Abramowitz, Alan I., and Segal, Jeffrey A. 1992. Senate Elections. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Abramson, Paul, and Aldrich, John. 1982. “The Decline of Electoral Participation in America.” American Political Science Review 76 (3): 502–21.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Behr, Roy, and Iyengar, Shanto. 1993. The Media Game: American Politics in the Television Age. New York: MacMillan.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Iyengar, Shanto. 1995. Going Negative: How Political Advertisements Shrink and Polarize the Electorate. New York: Free Press.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Iyengar, Shanto, Simon, Adam, and Valentine, Nicholas. 1994. “Does Attack Advertising Demobilize the Electorate.” American Political Science Review 88 (4): 829–38.
Alger, Dean E. 1996. The Media and Politics, 2d ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Basil, Michael, Schooler, Caroline, Reeves, Byron. 1991. “Positive and Negative Political Advertising: Effectiveness of Ads and Perceptions of Candidates.” In Television and Political Advertising, Volume 1: Psychological Processes, ed. Biocca, Frank. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Pp. 245–62.
Brians, Craig Leonard, and Wattenberg, Martin P. 1996. “Campaign Issue Knowledge and Salience: Comparing Reception from TV Commercials, TV News, and Newspapers.” American Journal of Political Science 40 (1): 172–93.
Caldeira, Gregory, Patterson, Samuel, and Markko, Gregory. 1985. “The Mobilization of Voters in Congressional Elections.” Journal of Politics 48 (2): 412–22.
Campbell, Angus. 1960. “Surge and Decline: A Study of Electoral Change.” Public Opinion Quarterly 24 (3): 397–418.
Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip, Miller, Warren, and Stokes, Donald. 1960. The American Voter. New York: Wiley.
Clarke, Peter, and Fredin, Eric. 1978. “Newspapers, Television, and Political Reasoning.” Public Opinion Quarterly 42 (2): 143–60.
Congressional Quarterly. 1990. “1990 Senate Election—CQ Calls.” Congressional Quarterly 48 (40): 3280–358. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Converse, Philip E. 1962. “Information Flow and the Stability of Partisan Attitudes.” Public Opinion Quarterly 26 (4): 578–99.
Converse, Philip E. 1964. “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” In Ideology and Discontent, ed. Apter, David. New York: Free Press. Pp. 206–61.
Converse, Philip E. 1966. “The Concept of a Normal Vote.” In Elections and the Political Order, ed. Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip E., Miller, Warren E., and Stokes, Donald E.New York: Wiley. Pp. 9–39.
Copeland, Gary W. 1983. “Activating Voters in Congressional Elections.” Political Behavior 5 (4): 391–401.
Cox, Gary W., and Munger, Michael C. 1989. “Closeness, Expenditures, and Turnout in the 1982 House Elections.” American Political Science Review 83 (1): 217–31.
Doak, David. 1995. “Going Negative: Rethinking the Rules.” Campaigns and Elections 16 (7): 20–1.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.
Finkel, Steven, and Geer, John. 1998. “A Spot Check: Casting Doubt on the Demobilizing Effect of Attack Advertising.” American Journal of Political Science 42 (2): 573–95.
Franklin, Charles H. 1991. “Eschewing Obfuscation? Campaigns and the Perceptions of U.S. Senate Incumbents.” American Political Science Review 85 (4): 1193–214.
Franklin, Mark. 1996. “Electoral Participation.” In Comparing Democracies, ed. Le Due, Lawrence, Niemi, Richard, and Norris, Pippa. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp. 216–35.
Garramone, Gina, Atkin, Charles K., Pinkleton, Bruce E., and Cole, Richard T. 1990. “Effects of Negative Political Advertising on the Political Process.” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 34 (3): 299–310.
Germond, Jack W., and Witcover, Jules. 1996. “Why Americans Don't Go to the Polls.” National Journal 28 (47): 2562–4.
Goldenberg, Edie N., and Traugott, Michael W. 1984. Campaigning for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Goldstein, Kenneth. 1997. “Political Advertising and Political Persuasion in the 1996 Presidential Campaign.” Paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.
Goodman, Adam. 1995. “Producing TV: A Survival Guide.” Campaigns and Elections 16 (7): 22–4.
Graber, Doris. 1993. Mass Media and American Politics. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Guttman, Amy. 1993. “The Disharmony of Democracy.” In Democratic Community, ed. Chapman, John W. and Shapiro, Ian. New York: New York University Press. Pp. 126–60.
Hamilton, D.L., and Zanna, M.P. 1974. “Context Effects in Impression Formation: Changes in Connotative Meaning.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 29 (5): 649–54.
Herrnson, Paul S. 1995. Congressional Elections: Campaigning at Home and in Washington. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Hill, Kim Quaile, and Leighley, Jan E. 1993. “Party Ideology, Organization, and Competitiveness as Mobilizing Forces in Gubernatorial Elections.” American Journal of Political Science 37 (4): 1158–78.
Jacobson, Gary C. 1997. The Politics of Congressional Elections. New York: Longman.
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. 1992. Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Johnson-Cartee, Karen S., and Copeland, Gary A. 1991. Negative Political Advertising: Coming of Age. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Joslyn, Richard. 1984. Mass Media and Elections. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Just, Marion R., Crigler, Ann N., Alger, Dean E., Cook, Timothy E., Kern, Montague, and West, Darrell M. 1996. Crosstalk: Citizens, Candidates and the Media in a Presidential Campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kahneman, Daniel, and Tversky, Amos. 1979. “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk.” Econometrica 47 (2): 263–91.
Kahn, Kim F., and Kenney, Patrick J. 1997. “A Model of Candidate Evaluations in Senate Elections: The Impact of Campaign Intensity.” Journal of Politics 4 (4): 1173–205.
Kanouse, David E., and Hanson, L. Reid Jr. 1972. “Negativity in Evaluations.” In Attribution: Perceiving Causes of Behavior, ed. Jones, Edward E., Kanouse, David E., Kelley, Harold H., Nisbett, Richard E., Valins, Stuart, and Weiner, Bernard. Morriston, NJ: General Learning. Pp. 47–62.
Kamber, Victor. 1997. Poison Politics: Are Negative Campaigns Destroying Democracy? New York: Plenum.
Key, V.O. Jr. 1956. American State Politics. New York: Knopf.
Key, V.O. Jr. 1964. Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups, 5th ed. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
Koutsoyiannis, A. 1977. Theory of Econometrics. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble.
Krasno, Jonathan S. 1994. Challengers, Competition, and Reelection: Comparing Senate and House Elections. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lau, Richard. 1982. “Negativity in Person Perception.” Political Behavior 4 (4): 353–77.
Lau, Richard. 1985. “Two Explanations for Negativity Effects in Political Behavior.” American Journal of Political Science 29 (1): 119–38.
Leary, Mary Ellen. 1977. Phantom Politics: Campaigning in California. Washington, DC: Public Affairs.
Luntz, Frank I. 1988. Candidates Consultants and Campaigns: The Style and Substance of American Electioneering. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Luskin, Robert. 1987. “Measuring Political Sophistication.” American Journal of Political Science 31 (4): 856–99.
Mayer, William G. 1993. “Trends: Trends in Media Usage.” Public Opinion Quarterly 57 (4): 593–611.
McGraw, Kathleen M., and Steenbergen, Marco. 1997. “Pictures in the Head: Memory Representation of Political Candidates.” In Political Judgment: Structure and Process, ed. Lodge, Milton and McGraw, Kathleen M.Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Miller, Warren E., Kinder, Donald R., Rosenstone, Steven J., and the National Election Studies. 1993. American National Election Study: Pooled Senate Election Study, 1988, 1990, 1992 [computer file] (Study #9580). Conducted by University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies. 2d ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies/Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research [producers], 1993. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1993.
Miller, Warren E., and Shanks, J. Merrill. 1996. The New American Voter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Patterson, Samuel, and Caldeira, Gregory. 1983. “Getting Out the Vote: Participation in Gubernatorial Elections.” American Political Science Review 77 (3): 675–89.
Powell, G. Bingham. 1986. “American Voter Turnout in Comparative Perspective.” American Political Science Review 80 (1): 17–43.
Ragsdale, Lyn, and Rusk, Jerold G. 1995. “Candidates, Issues, and Participation in Senate Election.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 20 (3): 305–28.
Richey, Marjorie H., Bono, Frank S., Lewis, Helen V., and Richey, Harold W. 1982. “Selectivity of Negative Bias in Impression Formation.” Journal of Social Psychology 116 (1): 107–18.
Roddy, Brian L., and Garramone, Gina M. 1988. “Appeals and Strategies of Political Advertising.” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 32 (4): 415–27.
Rosenstone, Steven J., and Hansen, John Mark. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan.
Southwell, Priscilla L. 1991. “Voter Turnout in the 1986 Congressional Elections.” American Politics Quarterly 19 (1): 96–106.
Squire, Peverill, Wolfinger, Raymond E., and Glass, David P. 1987. “Residential Mobility and Vote Turnout.” American Political Science Review 81 (1): 45–65.
Teixeira, Ruy A. 1992. The Disappearing American Voter. Washington, DC: Brookings.
Thorson, Esther, Christ, William G., and Caywood, Clark. 1991. “The Effects of Issue-Image Strategies, Attack and Support Appeals, Music, and Visual Content in Political Commercials.” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 35 (4): 465–86.
West, Darrell M. 1997. Air Wars: Television Advertising in Election Campaigns, 1952–1996. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Westlye, Mark C. 1991. Senate Elections and Campaign Intensity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Wolfinger, Raymond E., and Rosenstone, Steven J. 1980. Who Votes? New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Zaller, John R. 1992. Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.