500–1800, 2nd ed.New York: Longman.Google Scholar
Howsam, Leslie. 1991. Cheap Bibles: Nineteenth-century Publishing and the British and Foreign Bible Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Huffman, James. L. 1997. Creating a Public: People and Press in Meiji Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.Google Scholar
Hutchison, William R. 1987. Errand to the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Hutson, James H. 1998. Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.Google Scholar
Ihalainen, Pasi. 1999. The Discourse on Political Pluralism in Early Eighteenth-century England. Helsinki: Suomen Historiallinen Seura.Google Scholar
Ingleby, J. C. 2000. Missionaries, Education, and India. Delhi, India: ISPCK Press.Google Scholar
Ingham, Kenneth. 1956. Reformers in India 1793–1833. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Inglehart, Charles W. 1959. A Century of Protestant Christianity in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle.Google Scholar
James, Estelle. 1987. “The Nonprofit Sector in Comparative Perspective.” In The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook, ed. Powell, William W.. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 397415.Google Scholar
Estelle, James. ed. 1989 The Nonprofit Sector in International Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
James, Estelle. 1993. “Why Do Different Countries Choose a Different Public-Private Mix of Educational Services?Journal of Human Resources 28: 571–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johansson, Egil. 1977. The History of Literacy in Sweden in Comparison with Some Other Countries. Umeå, Sweden: Umeå University and Umeå School of Education.Google Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis. 1996. The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Kamens, David H. 1988. “Education and Democracy.” Sociology of Education 61: 114–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kang, Wi Jo. 1997. Christ and Caesar in Modern Korea. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Kelly, David H. 2000. French Colonial Education. New York: AMS Press.Google Scholar
Khan, M. Siddiq. 1961. “William Carey and the Serampore Books.” Libri 11: 197280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Andrew Eungi. 2003. “Religious Influence on Personal and Societal Well-being.” Social Indicators Research 62/63: 149–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knaplund, Paul 1953. James Stephen and the British Colonial System: 1813–1847. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Lai, Brian, and Melkonian-Hoover, Ruth. 2005. “Democratic Progress and Regress.” Political Research Quarterly 58: 551–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lange, Matthew K. 2009. Lineages of Despotism and Development: British Colonialism and State Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lankina, Tomila and Getachew, Lullit. N.d. “Mission or Empire, Word or Sword? The Human Capital Legacy in Post-colonial Democratic Development.” American Journal of Political Science. Forthcoming.Google Scholar
Lent, John A. 1981. “The Missionary Press of Asia.” Communicatio Socialis Yearbook 14: 5778.Google Scholar
Lester, Alan. 2006. “Humanitarians and White Settlers in the Nineteenth Century.” In Missions and Empire, ed. Etherington, Norman. New York: Oxford University Press, 6485.Google Scholar
Lipset, Seymour M. 1994. “The Social Requisites of Democracy Revisited.” American Sociological Review 59: 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lutz, Donald S. 1980. “Covenant to Constitution in American Political Throught.” Publius 10: 101–33.Google Scholar
Lutz, Donald S. 1984. “The Relative Influence of European Writers on Late Eighteenth-century American Political Thought.” American Political Science Review 78: 189–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lutz, Donald S. 1988. The Origins of American Constitutionalism. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.Google Scholar
Lutz, Donald S. 1992. “The State Constitutional Pedigree of the U.S. Bill of Rights. Publius 22: 1945.Google Scholar
Lutz, Jessie Gregory. 2008. Opening China. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.Google Scholar
Lynch, Katherine A. 2003. Individuals, Families, and Communities in Europe, 1200–1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Machin, G.I.T. 1977. Politics and the Churches in Great Britain, 1832 to 1868. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mackenzie, Clayton G. 1993. “Demythologising the Missionaries.” Comparative Education 29: 4566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddison, Angus. 2001. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madeley, John. 1982. “Politics and the Pulpit: The Case of Protestant Europe.” In Religion in West European Politics, ed. Berger, Suzanne. London: Frank Cass, 149–71.Google Scholar
Manning, Patrick. 1998. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Masters, Ryan Kelly and Young, Michael P.. 2007. “Reviving the Religious Origins of the U.S. Temperance Movement.” Presented at the American Sociological Association, New York.Google Scholar
McLoughlin, William Gerald. 1990. Champions of the Cherokees. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melton, James Van Horn. 2001. “Pietism, Politics, and the Public Sphere in Germany.” In Religion and Politics in Enlightenment Europe, eds. Bradley, James E. and Van Kley, Dale K.. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 294333.Google Scholar
Midlarsky, Manus I. 1998. “Democracy and Islam.” International Studies Journal 42: 485511.Google Scholar
Miller, Jon and Gregory, Stanczak. 2009. “Redeeming, Ruling, and Reaping: British Missionary Societies, the East India Company and the India-to-China Opium Trade.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48 (2): 332–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, Barrington. 1966. The Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
Morris, R. J. 1990. “Clubs, Societies, and Associations.” In The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750–1950, Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 395444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neill, Stephen. 1966. Colonialism and Christian Missions. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Nelson, Eric. 2010. The Hebrew Republic: Jewish Sources and the Transformation of European Political Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nord, David Paul. 2004. Faith in Reading: Religious Publishing and the Birth of Mass Media in America. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunn, Nathan. 2010. “Christianity in Colonial Africa.” Harvard University. Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
Oddie, Geoffrey A. 1969. “Protestant Missions, Caste and Social Change in India, 1850–1914.” Indian Economic and Social History Review 6: 259–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oddie, Geoffrey A. 1978. Social Protest in India. Columbia, MO: South Asia Books.Google Scholar
Oddie, Geoffrey A. 1996. “Missionaries as Social Commentators.” In Missionary Encounters, eds. Bickers, R. A. and Seton, R.. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 197210.Google Scholar
Owolabi, Kunle. 2010. “Forced Settlement, Colonial Occupation and Divergent Political Regime Outcomes in the Developing World, 1946–2004.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Paxton, Pamela. 2002. “Social Capital and Democracy.” American Sociological Review 67: 254–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Philpott, Daniel. 2004. “The Catholic Wave.” Journal of Democracy 15: 3246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poi, Brian P. 2006. “Jackknife Instrumental Variables Estimation in Stata.” Stata Journal 6: 364–76.Google Scholar
Porter, Andrew. 2004. Religion versus Empire? Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Posner, Daniel N. 2003. “The Colonial Origins of Ethnic Cleavages.” Comparative Politics 35: 127–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prasad, Bimal. 1999. The Foundations of Muslim Nationalism. New Delhi: Manohar.Google Scholar
Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Ranger, Terence O. 1999. “Taking on the Missionary's Task: African Spirituality and the Mission Churches of Manicaland in the 1930s.” Journal of Religion in Africa 29: 175205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reed, Christopher A. 2007. “Gutenberg and Modern Chinese Print Culture.” Book History 10: 291315.Google Scholar
Rich, Paul J. 1991. Chains of Empire: English Public Schools, Masonic Cabalism, Historical Causality, and Imperial Clubdom. London: Regency.Google Scholar
Robbins, Joel. 2004. “The Globalization of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity.” Annual Review of Anthropology 33: 117–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robert, Dana L. 2000. “Shifting Southward; Global Christianity since 1945.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 24 (2): 5058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robert, Dana L. 2002. “The First Globalization: The Internationalization of the Protestant Missionary Movement between the World Wars.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 26 (2): 5066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, Francis. 2000. Islam and Muslim History in South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rokkan, Stein. 1970. Citizens, Elections, Parties. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
Roemer, Michael. K. 2008. “Religiosity and Subjective and Psychological Well-being in Contemporary Japan.” Ph.D. diss. University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
Rosenberg, Scott, Weisfelder, Richard F. and Frisbie-Fulton, Michelle. 2003. Historical Dictionary of Lesotho. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
Ross, Andrew C. 2003. “Christian Missions and the Mid-nineteenth-century Change in Attitudes to Race: The African Experience.” In The Imperial Horizons of British Protestant Missions, 1880–1914, ed. Porter, Andrew. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 85105.Google Scholar
Ross, Fiona G. E. 1999. The Printed Bengali Character and Its Evolution. London: Curzon Press.Google Scholar
Ross, Michael L. 2001. “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?World Politics 53: 325–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Stephens, Evelyn Huber, and Stephens, John D.. 1992. Capitalist Development and Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Salamon, Lester M. and Anheier, Helmut K.. 1997. “The Third World's Third Sector in Comparative Perspective.” Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project Working Paper, no. 24. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies.Google Scholar
Sharkey, Heather J. 2003. “A New Crusade or an Old One?ISIM Newsletter 12: 4849.Google Scholar
Sharkey, Heather J. 2012. “Middle Eastern and North Africa Christianity.” In Introducing World Christianity, ed. Farhardian, Charles. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 720.Google Scholar
Shaw, Graham. 2007. “South Asia.” In A Companion to the History of the Book, eds. Eliot, S. and Rose, J.. Oxford: Blackwell, 126–37.Google Scholar
Sherman, Amy L. 1997. The Soul of Development. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Shin, Young-Ha. 1984. “The Thought of the Enlightenment Movement.” Korea Journal 24: 421.Google Scholar
Shin, Kokui. 1999. “Rikugo Sodan (1857–58)” no Gakusai Teki Kenkyu (Scholarly Research on Rikugo Sodan: 1857–58). Tokyo: Hakuteisha.Google Scholar
Slater, Dan. 2009. “Revolutions, Crackdowns, and Quiescence: Communal Elites and Democratic Mobilization in Southeast Asia.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 203–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Christian. 1991. The Emergence of Liberation Theology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Smith, Christian. ed. 1996. Disruptive Religion. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Smith, Christian. 2003. Moral, Believing Animals. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Christian. 2010. What is a Person? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Tony. 1978. “A Comparative Study of French and British Decolonization.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 20: 70102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smyth, Rosaleen. 2004. “The Roots of Community Development in Colonial Office Policy and Practice in Africa.” Social Policy and Administration 38: 418–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solano, Arturo Piedra. 1990. “Notas sobre la relación entre liberalismo, francmasonería y penetración protestantes en Centroamérica.” In Protestantes, liberalise y francmasones, ed. Bastian, JP. Mexico City: Fondo de cultura económica, 119–31.Google Scholar
Staiger, Douglas and Stock, James H.. 1997. “Instrument Relevance in Multivariate Linear Models: A Simple Measure.” Review of Economics and Statistics 79: 348–52.Google Scholar
Stanley, Brian. 1990. The Bible and the Flag: Protestant Missions and British Imperialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Leicester, UK: Apollos.Google Scholar
Stamatov, Peter. 2006. Religious Origins of Modern Long Distance Humanitarianism. Ph.D. diss. University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
Stamatov, Peter. 2010. “Activist Religion, Empire, and the Emergence of Modern Long-distance Advocacy Networks.” American Sociological Review 75 (4): 607–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stata, . 2007. Stata Basic Reference Manual, Vol. 3, Release 10. College Station, TX: Stata Press.Google Scholar
St. Clair, William. 2007. The Reading Nation in the Romantic Period. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Steigenga, Timothy J. 2001. The Politics of the Spirit: The Political Implications of Pentecostalized Religion in Costa Rica and Guatemala. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Stephens, John D. 1979. “Religion and Politics in Three Northwest European Democracies.” Comparative Social Research 2: 129–57.Google Scholar
Stock James, H., Wright, Jonathan H. and Yogo, Motohiro. 2002. “A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments.” Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20: 518–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stock, James H. and Yogo, Motohiro. 2005. “Testing for Weak Instruments in Linear IV Regression.” In Identification and Inference for Economic Models, eds. Andrews, D.W.K. and Stock, J.H.. New York: Cambridge University Press, 80108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stocking, George W. Jr. 1987. Victorian Anthropology. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Street, James O., Carroll, Raymond J. and Ruppert, David. 1988. “A Note on Computing Robust Regression Estimates via Iteratively Reweighted Least Squares.” American Statistician 42: 152–54.Google Scholar
Su, Ching. 1996. The Printing Presses of the London Missionary Society among the Chinese. Ph.D. diss. University of London.Google Scholar
Sundkler, Bengt and Steed, Christopher. 2000. A History of the Church in Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swanson, Guy E. 1967. Religion and Regime. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Talmon, Jacob Lieb. 1970. The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Tarrow, Charles. 1998. Power in Movement, 2nd ed.New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tejirian, Eleanor H. and Simon, Reeva Spector, eds. 2002. Altruism and Imperialism. New York: Middle East Institute, Columbia University.Google Scholar
Thung, Mandy A., Peelen, Gert J. and Kingmans, Marten C.. 1982. “Dutch Pillarisation on the Move? Political Destabilisation and Religious Change.” In Religion in West European Politics, ed. Berger, Suzanne. London: Frank Cass, 149–71.Google Scholar
Tilly, Charles. 1995. Popular Contention in Great Britain. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Treier, Shawn and Jackman, Simon. 2008. “Democracy as a Latent Variable.” American Journal of Political Science 52: 201–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Treisman, Daniel. 2000. “The Causes of Corruption.” Journal of Public Economics 76: 399457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trejo, Guillermo. 2009. “Religious Competition and Ethnic Mobilization in Latin America: Why the Catholic Church Promotes Indigenous Movements in Mexico.” American Political Science Review 103 (3): 323–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trinitapoli, Jenny Ann. 2007. The Role of Religious Organization in the HIV Crisis of Sub-Saharan Africa. Ph.D. diss. University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
Tsai, Ming-Chang. 2006. “Does Political Democracy Enhance Human Development in Developing Countries?American Journal of Economics and Sociology 65 (2): 233–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tudesco, James P. 1980. Missionaries and French Imperialism. Ph.D. diss. University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
Turner, Mary. 1998. Slaves and Missionaries. Cave Hill: Barbados: University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
Tusalem, Rollin F. 2009. “The Role of Protestantism in Democratic Consolidation among Transitional States.” Comparative Political Studies 42 (7): 882915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uslaner, Eric M. 2002. “Religion and Civic Engagement in Canada and the United States.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 41: 239–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van den End, Thomas. 2001. “Dutch United East-India Company and Indonesia.” In Dictionary of Asian Christianity, ed. Grand Rapids, S.W. Sunquist., MI: Eerdmans, 253–54, 374–80.Google Scholar
van der Veer, Peter. 2001. Imperial Encounters. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Van de Walle, Francine. 1980. “Education and the Demographic Transition in Switzerland.” Population and Development Review 6: 463–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Kley, Dale K. 1996. The Religious Origins of the French Revolution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman and Brady, Henry E.. 1995. Voice and Equality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Vincent, David. 2000. The Rise of Mass Literacy. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Waldron, Jeremy. 2002. God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations in Locke's Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walls, Andrew F. 1996. The Missionary Movement in Christian History. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.Google Scholar
Walzer, Michael. 1971. The Revolution of the Saints. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
Weber, Max. 1958. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
Weber, Max. 1968. Economy and Society. New York: Bedminster Press.Google Scholar
Welch, Holmes. 1968. The Buddhist Revival in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Wilkinson, Steven I. 2008. “How Colonial Legacies of Party Competition Affect Post-independence Levels of Democracy.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston.Google Scholar
Witte, John Jr. 2007. The Reformation of Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
WitteJohn, Jr. John, Jr. and Alexander, Frank S.. 2008. Christianity and Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
World Religion Database. 2011. http://www.worldreligiondatabase.org/wrd_default.asp (accessed January 10, 2012).Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 1996. “The Origins of the Temperance Movement: A Comparative Historical Analysis.” Presented at the American Sociological Association, New York.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2000. “The Long-term Influence of Religious Traditions on Democracy.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Sociology of Religion, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2004a. “The Cost of Bigotry: The Educational and Economic Consequences of Restricting Missions.” Presented at the Association for the Study of Religion, Economics, and Culture, Kansas City, KS.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2004b. “Missionaries and Colonial Abuses: The Rubber Terror in French and Belgian Congo.” Presented at the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Kansas City, KS.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2004c. “The Shadow of Empire: Christian Missions, Colonial Policy, and Democracy in Post-colonial Societies.” Ph.D. diss. University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2006a. “The Enlightenment Veneer: Religion and the Origins of Immediate Abolitionism.” Presented at the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2006b. “Reclaiming the M-Word: The Consequences of Missions for Nonwestern Societies.” Review of Faith and International Affairs 4 (1): 312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2006c. “Where Do Institutions Come From? Population Density, Settler Mortality, Colonizers, and Church-State Relations in the Construction of Economic Friendly Institutions.” Presented at the Association for the Study of Economics, Religion and Culture, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2011a. “Ignoring the Obvious: What Explains Botswana's Exceptional Democratic and Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa.” University of Texas at Austin. Working paper.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2011b. “Protestant Missions and the Global Spread of Organizational Civil Society.” University of Texas at Austin. Working paper.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. 2011c. “Religion and the Spread of Human Capital and Political Institutions: Christian Missions as a Quasi-natural Experiment.” In Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Religion, ed. McCleary, Rachel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 111–31.Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D., Esparza Ochoa, Juan Carlos, Porter, Reid, and Lu, Xiaoyun. 2010. “Conceptual Framework and Technical Innovations for Creating the Project on Religion and Economy Change Geo-Spatial Database.” PREC Working Paper #004. http://www.prec.com (accessed January 10, 2012).Google Scholar
Woodberry, Robert D. and Shah, Timothy S.. 2004. “Christianity and Democracy: The Pioneering Protestants.” Journal of Democracy 15: 4761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators (data file).Google Scholar
Xu, Xiaohong. 2010. “The Religious Origins of the Chinese Revolution: The YMCA, Moral Entrepreneurship and the Organizational Revolution in Republican China.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Social Science History Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
Young, Michael P. 2006. Bearing Witness against Sin: The Evangelical Birth of the American Social Movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Zaret, David. 2000. Origins of Democratic Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Zavos, John. 2000. The Emergence of Hindu Nationalism in India. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Zhai, Jiexia Elisa and Woodberry, Robert D.. 2011. “Religion and Educational Ideals in Contemporary Taiwan.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 50 (2): 307–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Xiantao. 2007. The Origins of the Modern Chinese Press. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

Woodberry supplementary material

Supplementary tables

File 1 MB

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 645
Total number of PDF views: 2896 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 2nd March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.