Alesina, Alberto, Baqir, Reza, and Easterly, William. 1999. “Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 (4): 1243–84.
Alesina, Alberto, Devleeschauwer, Arnaud, Kurlat, Sergio, and Wacziarg, Romain. 2003. “Fractionalization.” Journal of Economic Growth 8: 155–94.
Alesina, Alberto, and La Ferrara, Eliana. 2005. “Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance.” Journal of Economic Literature 43: 721–61.
Bates, Robert H. 1983. “Modernization, Ethnic Competition, and the Rationality of Politics in Contemporary Africa.” In The State versus Ethnic Claims: African Policy Dilemmas, eds. Rothchild, Donald and Olorunsola, Victor, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 152–71.
Bertrand, Marianne, Duflo, Esther, and Mullainathan, Sendhil. 2004. “How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-differences Estimates?” Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (1): 249–75.
Besley, Timothy, and Case, Anne. 2000. “Unnatural Experiments? Estimating the Incidence of Endogenous Policies.” Economic Journal, 110 (467): F672–94.
Bleakley, Hoyt. 2007. “Disease and Development: Evidence from Hookworm Eradication in the American South.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 122 (1): 73–117.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Smith, Alastair, Siverson, Randolph M., and Morrow, James D.. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Caselli, Francesco, and John Coleman, Wilbur. 2006. “On the Theory of Ethnic Conflict.” London School of Economics. Working Paper.
Casey, Katherine. 2010. “Cross Party Lines: The Effects of Information on Redistributive Politics.” Brown University. Working Paper.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2004. Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic Headcounts in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chin, Aimee. 2005. “Can Redistributing Teachers across Schools Raise Educational Attainment? Evidence from Operation Blackboard in India.” Journal of Development Economics 78: 384–405.
Clark, John Frank, and Gardinier, David E.. 1997. Political Reform in Francophone Africa. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Cox, Gary W., and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1986. “Electoral Politics as a Redistributive Game.” Journal of Politics 48 (2): 370–89.
Defoort, Cecily. 2008. “Long-term Trends in International Migration: An Analysis of the Six Main Receiving Countries.” Population 63 (2): 285–318.
Dixit, Avinash, and Londregan, John. 1996. “The Determinants of Success of Special Interests in Redistributive Politics.” Journal of Politics 58 (4): 1132–55.
Docquier, Frederic, and Marfouk, Abdeslam. 2006. “International Migration by Educational Attainment (1990–2000).” In International Migration, Remittances and Development, eds. Ozden, C. and Schiff, M.. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dunning, Thad, and Harrison, Lauren. 2010. “Cross-cutting Cleavages and Ethnic Voting: An Experimental Study of Cousinage in Mali.” American Political Science Review 104 (1): 21–39.
Easterly, William, and Levine, Ross. 1997. “Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 112 (4): 1203–50.
Ellis, Henry C., and Moore, Brent A.. 2005. “Mood and Memory.” In Handbook of Cognition and Emotion, eds. Dalgleish, Tim and Power, Mick J.. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, 193–210.
Englebert, Pierre. 1998. Burkina Faso: Unsteady Statehood in West Africa. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Fearon, James D. 1999. “Why Ethnic Politics and ‘Pork’ Tend to Go Together.” Stanford University. Working Paper.
Fearon, James D. 2003. “Ethnic and Cultural Fractionalization by Country.” Journal of Economic Growth 8: 195–222.
Fearon, James D., Kasara, Kimuli, and Laitin, David D.. 2007. “Ethnic Minority Rule and Civil War Onset.” American Political Science Review 101 (1): 187–93.
Geddes, Barbara. 1999. “Authoritarian Breakdown: Empirical Test of a Game Theoretic Argument.” University of California, Los Angeles. Unpublished manuscript.
Geddes, Barbara. 2005. “Why Parties and Elections in Authoritarian Regimes?” University of California, Los Angeles. Unpublished manuscript.
Glewwe, Paul William, and Kremer, Michael. 2006. “Schools, Teachers, and Education Outcomes in Developing Countries.” In Handbook of the Economics of Education, eds. Hanushek, Erik A. and Welch, F.. Amsterdam: North Holland, 945–1017.
Glickman, Harvey. 1995. Ethnic Conflict and Democratization in Africa. Atlanta, GA: African Studies Association Press.
Goemans, Hein, Skrede Gleditsch, Kristian, Chiozza, Giacomo, and Choung, Jinhee L.. 2006. “Archigos: A Database on Political Leaders.” University of Rochester. Typescript.
Habyarimana, James, Humphreys, Macartan, Posner, Daniel N., and Weinstein, Jeremy M.. 2007. “Why Does Ethnic Diversity Undermine Public Goods Provision?” American Political Science Review 101 (4): 709–25
Hahn, Jinyong, and Newey, Whitney. 2004. “Jackknife and Analytical Bias Reduction for Nonlinear Panel Models.” Econometrica 72 (4): 1295–1319.
Herbst, Jeffrey Ira. 2000. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ihonvbere, Julius Omozuanvbo. 2003. “Overcoming a One-man Dictatorship: Political Liberalization and Democratization in Malawi.” In Political Liberalization and Democratization in Africa: Lessons from Country Experiences, eds. Omozuanvbo Ihonvbere, Julius and Mbaku, John Mukum. Westport. CT: Greenwood Publishing, 243–74.
Jackson, Robert H., and Rosberg, Carl G.. 1982. Personal Rule in Black Africa: Prince, Autocrat, Prophet, Tyrant. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jones, Benjamin F., and Olken, Benjamin A.. 2005. “Do Leaders Matter? National Leadership and Growth since World War II.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 120 (3): 835–64.
Jones, Gareth, Steketee, Richard W., Black, Robert E., Bhutta, Zulfiqar A., Morris, Saul S., and the Bellagio Child Survival Study Group. 2003. “How Many Child Deaths Can We Prevent This Year?” Lancet 362: 65–71.
Kasara, Kimuli. 2007. “Tax Me If You Can: Ethnic Geography, Democracy, and the Taxation of Agriculture in Africa.” American Political Science Review 101 (2): 159–72.
Kiamba, Claude-Ernest. 2007. “Construction de l'Etat et Politiques de l'Enseignement au Congo de 1911 à 1997: Une Contribution à l'Analyse de l'Action Publique en Afrique Noire.” Ph.D. diss. Université Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV.
Kitsimbou, Xavier Bienvenu. 2001. “La Démocratie et les Réalités Ethniques au Congo.” Ph.D. diss. Université de Nancy—II.
Klasen, Stephan, and Wink, Claudia. 2002. “A Turning Point in Gender Bias in Mortality? An Update on the Number of Missing Women.” Population and Development Review 28 (2): 285–312.
Kramon, Eric, and Posner, Daniel N.. 2011. “Who Benefits from Distributive Politics? How the Outcome One Studies Affects the Answer One Gets.” MIT Political Science Department. Research Paper No. 2011–19.
Kudamatsu, Masayuki. 2006. “Has Democratization Reduced Infant Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from Micro Data.” Institute for International Economic Studies. Working Paper.
Kudamatsu, Masayuki. 2007. “Ethnic Favoritism: Micro Evidence from Guinea.” Institute for International Economic Studies. Working Paper.
La Porta, Rafael, Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio, Shleifer, Andrei, and Vishny, Robert. 1999. “The Quality of Government.” Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 15 (1): 222–79.
Lazear, Edward P. 1999. “Culture and Language.” Journal of Political Economy 107 (S6): S95–S126.
Lindbeck, Assar, and Weibull, Jorgen W.. 1987. “Balanced-budget Redistribution as the Outcome of Political Competition.” Public Choice 52 (3): 273–97.
Londregan, John, Bienen, Henry, and van de Walle, Nicolas. 1995. “Ethnicity and Leadership Succession in Africa.” International Studies Quarterly 39 (1): 1–25.
Macinko, James, Guanais, Frederico, de Fátima, Maria, and de Souza, Marinho. 2006. “Evaluation of the Impact of Family Health Program on Infant Mortality in Brazil, 1990–2002.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60: 13–19.
Marshall, Monty G., and Jaggers, Keith. 2005. “Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2004.” University of Maryland. Unpublished manuscript.
Matuszeski, Janina, and Schneider, Frank. 2006. “Patterns of Ethnic Group Segregation and Civil Conflict.” Harvard University. Working Paper.
Mbandza, Joseph. 2004. Pauvreté et Modèles de Croissance en Afrique Subsaharienne: le Cas du Congo-Brazzaville (1945-2000). Paris: Editions Publibook.
McGowan, Patrick J. 2007. “African Military Intervention Events: January 1, 1955–December 31, 2006.” Arizona State University. Unpublished manuscript.
Miguel, Edward, and Gugerty, Mary Kay. 2005. “Ethnic Diversity, Social Sanctions, and Public Goods in Kenya.” Journal of Public Economics 89 (11/12), 2325–68.
Miguel, Edward, Satyanath, Shanker, and Sergenti, Ernest. 2004. “Economic Shocks and Civil Conflict: An Instrumental Variables Approach. ” Journal of Political Economy 112 (4), 725–53.
Morrison, Donald George, Mitchell, Robert, and Paden, John. 1989. Black Africa: A Comparative Handbook. 2nd ed.New York: Paragon House.
Mutibwa, Phares. 1992. Uganda since Independence: A Story of Unfulfilled Hopes. Lawrenceville, NJ: Africa World Press.
Orazem, Peter, and King, Elizabeth M.. 2008. “Schooling in Developing Countries: The Roles of Supply, Demand, and Government Policy.” In Handbook of Development Economics, vol. 4, eds. Schultz, T.P. and Strauss, J.. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 3475–3559.
Padro i Miguel, Gerard. 2007. “The Control of Politicians in Divided Societies: The Politics of Fear.” Review of Economic Studies 74 (4): 1259–74.
Posner, Daniel N. 2004. “Measuring Ethnic Fractionalization in Africa.” American Journal of Political Science 48 (4): 849–63.
Posner, Daniel N. 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Posner, Daniel N. 2007. “Regime Change and Ethnic Cleavages in Africa.” Comparative Political Studies 40 (11): 1302–27.
Qian, Nancy. 2008. “Missing Women and the Price of Tea in China: The Effect of Sex-specific Earnings on Sex Imbalance.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 123 (3): 1251–85.
Rake, Alan. 1992. Who's Who in Africa: Leaders for the 1990s. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.
Rake, Alan. 2001. African Leaders: Guiding the New Millennium. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.
Rosenzweig, Mark R., and Paul Schultz, T.. 1982. “Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Child Survival in Rural India.” American Economic Review 72: 803–15.
Rutstein, Shea Oscar, and Rojas, Guillermo. 2006. Guide to DHS Statistics. Calverton, MD: ORC Macro.
Schultz, T. Paul. 2004. “School Subsidies for the Poor: Evaluating the Mexican PROGRESA Poverty Program.” Journal of Development Economics 74 (1): 199–250.
Sen, Amartya. 1998. “Mortality as an Indicator of Economic Success and Failure.” Economic Journal 108: 1–25.
Takougang, Joseph, and Krieger, Milton. 2000. African State and Society in the 1990s: Cameroon's Political Crossroads. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Tullock, Gordon. 1987. Autocracy. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Van de Walle, Nicolas. 2003. “Presidentialism and Clientelism in Africa's Emerging Party Systems.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 (2): 297–321.
Watson, Tara. 2006. “Public Health Investments and the Infant Mortality Gap: Evidence from Federal Sanitation Interventions and Hospitals on U.S. Indian Reservations.” Journal of Public Economics 90 (8/9): 1537–60.
Widner, Jennifer A. 1992. The Rise of a Party-State in Kenya: From “Harambee” to “Nyayo!” Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wintrobe, Ronald. 1998. The Political Economy of Dictatorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wiseman, John A. 1991. Political Leaders in Black Africa: A Biographical Dictionary of the Major Politicians since Independence. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Woodward, Peter. 1996. The Horn of Africa: State Politics and International Relations. London: British Academic.
World Bank. 2003. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank. 2008. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank.