Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bui, Nhung T. 2016. Managing anti-China nationalism in Vietnam: evidence from the media during the 2014 oil rig crisis. The Pacific Review, p. 1.

    Courtney, Michael 2016. Social background and citizen–legislator congruence in candidate-centred systems. The Journal of Legislative Studies, p. 1.

    Glazier, Rebecca A. and Miller, William J. 2016. For God or Country? Comparing the Sources of Anti-American and Anti-Muslim Attitudes. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, Vol. 27, Issue. 2, p. 153.

    Sohail, M. Sadiq and Opoku, Robert A. 2016. Applying the Animosity Model in Foreign Product Purchases: Evidence from an Emerging Nation. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol. 28, Issue. 2, p. 121.

    Acevedo, Gabriel A. and Chaudhary, Ali R. 2015. Religion, Cultural Clash, and Muslim American Attitudes About Politically Motivated Violence. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 54, Issue. 2, p. 242.

    Ciftci, Sabri and Tezcür, Güneş Murat 2015. Soft Power, Religion, and Anti-Americanism in the Middle East. Foreign Policy Analysis, p. n/a.

    Courtney, Michael 2015. Social Background and Intra-party Attitudes in Ireland. Irish Political Studies, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 178.

    Duncan, F. Moehler, D. C. and Silver, L. R. 2015. Pro- and Anti-Americanism in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 27, Issue. 2, p. 220.


Elite Competition, Religiosity, and Anti-Americanism in the Islamic World

  • LISA BLAYDES (a1) and DREW A. LINZER (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 17 May 2012

The battle for public opinion in the Islamic world is an ongoing priority for U.S. diplomacy. The current debate over why many Muslims hold anti-American views revolves around whether they dislike fundamental aspects of American culture and government, or what Americans do in international affairs. We argue, instead, that Muslim anti-Americanism is predominantly a domestic, elite-led phenomenon that intensifies when there is greater competition between Islamist and secular-nationalist political factions within a country. Although more observant Muslims tend to be more anti-American, paradoxically the most anti-American countries are those in which Muslim populations are less religious overall, and thus more divided on the religious–secular issue dimension. We provide case study evidence consistent with this explanation, as well as a multilevel statistical analysis of public opinion data from nearly 13,000 Muslim respondents in 21 countries.

Corresponding author
Lisa Blaydes is Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Stanford University, Encina Hall West, Suite 100, Stanford, CA 94305 (
Drew A. Linzer is Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Emory University, 102 Tarbutton Hall, 1555 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322 (
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Andrew F Clark . 1999. “Imperialism, Independence, and Islam in Senegal and Mali.” Africa Today 46 (3/4): 149–67.

Juan Cole . 2006. “Anti-Americanism: It's the Policies.American Historical Review Forum 111 (4): 1120–29.

Nur Bilge Criss . 2002. “A Short History of Anti-Americanism and Terrorism: The Turkish Case.Journal of American History 89 (2): 472–84.

David F Damore . 2004. “The Dynamics of Issue Ownership in Presidential Campaigns.Political Research Quarterly 57 (3): 391–97.

David F Damore . 2005. “Issue Convergence in Presidential Campaigns.Political Behavior 27 (1): 7197.

Michael Doran . 2002. “The Pragmatic Fanaticism of al Qaeda: An Anatomy of Extremism in Middle Eastern Politics.Political Science Quarterly 117 (2): 177–90.

James N. Druckman , and Arthur Lupia . 2000. “Preference Formation.” Annual Review of Political Science 3: 124.

Roger Finke , and Rodney Stark . 1988. “Religious Economies and Sacred Canopies: Religious Mobilization in American Cities, 1906.American Sociological Review 53 (1): 41–9.

Graham E Fuller . 2002. “The Future of Political Islam.Foreign Affairs 81 (2): 4860.

Matthew Gabel , and Kenneth Scheve . 2007. “Mixed Messages: Party Dissent and Mass Opinion on European Integration.European Union Politics 8 (1): 3759.

Matthew A. Gentzkow , and Jesse M. Shapiro . 2004. “Media, Education and Anti-Americanism in the Muslim World.Journal of Economic Perspectives 18 (3): 117–33.

Aylin Guney . 2008. “Anti-Americanism in Turkey: Past and Present.Middle Eastern Studies 44 (3): 471–87.

Ronald Inglehart , and Christian Welzel . 2005. Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Simon Jackman . 2000. “Estimation and Inference Are Missing Data Problems: Unifying Social Science Statistics via Bayesian Simulation.Political Analysis 8 (4): 307–32.

Ersin Kalaycioglu . 1999. “The Shaping of Party Preferences in Turkey: Coping with the Post-Cold War Era.” New Perspectives on Turkey 20: 4776.

Donald R Kinder . 1998. “Communication and Opinion.” Annual Review of Political Science 1: 167–97.

Hamid H Kizilbash . 1988. “Anti-Americanism in Pakistan.Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 497 (1): 5867.

Ivan Krastev . 2004. “The Anti-American Century?Journal of Democracy 15 (2): 516.

Jeffrey Lewis , and Drew Linzer . 2005. “Estimating Regression Models in which the Dependent Variable Is Based on Estimates.Political Analysis 13 (4): 345–64.

Drew A. Linzer , and Jeffrey Lewis . 2011. “poLCA: An R Package for Polytomous Variable Latent Class Analysis.Journal of Statistical Software 42 (10): 129.

D. J. Lunn , A. Thomas , N. Best , and D. Spiegelhalter . 2000. “WinBUGS—A Bayesian Modelling Framework: Concepts, Structure, and Extensibility.” Statistics and Computing 10: 325–37. (accessed March 7, 2012).

Ussama Makdisi . 2002. “‘Anti-Americanism’ in the Arab World: An Interpretation of a Brief History.Journal of American History 89 (2): 538–57.

Erik Nisbet , and Teresa Myers . 2011. “Anti-American Sentiment as a Media Effect? Arab Media, Political Identity, and Public Opinion in the Middle East.Communication Research 38 (5): 684709.

Donal B. Cruise O'Brien . 2003. Symbolic Confrontations: Muslims Imagining the State in Africa. New York: Palgrave.

Richard B Parker . 1988. “Anti-American Attitudes in the Arab World.Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 497 (1): 4657.

John Petrocik . 1996. “Issue Ownership in Presidential Elections, with a 1980 Case Study.American Journal of Political Science 40 (3): 825–50.

Alvin Z. Rubinstein , and Donald E. Smith . 1988. “Anti-Americanism in the Third World.Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 497 (1): 3545.

Zachary Shore . 2005. “Can the West Win Muslim Hearts and Minds?Orbis 49 (3): 475–90.

Murat Somer . 2007. “Moderate Islam and Secularist Opposition in Turkey: Implications for the World, Muslims and Secular Democracy.Third World Quarterly 28 (7): 1271–89.

Constantine J. Spiliotes , and Lynn Vavreck . 2002. “Campaign Advertising: Partisan Convergence and Divergence?Journal of Politics 64: 249–61.

Rodney Stark , and James McCann . 1993. “Market Forces and Catholic Commitment: Exporing the New Paradigm.Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 32 (2): 111–24.

Sibylle Sturtz , Uwe Ligges , and Andrew Gelman . 2005. “R2WinBUGS: A Package for Running WinBUGS from R.Journal of Statistical Software 12 (3): 116.

Mark Tessler . 2003. “Arab and Muslim Political Attitudes: Stereotypes and Evidence from Survey Research.” International Studies Perspectives 4: 175–81.

Thomas Perry Thornton . 1988. “Preface.Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 497 (1): 919.

Bruce Western . 1998. “Causal Heterogeneity in Comparative Research: A Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling Approach.American Journal of Political Science 42 (4): 1233–59.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Political Science Review
  • ISSN: 0003-0554
  • EISSN: 1537-5943
  • URL: /core/journals/american-political-science-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *