Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 35
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Liu, Hexuan and Guo, Guang 2016. Opportunities and challenges of big data for the social sciences: The case of genomic data. Social Science Research,


    2016. Biocultural Creatures.


    Belsky, Jay Newman, Daniel A. Widaman, Keith F. Rodkin, Phil Pluess, Michael Fraley, R. Chris Berry, Daniel Helm, Jonathan L. and Roisman, Glenn I. 2015. Differential susceptibility to effects of maternal sensitivity? A study of candidate plasticity genes. Development and Psychopathology, Vol. 27, Issue. 03, p. 725.


    Boutwell, Brian B. 2015. The Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment.


    Burt, Callie H. 2015. Genetics, Health and Society.


    Mayer, Nonna 2015. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.


    2015. Postgenomics.


    Boutwell, Brian B. Menard, Scott Barnes, J.C. Beaver, Kevin M. Armstrong, Todd A. and Boisvert, Danielle 2014. The role of gene–gene interaction in the prediction of criminal behavior. Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 55, Issue. 3, p. 483.


    BURT, CALLIE H. and SIMONS, RONALD L. 2014. PULLING BACK THE CURTAIN ON HERITABILITY STUDIES: BIOSOCIAL CRIMINOLOGY IN THE POSTGENOMIC ERA. Criminology, Vol. 52, Issue. 2, p. 223.


    Cheung, Benjamin Y. Dar-Nimrod, Ilan and Gonsalkorale, Karen 2014. Am I My Genes? Perceived Genetic Etiology, Intrapersonal Processes, and Health. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 8, Issue. 11, p. 626.


    Hatemi, Peter K. Medland, Sarah E. Klemmensen, Robert Oskarsson, Sven Littvay, Levente Dawes, Christopher T. Verhulst, Brad McDermott, Rose Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne Klofstad, Casey A. Christensen, Kaare Johannesson, Magnus Magnusson, Patrik K. E. Eaves, Lindon J. and Martin, Nicholas G. 2014. Genetic Influences on Political Ideologies: Twin Analyses of 19 Measures of Political Ideologies from Five Democracies and Genome-Wide Findings from Three Populations. Behavior Genetics, Vol. 44, Issue. 3, p. 282.


    Hibbing, John R. Smith, Kevin B. and Alford, John R. 2014. Differences in negativity bias underlie variations in political ideology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 37, Issue. 03, p. 297.


    Losco, Joseph 2014. Politics and the Life Sciences: The State of the Discipline.


    Stewart, Patrick 2014. Politics and the Life Sciences: The State of the Discipline.


    2014. Politics and the Life Sciences: The State of the Discipline.


    Barnes, J.C. TenEyck, Michael Boutwell, Brian B. and Beaver, Kevin M. 2013. Indicators of domestic/intimate partner violence are structured by genetic and nonshared environmental influences. Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 47, Issue. 3, p. 371.


    Boardman, Jason D. Daw, Jonathan and Freese, Jeremy 2013. Defining the Environment in Gene–Environment Research: Lessons From Social Epidemiology. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 103, Issue. S1, p. S64.


    Charney, Evan 2013. Politics and Biology. Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 11, Issue. 02, p. 558.


    CHARNEY, EVAN and ENGLISH, WILLIAM 2013. Genopolitics and the Science of Genetics. American Political Science Review, Vol. 107, Issue. 02, p. 382.


    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel Mikhaylov, Slava Dawes, Christopher T. Christakis, Nicholas A. and Fowler, James H. 2013. Born to lead? A twin design and genetic association study of leadership role occupancy. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 45.


    ×

Candidate Genes and Political Behavior

  • EVAN CHARNEY (a1) and WILLIAM ENGLISH (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003055411000554
  • Published online: 13 February 2012
Abstract

Political scientists are making increasing use of the methodologies of behavior genetics in an attempt to uncover whether or not political behavior is heritable, as well as the specific genotypes that might act as predisposing factors for—or predictors of—political “phenotypes.” Noteworthy among the latter are a series of candidate gene association studies in which researchers claim to have discovered one or two common genetic variants that predict such behaviors as voting and political orientation. We critically examine the candidate gene association study methodology by considering, as a representative example, the recent study by Fowler and Dawes according to which “two genes predict voter turnout.” In addition to demonstrating, on the basis of the data set employed by Fowler and Dawes, that two genes do not predict voter turnout, we consider a number of difficulties, both methodological and genetic, that beset the use of gene association studies, both candidate and genome-wide, in the social and behavioral sciences.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Evan Charney is Associate Professor of the Practice of Public Policy and Political Science, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, 250 Rubenstein Hall, 302 Towerview Drive, Duke Box 90311, Durham, NC 27708 (echar@duke.edu).
William English is Lab Fellow, Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University, 124 Mount Auburn Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (wenglish@ethics.harvard.edu).
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Nelly Alia-Klein , Aarti Kriplani , Kith Pradhan , Jim Yeming Ma , Jean Logan , Benjamin Williams , Ian W. Craig et al. 2008. “The MAO-A Genotype Does Not Modulate Resting Brain Metabolism in Adults.” Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 164 (1): 7376.

Can Alkan , Bradley P. Coe , and Evan E. Eichler . 2011. “Genome Structural Variation Discovery and Genotyping.” Nature Reviews Genetics 12 (5): 363–76.

K. M. Beaver , C. Mancini , M. DeLisi , and M.G. Vaughn . 2011. “Resiliency to Victimization: The Role of Genetic Factors.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26 (5): 874–98.

K. M. Beaver , M. Delisi , M.G. Vaughn , and J.P. Wright . 2010. “Association between the A1 Allele of the DRD2 Gene and Reduced Verbal Abilities in Adolescence and Early Adulthood.” Journal of Neural Transmission 117 (7): 827–30.

K. M. Beaver , J.P. Wright , M. DeLisi , L.E. Daigle , M.L. Swatt , and C.L. Gibson . 2007a. “Evidence of a Gene × Environment Interaction in the Creation of Victimization.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 51 (6): 620–45.

K. M. Beaver , J.P. Wright , M. DeLisi , A. Walsh , M. G. Vaughn , D. Boisvert , and J. Vaske . 2007b. “A Gene × Gene Interaction between DRD2 and DRD4 Is Associated with Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Behavior in Males.” Behavior and Brain Functions 3: 30.

Ulf Berggren , Claudia Fahlke , Erik Aronsson , Aikaterini Karanti , Matts Eriksson , Kaj Blennow , Dag Thelle , Henrick Zetterberg , and Jan Balldin . 2006. “The Taqi DRD2 A1 Allele Is Associated with Alcohol-dependence Although Its Effect Size Is Small.” Alcohol and Alcoholism 41 (5): 479–85.

E. Beutler 2001. “Discrepancies between Genotype and Phenotype in Hematology: An Important Frontier.” Blood 98 (9): 25972602.

Heike Bickeböller , Julia N. Bailey , George J. Papanicolaou , Albert Rosenberger , and Kevin R. Viel . 2005. “Dissection of Heterogeneous Phenotypes for Quantitative Trait Mapping.” Genetic Epidemiology 29 (S1): S4147.

Joseph L. Bobadilla , Milan Macek Jr, Jason P. Fine , and Philip M. Farrell . 2002. “Cystic Fibrosis: A Worldwide Analysis of CFTR Mutations-correlation with Incidence Data and Application to Screening.” Human Mutation 19 (6): 575606.

Clifton Bogardus . 2009. “Missing Heritability and GWAS Utility.” Obesity 17 (2): 209–10.

Charles E. Boklage 2009. “Traces of Embryogenesis Are the Same in Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins: Not Compatible with Double Ovulation.” Human Reproduction 24 (6): 1255–66.

Catherine Bourgain , Mark Abney , Dan Schneider , Carole Ober , and Mary Sara McPeek . 2004. “Testing for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Samples with Related Individuals.” Genetics 168 (4): 2349–61.

Sharon R. Browning , J. David Briley , Linda P. Briley , Gyan Chandra , Jonathan H. Charnecki , Margaret G. Ehm , Kelley A. Johansson et al. 2005. “Case-control Single-marker and Haplotypic Association Analysis of Pedigree Data.” Genetic Epidemiology 28 (2): 110–22.

C.E.G. Bruder 2008. “Phenotypically Concordant and Discordant Monozygotic Twins Display Different DNA Copy-Number-Variation Profiles.” American Journal of Human Genetics 82: 19.

Y. Cao , H.M. Lu , and J. Liang . 2010. “Probability Landscape of Heritable and Robust Epigenetic State of Lysogeny in Phage Lambda.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 107 (43): 18445–50.

L.R. Cardon , and L.J. Palmer . 2003. “Population Stratification and Spurious Allelic Association.” Lancet 361: 598604.

Laura Carrel , and Huntington F. Willard . 2005. “X-inactivation Profile Reveals Extensive Variability in X-linked Gene Expression in Females.” Nature 434 (7031): 400–04.

A. Caspi , K. Sugden , T.E. Moffitt , A. Taylor , I.W. Craig , H. Harrington , Joseph McClay et al. 2003. “Influence of Life Stress on Depression: Moderation by a Polymorphism in the 5-HTT Gene.” Science 301 (5631): 386–89.

Carol A. Cassel 2003. “Overreporting and Electoral Participation Research.” American Politics Research 31 (1): 8192.

Carol A. Cassel 2004. “Voting Records and Validated Voting Studies.” Public Opinion Quarterly 68 (1): 102–08.

David Cesarini , Christopher T. Dawes , James H. Fowler , Magnus Johannesson , Paul Lichtenstein , and Björn Wallace . 2008. “Heritability of Cooperative Behavior in the Trust Game.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (10): 3721–26.

Stephen J. Chanock , Teri Manolio , Michael Boehnke , Eric Boerwinkle , David J. Hunter , Gilles Thomas , Joel N. Hirschhorn et al. 2007. “Replicating Genotype-Phenotype Associations.” Nature 447 (7145): 655–60.

E. Childs , C. Hohoff , J. Deckert , K. Xu , J. Badner , and H. de Wit . 2008. “Association between ADORA2A and DRD2 Polymorphisms and Caffeine-induced Anxiety.” Neuropsychopharmacology 33 (12): 27912800.

P. Chipman , A.F. Jorm , M. Prior , A. Sanson , D. Smart , X. Tan , and S. Easteal . 2007. “No Interaction between the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Childhood Adversity or Recent Stressful Life Events on Symptoms of Depression: Results from Two Community Surveys.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 144B (4): 561–65.

Elizabeth T. Cirulli , and David B. Goldstein . 2007. “In Vitro Assays Fail to Predict In Vivo Effects of Regulatory Polymorphisms.” Human Molecular Genetics 16 (16): 1931–39.

Laura L. Clay Montier , Janice J. Deng , and Yidong Bai . 2009. “Number Matters: Control of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number.” Journal of Genetics and Genomics 36 (3): 125–31.

D.E. Comings 1998. “Why Different Rules Are Required for Polygenic Inheritance: Lessons from Studies of the DRD2 Gene.” Alcohol 16 (1): 6170.

D.E. Comings , D. Muhleman , and R. Gysin . 1996. “Dopamine D2 Receptor (DRD2) Gene and Susceptibility to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Study and Replication.” Biological Psychiatry 40 (5): 368–72.

Donald F. Conrad , Pinto Dalila , Richard Redon , Lars Feuk , Omer Gokcumen , Yujun Zhang , Jan Aerts et al. 2010. “Origins and Functional Impact of Copy Number Variation in the Human Genome.” Nature 464 (7289): 704–12.

R.G.H. Cotton , and O. Horaitis . 2002. “The HUGO Mutation Database Initiative.” Pharmacogenomics Journal 2 (1): 1619.

Nicole G. Coufal , Jose L. Garcia-Perez , Grace E. Peng , Gene W. Yeo , Yangling Mu , Michael T. Lovci , Maria Morrell , Sue O'Shea , John V. Moran , and Fred H. Gage . 2009. “L1 Retrotransposition in Human Neural Progenitor Cells.” Nature 460 (7259): 1127–31.

J. Daw , and G. Guo . 2011. “The Influence of Three Genes on Whether Adolescents Use Contraception, USA 1994-2002.” Population Studies 65 (3): 253–71.

Christopher T. Dawes , and James H. Fowler . 2009. “Partisanship, Voting, and the Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene.” Journal of Politics 71 (3): 1157–71.

Paul H Dear . 2009. “Copy-number Variation: The End of the Human Genome?Trends in Biotechnology 27 (8): 448–54.

J. Deckert , M. Catalano , Y.V. Syagailo , M. Bosi , O. Okladnova , D. DiBella , M.M. Nöthen et al. 1999. “Excess of High Activity Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Promoter Alleles in Female Patients with Panic Disorder.” Human Molecular Genetics 8 (4): 621–24.

Matt DeLisi , Kevin M. Beaver , Michael G. Vaughn , and John Paul Wright . 2009. “All in the Family.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 36 (11): 1187–97.

Katrina M. Dipple , James K. Phelan , and Edward R.B. McCabe . 2001. “Consequences of Complexity within Biological Networks: Robustness and Health, or Vulnerability and Disease.” Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 74 (1/2): 4550.

B.B. Doll , K.E. Hutchison , and M.J. Frank . 2011. “Dopaminergic Genes Predict Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Confirmation Bias.” Journal of Neuroscience 31 (16): 6188–98.

Lindon Eaves , and Peter Hatemi . 2008. “Transmission of Attitudes toward Abortion and Gay Rights: Effects of Genes, Social Learning, and Mate Selection.” Behavior Genetics 38 (3): 247–56.

Alexis Edwards , Stephanie M. Rollmann , Theodore J. Morgan , and Trudy F.C. Mackay . 2006. “Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila Melanogaster.” PLoS Genetics 2 (9): e154.

Alexis Edwards , Julien Ayroles , Eric Stone , Mary Carbone , Richard Lyman , and Trudy Mackay . 2009a. “A Transcriptional Network Associated with Natural Variation in Drosophila Aggressive Behavior.” Genome Biology 10 (7): R76: 111.

Alexis Edwards , Liesbeth Zwarts , Akihiko Yamamoto , Patrick Callaerts , and Trudy Mackay . 2009b. “Mutations in Many Genes Affect Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila Melanogaster.” BMC Biology 7 (1): 29.

Luke Esau , Mandeep Kaur , Lucinda Adonis , and Zainunisha Arieff . 2008. “The 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism in South African Healthy Populations: A Global Comparison.” Journal of Neural Transmission 115 (5): 755–60.

James H. Fowler , and Christopher T. Dawes . 2008. “Two Genes Predict Voter Turnout.” Journal of Politics 70 (3): 579–94.

James H. Fowler , J.E. Settle , and N.A. Christakis . 2011. “Correlated Genotypes in Friendship Networks.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108 (5): 1993–97.

Joanna S. Fowler , Nelly Alia-Klein , Aarti Kriplani , Jean Logan , Benjamin Williams , Wei Zhu , Ian W. Craig et al. 2007. “Evidence That Brain MAO A Activity Does Not Correspond to MAO A Genotype in Healthy Male Subjects.” Biological Psychiatry 62 (4): 355–58.

M.F. Fraga , E. Ballesta , M.F. Paz , S. Ropero , and F. Setien . 2005. “Epigenetic Differences Arise during the Lifetime of Monozygotic Twins.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102: 10604-09.

Barbara Franke , Benjamin Neale , and Stephen Faraone . 2009. “Genome-wide Association Studies in ADHD.” Human Genetics 126 (1): 1350.

Giovanni Frazzetto , Di Lorenzo Giorgio , Valeria Carola , Luca Proietti , Ewa Sokolowska , Alberto Siracusano , Cornelius Gross , and Alfonso Troisi . 2007. “Early Trauma and Increased Risk for Physical Aggression during Adulthood: The Moderating Role of MAOA Genotype.” PLoS ONE 2 (5): e486.

I. Gottesman , and J. Shields . 1973. “Genetic Theorizing and Schizophrenia.” British Journal of Psychiatry 122 (566): 1530.

L. Grevle , C. Guzey , H. Hadidi , R. Brennersted , J.R. Idle , and J. Aasly . 2000. “Allelic Association between the DRD2 TaqI A Polymorphism and Parkinson's Disease.” Movement Disorders 15 (6): 1070–74.

G. Guo , and K.H. Tillman . 2009. “Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms, Dopamine D2 and D4 Receptors, Family Socioeconomic Status and Social Support in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.” Psychiatric Genetics 19 (1): 1426.

G. Guo , M.E. Roettger , and J.C. Shih . 2007a. “Contributions of the DAT1 and DRD2 Genes to Serious and Violent Delinquency among Adolescents and Young Adults.” Human Genetics 121 (1): 125–36.

Guang Guo , Kirk Wilhelmsen , and Nathan Hamilton . 2007b. “Gene–lifecourse Interaction for Alcohol Consumption in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Five Monoamine Genes.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 144B (4): 417–23.

G. Guo , and Y. Tong . 2006. “Age at First Sexual Intercourse, Genes, and Social Context: Evidence from Twins and the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene.” Demography 43 (4): 747–69.

Carolyn Halpern , Christine Kaestle , Guang Guo , and Denise Hallfors . 2007. “Gene-environment Contributions to Young Adult Sexual Partnering.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 36 (4): 543—54.

F. Nipa Haque , Irving I. Gottesman , and Albert H.C. Wong . 2009. “Not Really Identical: Epigenetic Differences in Monozygotic Twins and Implications for Twin Studies in Psychiatry.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics 151C (2): 136–41.

Peter K. Hatemi , John R. Alford , John R. Hibbing , Nicholas G. Martin , and Lindon J. Eaves . 2009. “Is There a ‘Party’ in Your Genes?Political Research Quarterly 62 (3): 584600.

Peter K. Hatemi , Sarah Medland , Katherine Morley , Andrew Heath , and Nicholas Martin . 2007. “The Genetics of Voting: An Australian Twin Study.” Behavior Genetics 37 (3): 435–48.

A. Heils , A. Teufel , S. Petri , G. Stober , P. Riederer , D. Bengel , and K.P. Lesch . 1996. “Allelic Variation of Human Serotonin Transporter Gene Expression.” Journal of Neurochemistry 66: 2621–24.

David Huizinga , Brett C. Haberstick , Andrew Smolen , Scott Menard , Susan E. Young , Robin P. Corley , Michael C. Stallings , Jennifer Grotpeter , and John K. Hewitt . 2006. “Childhood Maltreatment, Subsequent Antisocial Behavior, and the Role of Monoamine Oxidase A Genotype.” Biological Psychiatry 60 (7): 677–83.

Keith L. Hunley , Meghan E. Healy , and Jeffrey C. Long . 2009. “The Global Pattern of Gene Identity Variation Reveals a History of Long-range Migrations, Bottlenecks, and Local Mate Exchange: Implications for Biological Race.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139 (1): 3546.

Christian P. Jacob , Johannes Muller , Michael Schmidt , Katrin Hohenberger , Lise Gutknecht , Andreas Reif , Armin Schmidtke , Rainard Mössner , and Klaus Peter Lesch . 2005. “Cluster B Personality Disorders Are Associated with Allelic Variation of Monoamine Oxidase A Activity.” Neuropsychopharmacology 30 (9): 1711–18.

O.N. Jensen 2004. “Modification-specific Proteomics: Characterization of Post-translational Modifications by Mass Spectrometry.” Current Opinions in Chemical Biology 8 (1): 3341.

Randy L. Jirtle , and Michael K. Skinner . 2007. “Environmental Epigenomics and Disease Susceptibility.” Nature Reviews Genetics 8 (4): 253–62.

J. Kim-Cohen , A. Caspi , A. Taylor , B. Williams , R. Newcombe , I.W. Craig , and T.E. Moffitt . 2006. “MAOA, Maltreatment, and Gene-environment Interaction Predicting Children's Mental Health: New Evidence and a Meta-analysis.” Molecular Psychiatry 11 (10): 903–13.

T.A. Klein , J. Neumann , M. Reuter , J. Hennig , D.Y. von Cramon , and M. Ullsperger . 2007. “Genetically Determined Differences in Learning from Errors.” Science 318 (5856): 1642–45.

P. Kraft 2008. “Curses-Winner's and Otherwise-in Genetic Epidemiology.” Epidemiology 19: 649–51.

Hana Lango Allen , Karol Estrada , Guillaume Lettre , Sonja I. Berndt , Michael N. Weedon , Fernando Rivadeneira , Cristen J. Willer et al. 2010. “Hundreds of Variants Clustered in Genomic Loci and Biological Pathways Affect Human Height.” Nature 467 (7317): 832–38.

Klaus Larsen , Jørgen Holm Petersen , Esben Budtz-Jørgensen , and Lars Endahl . 2000. “Interpreting Parameters in the Logistic Regression Model with Random Effects.” Biometrics 56 (3): 909–14.

Klaus-Peter Lesch , Bengel Dietmar , Armin Heils , Sue Z. Sabol , Benjamin D. Greenberg , Susanne Petri , J. Benjamin , C.R. Müller , D.H. Hamer , Dennis L. Murphy . 1996. “Association of Anxiety-related Traits with a Polymorphism in the Serotonin Transporter Gene Regulatory Region.” Science 274 (5292): 1527–31.

C.C. Lee , I.C. Chou , C.H. Tsai , T.R. Wang , T.C. Li , and F.J. Tsai . 2005. “Dopamine Receptor D2 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated in Taiwanese Children with Tourette Syndrome.” Pediatric Neurology 33 (4): 272–76.

R. Lopez-Rodriguez , M. Roman , J. Novalbos , M.L. Pelegrina , D. Ochoa , and F. Abad-Santos . 2011. “DRD2 Taq1A Polymorphism Modulates Prolactin Secretion Induced by Atypical Antipsychotics in Healthy Volunteers.” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 31 (5): 555–62.

Francis E. Lotrich , Bruce G. Pollock , and Robert E. Ferrell . 2003. “Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism in African Americans: Allele Frequencies and Implications for Treatment.” American Journal of PharmacoGenomics 3 (2): 145–47.

Geoffrey Machin . 2009. “Non-identical Monozygotic Twins, Intermediate Twin Types, Zygosity Testing, and the Non-random Nature of Monozygotic Twinning: A Review.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics 151C (2): 110–27.

Teri A. Manolio , Francis S. Collins , Nancy J. Cox , David B. Goldstein , Lucia A. Hindorff , David J. Hunter , Mark I. McCarthy et al. 2009. “Finding the Missing Heritability of Complex Diseases.” Nature 461 (7265): 747–53.

J., L.R. Cardon Marchini , M.S. Phillips , and P. Donnelly . 2004. “The Effects of Human Population Structure on Large Genetic Association Studies.” Nature Genetics 36: 512–17.

Sandra L. Martin 2009. “Developmental Biology: Jumping-gene Roulette.” Nature 460 (7259): 1087–88.

Linda L. McCabe , and Edward R.B. McCabe . 2006. “Complexity in Genetic Diseases: How Patients Inform the Science by Ignoring the Dogma.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 140A (2): 160–61.

Jon McClellan , and Mary-Claire King . 2010. “Genetic Heterogeneity in Human Disease.” Cell 141 (2): 210–17.

F. Joseph McClernon , Bernard F. Fuemmeler , Scott H. Kollins , Melanie E. Kail , and Allison E. Ashley-Koch . 2008. “Interactions between Genotype and Retrospective ADHD Symptoms Predict Lifetime Smoking Risk in a Sample of Young Adults.” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 10 (1): 117–27.

Robert R. McCrae , Matthew Scally , Antonio Terracciano , Gonçalo R. Abecasis , and Paul T. Costa Jr. 2010. “An Alternative to the Search for Single Polymorphisms: Toward Molecular Personality Scales for the Five-factor Model.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99 (6): 1014–24.

Rose McDermott , Dustin Tingley , Jonathan Cowden , Giovanni Frazzetto , and Dominic D.P. Johnson . 2009. “Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) Predicts Behavioral Aggression Following Provocation.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106 (7): 2118–23.

Mark F. Mehler 2008. “Epigenetics and the Nervous System.” Annals of Neurology 64 (6): 602–17.

V. Mertins , A.B. Schote , W. Hoffeld , M. Griessmair , and J. Meyer . 2011. “Genetic Susceptibility for Individual Cooperation Preferences: The Role of Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) in the Voluntary Provision of Public Goods.” PLoS ONE 6 (6): 16.

Christel Middeldorp , Eco de Geus , A. Beem , Nico Lakenberg , Jouke-Jan Hottenga , P. Slagboom , and Dorret Boomsma . 2007. “Family Based Association Analyses between the Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Neuroticism, Anxiety and Depression.” Behavior Genetics 37 (2): 294301.

Newton E. Morton 2005. “Linkage Disequilibrium Maps and Association Mapping.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 115 (6): 1425–30.

R.L. Nagel 2005. “Epistasis and the Genetics of Human Diseases.” Comptes Rendus Biologies 328 (7): 606–15.

J.M. Neuhaus , W.W. Hauck , and J.D. Kalbfleisch . 1992. “The Effects of Mixture Distribution Misspecification When Fitting Mixed-effects Logistic Models.” Biometrika 79 (4): 755–62.

Dina L. Newman , Mark Abney , Mary Sara McPeek , Carole Ober , and Nancy J. Cox . 2001. “The Importance of Genealogy in Determining Genetic Associations with Complex Traits.” American Journal of Human Genetics 69 (5): 1146–48.

T.W. Nilsen , and B.R. Graveley . 2010. “Expansion of the Eukaryotic Proteome by Alternative Splicing.” Nature 463 (7280): 457–63.

E. Nisoli , A. Brunani , E. Borgomainerio , C. Tonello , L. Dioni , L. Briscini , G. Redaelli , E. Molinari , F. Cavagnini , and M.O. Carruba . 2007. “D2 Dopamine Receptor (DRD2) Gene Taq1A Polymorphism and the Eating-related Psychological Traits in Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia) and Obesity.” Eating and Weight Disorders 12 (2): 9196.

Denis Noble . 2010. “Biophysics and Systems Biology.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 368 (1914): 1125–39.

Niklas Nordquist , and Lars Oreland . 2010. “Serotonin, Genetic Variability, Behaviour, and Psychiatric Disorders: A Review.” Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 115 (1): 210.

Emma S. Nyman , Anu Loukola , Teppo Varilo , Jesper Ekelund , Juha Veijola , Matti Joukamaa , Anja Taanila et al. 2009. “Impact of the Dopamine Receptor Gene Family on Temperament Traits in a Population-based Birth Cohort.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics 150B (6): 854–65.

Miina Ollikainen , Katherine R. Smith , Eric Ji-Hoon Joo , Hong Kiat Ng , Roberta Andronikos , Boris Novakovic , Nur Khairunnisa Abdul Aziz et al. 2010. “DNA Methylation Analysis of Multiple Tissues from Newborn Twins Reveals Both Genetic and Intrauterine Components to Variation in the Human Neonatal Epigenome.” Human Molecular Genetics 19 (21): 4176–88.

Lezanne Ooi , and Ian C. Wood . 2008. “Regulation of Gene Expression in the Nervous System.” Biochemical Journal 414: 327–41.

Leena Peltonen , and Victor A. McKusick . 2001. “Dissecting Human Disease in the Postgenomic Era.” Science 291 (5507): 1224–29.

E. Pergament 2005. “Postnatal Zygosity Determination.” In Multiple Pregnancy: Epidemiology, Gestation, and Perinatal Outcome, eds. I. Blickstein and L.G. Keith . London: Parthenon, 393402.

Arturas Petronis . 2010. “Epigenetics as a Unifying Principle in the Aetiology of Complex Traits and Diseases.” Nature 465 (7299): 721–27.

Robert Plomin . 1990. “The Role of Inheritance in Behavior.” Science 248 (4952): 183–88.

Robert Plomin , and Oliver S.P. Davis . 2009. “The Future of Genetics in Psychology and Psychiatry: Microarrays, Genome-wide Association, and Non-coding RNA.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 50 (1/2): 6371.

Tom Power , Stewart Robert , Marie-Laure Ancelin , Isabelle Jaussent , Alain Malafosse , and Karen Ritchie . 2010. “5-HTTLPR Genotype, Stressful Life Events, and Late-life Depression: No Evidence of Interaction in a French Population.” Neurobiology of Aging 31 (5): 886–87.

Z. Prichard , A. Mackinnon , A.F. Jorm , and S. Easteal . 2008. “No Evidence for Interaction between MAOA and Childhood Adversity for Antisocial Behavior.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics 147B (2): 228–32.

Richard Redon , Shumpei Ishikawa , Karen R. Fitch , Lars Feuk , George H. Perry , T. Daniel Andrews , Heike Fiegler et al. 2006. “Global Variation in Copy Number in the Human Genome.” Nature 444 (7118): 444–54.

N. Risch , R. Herrell , T. Lehner , K.Y. Liang , L. Eaves , J. Hoh , A. Griem , M. Kovacs , J. Ott , and K.R. Merikangas . 2009. “Interaction between the Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR), Stressful Life Events, and Risk of Depression A Meta-analysis.” Journal of the American Medical Association 301 (23): 2462–71.

S.Z. Sabol , S. Hu , and D. Hamer . 1998. “A Functional Polymorphism in the Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Promoter.” Human Genetics 103 (3): 273–79.

P.S. Schnable , D. Ware , R.S. Fulton , J.C. Stein , F. Wei , S. Pasternak , Chengzhi Liang et al. 2009. “The B73 Maize Genome: Complexity, Diversity, and Dynamics.” Science 326 (5956): 1112–15.

Jaime E. Settle , Christopher T. Dawes , Nicholas A. Christakis , and James H. Fowler . 2010. “Friendships Moderate an Association between a Dopamine Gene Variant and Political Ideology.” Journal of Politics 72 (4): 1189–98.

Vittorio Sgaramella , and Paola A. Astolfi . 2010. “Somatic Genome Variations Interact with Environment, Genome and Epigenome in the Determination of the Phenotype: A Paradigm Shift in Genomics?DNA Repair 9 (4): 470–73.

K. Shioe , T. Ichimiya , T. Suhara , A. Takano , Y. Sudo , F. Yasuno , Masami Hirano et al. 2003. “No Association between Genotype of the Promoter Region of Serotonin Transporter Gene and Serotonin Transporter Binding in Human Brain Measured by PET.” Synapse 48 (4): 184–88.

Magdalena Skipper . 2008. “Human Genetics: Not-so-identical Twins.” Nature Reviews Genetics 9: 250–51.

Montgomery Slatkin . 2009. “Epigenetic Inheritance and the Missing Heritability Problem.” Genetics 182 (3): 845–50.

A. Squassina , M. Manchia , M. Costa , C. Chillotti , R. Ardau , M. Del Zompo , and G. Severino . 2011. “Age at Onset in Bipolar Disorder: Investigation of the Role of TaqIA Polymorphism of DRD2 Gene in a Sardinian Sample.” European Psychiatry 26 (3): 141–43.

J. Claiborne Stephens , Julie A. Schneider , Debra A. Tanguay , Julie Choi , Tara Acharya , Scott E. Stanley , Ruhong Jiang et al. 2001. “Haplotype Variation and Linkage Disequilibrium in 313 Human Genes.” Science 293 (5529): 489–93.

Gerald Stöber , Yana V. Syagailo , Olga Okladnova , Gerd Jungkunz , Michael Knapp , Helmut Beckmann , and Klaus-Peter Lesch . 1999. “Functional PAX-6 Gene-linked Polymorphic Region: Potential Association with Paranoid Schizophrenia.” Biological Psychiatry 45 (12): 1585–91.

A. Suda , C. Kawanishi , I. Kishida , R. Sato , T. Yamada , M. Nakagawa , H. Hasegawa , D. Kato , T. Furuno , and Y. Hirayasu . 2009. “Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Suicide Attempt in the Japanese Population.” Neuropsychobiology 59 (2): 130–34.

Philippa J. Talmud , Aroon D. Hingorani , Jackie A. Cooper , Michael G. Marmot , Eric J. Brunner , Meena Kumari , Mika Kivimäki , and Steve E Humphries . 2010. “Utility of Genetic and Non-genetic Risk Factors in Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes: Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study.” British Medical Journal 340.

Y. Tao , X. Zheng , and Y. Sun . 2007. “Effect of Feedback Regulation on Stochastic Gene Expression.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 247: 827–36.

Eric Turkheimer . 2000. “Three Laws of Behavior Genetics and What They Mean.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 9 (5): 160–64.

Jamie Vaske , Matthew Makarios , Danielle Boisvert , Kevin M. Beaver , and John Paul Wright . 2009a. “The Interaction of DRD2 and Violent Victimization on Depression: An Analysis by Gender and Race.” Journal of Affective Disorders 112 (1): 120–25.

Jamie Vaske , J. Newsome , M. Makarios , J. P. Wright , B. B. Boutwell , and K. M. Beaver . 2009b. “Interaction of 5HTTLPR and Marijuana Use on Property Offending.” Biodemography and Social Biology 55 (1): 93102.

Michael G. Vaughn , Kevin M. Beaver , Matt DeLisi , Brian E. Perron , and Lisa Schelbe . 2009. “Gene-environment Interplay and the Importance of Self-control in Predicting Polydrug Use and Substance-related Problems.” Addictive Behaviors 34 (1): 112–16.

N.T. Walter , S.A. Markett , C. Montag , and M. Reuter . 2011. “A Genetic Contribution to Cooperation: Dopamine-relevant Genes Are Associated with Social Facilitation.” Social Neuroscience 6 (3): 289301.

Ryan D. Walters , Jennifer F. Kugel , and James A. Goodrich . 2009. “Invaluable Junk: The Cellular Impact and Function of Alu and B2 RNAs.” IUBMB Life 61 (8): 831–37.

David J. Weatherall 2000. “Science, Medicine, and the Future: Single Gene Disorders or Complex Traits: Lessons from the Thalassaemias and Other Monogenic Diseases.” British Medical Journal 321 (7269): 1117–20.

N.C. Whitelaw , and E. Whitelaw . 2006. “How Lifetimes Shape Epigenotype within and across Generations.” Human Molecular Genetics 15: R131-37.

M. Willeit , J. Stastny , W. Pirker , N. Praschak-Rieder , A. Neumeister , S. Asenbaum , J. Tauser et al. 2001. “No Evidence for In Vivo Regulation of Midbrain Serotonin Transporter Availability by Serotonin Transporter Promoter Gene Polymorphism.” Biological Psychiatry 50 (1): 812.

R.B. Williams , D.A. Marchuk , K. M. Gadde , J.C. Barefoot , K. Grichnik , M.J. Helms , C.M. Kuhn et al. 2003. “Serotonin-related Gene Polymorphisms and Central Nervous System Serotonin Function.” Neuropsychopharmacology 28 (3): 533–41.

Mary K. Wojczynski , and Hemant K. Tiwari . 2008. “Definition of Phenotype.” Advances in Genetics 60: 75105.

H. Xu , and S. Shete . 2007. “Mixed-effects Logistic Approach for Association following Linkage Scan for Complex Disorders.” Annals of Human Genetics 71 (2): 230–37.

Susan E. Young , Andrew Smolen , John K. Hewitt , Brett C. Haberstick , Michael C. Stallings , Robin P. Corley , and Thomas J. Crowley . 2006. “Interaction between MAO-A Genotype and Maltreatment in the Risk for Conduct Disorder: Failure to Confirm in Adolescent Patients.” American Journal of Psychiatry 163 (6): 1019–25.

Qin-shi Zhu , and Jean Chen Shih . 1997. “An Extensive Repeat Structure Down-regulates Human Monoamine Oxidase A Promoter Activity Independent of an Initiator-Like Sequence.” Journal of Neurochemistry 69 (4): 1368–73.

Yantao Zuo , David G. Gilbert , Norka E. Rabinovich , Hege Riise , Rachel Needham , and Jodi I. Huggenvik . 2009. “DRD2-related TaqIA Polymorphism Modulates Motivation to Smoke.” Nicotine and Tobacco Research 11 (11): 1321–29.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Political Science Review
  • ISSN: 0003-0554
  • EISSN: 1537-5943
  • URL: /core/journals/american-political-science-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×