Skip to main content

Personality and Political Attitudes: Relationships across Issue Domains and Political Contexts


Previous research on personality traits and political attitudes has largely focused on the direct relationships between traits and ideological self-placement. There are theoretical reasons, however, to suspect that the relationships between personality traits and political attitudes (1) vary across issue domains and (2) depend on contextual factors that affect the meaning of political stimuli. In this study, we provide an explicit theoretical framework for formulating hypotheses about these differential effects. We then leverage the power of an unusually large national survey of registered voters to examine how the relationships between Big Five personality traits and political attitudes differ across issue domains and social contexts (as defined by racial groups). We confirm some important previous findings regarding personality and political ideology, find clear evidence that Big Five traits affect economic and social attitudes differently, show that the effect of Big Five traits is often as large as that of education or income in predicting ideology, and demonstrate that the relationships between Big Five traits and ideology vary substantially between white and black respondents.

Corresponding author
Alan S. Gerber is Professor, Department of Political Science and Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University, 77 Prospect Street, PO Box 208209, New Haven, CT 06520-8209 (
Gregory A. Huber is Associate Professor, Department of Political Science and Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University, 77 Prospect Street, PO Box 208209, New Haven, CT 06520-8209 (
David Doherty is Postdoctoral Associate, Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University, 77 Prospect Street, PO Box 208209, New Haven, CT 06520-8209 (
Conor M. Dowling is Postdoctoral Associate, Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University, 77 Prospect Street, PO Box 208209, New Haven, CT 06520-8209 (
Shang E. Ha is Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, 3413 James Hall, Brooklyn, NY 11210 (
Hide All
Adorno, Theodor W., Frenkel-Brunswick, Else, Levinson, Daniel J., and Sanford, Nevitt S.. 1950. The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper.
Akrami, Nazar, and Ekehammar, Bo. 2006. “Right-wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation: Their roots in Big-Five Personality Factors and Facets.” Journal of Individual Differences 27: 117–26.
Alford, John R., Funk, Carolyn L., and Hibbing, John R.. 2005. “Are Political Orientations Genetically Transmitted?American Political Science Review 99: 153–67.
Alford, John R., and Hibbing, John R.. 2007. “Personal, Interpersonal, and Political Temperaments.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 614: 196212.
Allport, Gordon W., and Odbert, Henry S.. 1936. Trait-Names: A Psycho-Lexical Study. Princeton, NJ: Psychological Review Company.
Altemeyer, Robert A. 1996. The Authoritarian Specter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Asendorpf, Jens B., and van Aken, Marcel A.G.. 2003. “Personality–Relationship Transaction in Adolescence: Core Versus Surface Personality Characteristics.” Journal of Personality 71: 629–66.
Barbaranelli, Claudio, Caprara, Gian Vittorio, Vecchione, Michele, and Fraley, Chris R.. 2007. “Voters’ Personality Traits in Presidential Elections.” Personality and Individual Differences 42: 1199–208.
Bem, Daryl J. 1970. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Human Affairs. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Ben-Ner, Avner, Kramera, Amit, and Levy, Ori. 2008. “Economic and Hypothetical Dictator Game Experiments: Incentive Effects at the Individual Level.” Journal of Socio-Economics 37: 1775–84.
Borghans, Lex, Duckworth, Angela Lee, Heckman, James J., and ter Weel, Bas. 2008. “The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits.” Journal of Human Resources 43: 9721059.
Bouchard, Thomas J. Jr. 1997. “The Genetics of Personality.” In Handbook of Psychiatric Genetics, eds. Blum, Kenneth and Noble, Ernest P.. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 273–96.
Bouchard, Thomas J. Jr., and Loehlin, John C.. 2001. “Genes, Evolution, and Personality.” Behavior Genetics 31: 243–73.
Brader, Ted. 2006. Campaigning for Hearts and Minds: How Emotional Appeals in Political Ads Work. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Brown, Roger. 1965. Social Psychology. New York: Free Press.
Caprara, Gian Vittorio, Barbaranelli, Claudio, and Zimbardo, Philip G.. 1999. “Personality Profiles and Political Parties.” Political Psychology 20: 175–97.
Caprara, Gian Vittorio, Schwartz, Shalom, Capanna, Cristina, Vecchione, Michele, and Barbaranelli, Claudio. 2006. “Personality and Politics: Values, Traits, and Political Choice.” Political Psychology 27: 128.
Carney, Dana R., Jost, John T., Gosling, Samuel D., and Potter, Jeff. 2008. “The Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives: Personality Profiles, Interaction Styles, and the Things They Leave Behind.” Political Psychology 29: 807–40.
Caspi, Avshalom, Roberts, Brent W., and Shiner, Rebecca L.. 2005. “Personality Development: Stability and Change.” Annual Review of Psychology 56: 453–84.
Cattell, Raymond B. 1943. “The Description of Personality: Basic Traits Resolved into Clusters.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 38: 476506.
Christakis, Nicholas A., and Fowler, James H.. 2009. Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives. Boston: Little, Brown.
Converse, Philip E. 1964. “The Nature and Origin of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” In Ideology and Discontent, ed. Apter, David. New York: Free Press, 206–61.
Costa, Paul T., and McCrae, Robert R.. 1992. NEO PI-R. Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Costa, Paul T., and McCrae, Robert R.. 1993. “Bullish on Personality Psychology.” The Psychologist 6: 302–3.
Dawes, Christopher T., and Fowler, James H.. 2009. “Partisanship, Voting, and the Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene.” Journal of Politics 71: 1157–71.
Dawson, Michael C. 1994. Beyond the Mule: Race and Class in African American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Dawson, Michael C. 1997. “African American Political Opinion: Volatility in the Reagan-Bush Era.” In African American Power and Politics, ed. Walton, H. Jr.New York: Columbia University Press, 135–53.
Dawson, Michael C. 2001. Black Visions: The Roots of Contemporary African-American Political Ideologies. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Denissen, Jaap J.A., and Penke, Lars. 2008. “Motivational Individual Reaction Norms Underlying the Five-Factor Model of Personality: First Steps Towards a Theory-Based Conceptual Framework.” Journal of Research in Personality 42: 1285–302.
Devine, Donald J. 1972. The Political Culture of the United States. Boston: Little, Brown.
Eaves, Lindon J., and Hatemi, Peter K.. 2008. “Transmission of Attitudes Toward Abortion and Gay Rights: Effects of Genes, Social Learning and Mate Selection.” Behavior Genetics 38: 247–56.
Ekehammar, Bo, and Akrami, Nazar. 2007. “Personality and Prejudice: From Big Five Personality Factors to Facets.” Journal of Personality 75: 899925.
Ekehammar, Bo, Akrami, Nazar, Gylje, Magnus, and Zakrisson, Ingrid. 2004. “What Matters Most to Prejudice: Big Five Personality, Social Dominance Orientation, or Right-Wing Authoritarianism?European Journal of Personality 18: 463–82.
Feldman, Stanley. 1988. “Structure and Consistency in Public Opinion: The Role of Core Beliefes and Values.” American Journal of Political Science 32: 416–60.
Feldman, Stanley. 2003. “Enforcing Social Conformity: A Theory of Authoritarianism.” Political Psychology 24: 4174.
Feldman, Stanley, and Huddy, Leonie. 2005. “Racial Resentment and White Opposition to Race-Conscious Programs: Principles or Prejudice?American Journal of Political Science 49: 168–83.
Feldman, Stanley, and Johnston, Christopher. 2009. “Understanding the Determinants of Political Ideology: Implications of Structural Complexity.” Stony Brook University. Typescript.
Feldman, Stanley, and Stenner, Karen. 1997. “Perceived Threat and Authoritarianism.” Political Psychology 18: 741–70.
Feldman, Stanley, and Zaller, John. 1992. “The Political Culture of Ambivalence: Ideological Responses to the Welfare State.” American Journal of Political Science 36: 268307.
Fowler, James H., Baker, Laura A., and Dawes, Christopher T.. 2008. “Genetic Variation in Political Participation.” American Political Science Review 102: 233–48.
Fowler, James H., and Dawes, Christopher T.. 2008. “Two Genes Predict Voter Turnout.” Journal of Politics 70: 579–94.
Fromm, Erich. 1947. Man for Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Fromm, Erich. 1964. The Heart of Man. New York: Harper.
Gay, Claudine, and Tate, Katherine. 1998. “Doubly Bound: The Impact of Gender and Race on the Politics of Black Women.” Political Psychology 19: 169–84.
Gerber, Alan S., Huber, Gregory A., Doherty, David, and Dowling, Conor M.. 2010a. “Personality and the Strength and Direction of Partisan Attachments.” Yale University. Typescript.
Gerber, Alan S., Huber, Gregory A., Doherty, David, Dowling, Conor M., Raso, Connor, and Ha, Shang E.. 2010b. “Personality Traits and Participation in Political Processes.” Yale University. Typescript.
Goodwin, Renee D., and Friedman, Howard S.. 2006. “Health Status and the Five-Factor Personality Traits in a Nationally Representative Sample.” Journal of Health Psychology 11: 643–54.
Goren, Paul. 2001. “Core Principles and Policy Reasoning in Mass Publics: A Test of Two Theories.” British Journal of Political Science 31: 159–77.
Goren, Paul. 2005. “Party Identification and Core Political Values.” American Journal of Political Science 49: 881–96.
Gosling, Samuel D. 2008. Snoop: What Your Stuff Says about You. New York: Basic Books.
Gosling, Samuel D. 2009. “A Note on Alpha Reliability and Factor Structure in the TIPI.” December 20. (January 5, 2010).
Gosling, Samuel D., Rentfrow, Peter J., and Swann, William B. Jr. 2003. “A Very Brief Measure of the Big-Five Personality Domains.” Journal of Research in Personality 37: 504–28.
Graziano, William G., Bruce, Jennifer, Sheese, Brad E., and Tobin, Renee M.. 2007. “Attraction, Personality, and Prejudice: Liking None of the People Most of the Time.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93: 565–82.
Gurin, Patricia, Hatchett, Shirley, and Jackson, James S.. 1989. Hope and Independence: Blacks’ Response to Electoral and Party Politics. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.
Hatemi, Peter K., Alford, John R., Hibbing, John R., Martin, Nicholas G., and Eaves, Lindon J.. 2009. “Is There a ‘Party’ in Your Genes?Political Research Quarterly 62: 584600.
Hatemi, Peter K., Medland, Sarah E., Morley, Katherine I., Heath, Andrew C., and Martin, Nicholas G.. 2007. “The Genetics of Voting an Australian Twin Study.” Behaviour Genetics 37: 435–48.
Heaney, Michael T., and McClurg, Scott D.. 2009. “Social Networks and American Politics: Introduction to the Special Issue.” American Politics Research 37: 727–41.
Henry, P.J., and Sears, David O.. 2002. “The Symbolic Racism Scale.” Political Psychology 23: 253–83.
Herring, Mary, Jankowski, Thomas B., and Brown, Ronald E.. 1999. “Pro-Black Doesn't Mean Anti-White: The Structure of African-American Group Identity.” The Journal of Politics 61: 363–86.
Hetherington, Marc J., and Weiler, Jonathan D.. 2009. Authoritarianism and Polarization in American Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hogan, Joyce, and Holland, Brent. 2003. “Using Theory to Evaluate Personality and Job-Performance Relations: A Socioanalytic Perspective.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88: 100–12.
Jackman, Mary R. 1994. The Velvet Glove: Paternalism and Conflict in Gender, Class, and Race Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jackman, Simon, and Vavreck, Lynn. 2009. The 2008 Cooperative Campaign Analysis Project, Release 2.1. Palo Alto, CA: YouGov/Polimetrix [producer and distributor].
Jacoby, William G. 2006. “Value Choices and American Public Opinion.” American Journal of Political Science 50: 706–23.
Jaensch, Erich R. 1938. Der Gegentypus. Leipzig: J.A. Barth.
Jaynes, Gerald D., and Williams, Robin M.. 1989. A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
John, Oliver P., and Srivastava, Sanjay. 1999. “The Big Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Theoretical Perspectives.” In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, eds. Pervin, Lawrence A. and John, Oliver P.. New York: Guilford Press, 102–38.
Jost, John T. 2006. “The End of the End of Ideology.” American Psychologist 61: 651–70.
Jost, John T., Glaser, Jack, Kruglanski, Arie W., and Sulloway, Frank J.. 2003. “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition”. Psychological Bulletin 129: 339–75.
Kinder, Donald R., and Mendelberg, Tali. 2000. “Individualism Reconsidered.” In Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America, eds. Sears, David O., Sidanius, Jim, and Bobo, Lawrence. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 4474.
Kinder, Donald R., and Sanders, Lynn M.. 1996. Divided by Color: Racial Politics and Democratic Ideals. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Kinder, Donald R., and Sears, David O.. 1981. “Prejudice and Politics: Symbolic Racism Versus Racial Threats to the Good Life.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40: 414–31.
Kinder, Donald R., and Winter, Nicholas. 2001. “Exploring the Racial Divide: Blacks, Whites, and Opinion on National Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 45: 439–56.
Kline, Paul. 2000. Handbook of Psychological Testing. London: Routledge.
Koole, Sander L., Jager, Wander, and van den Berg, Agnes E.. 2001. “On the Social Nature of Personality: Effects of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Feedback about Collective Resource Use on Cooperation in a Resource Dilemma.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27: 289301.
Lakoff, George. 2004. Don't Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. White River Junction, VI: Chelsea Green.
Landau, Mark J., Solomon, Sheldon, Greenberg, Jeff, Cohen, Florette, Pyszczynski, Tom, Arndt, Jamie, Miller, Claude H., Ogilvie, Daniel M., and Cook, Alison. 2004. “Deliver Us from Evil: The Effects of Mortality Salience and Reminders of 9/11 on Support for President George W. Bush.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30: 1136–50.
Levendusky, Matthew. 2009. The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and Conservatives Became Republicans. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Lewis, Gregory B. 2003. “Black–White Differences in Attitudes toward Homosexuality and Gay Rights.” Public Opinion Quarterly 67: 5978.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1979. The First New Nation. New York: Norton.
Marcus, George E., Sullivan, John L., Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth, and Wood, Sandra L.. 1995. With Malice Toward Some: How People Make Civil Liberties Judgments. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Martin, N.G., Eaves, L.J., Heath, A.C., Jardine, Rosemary, Feingold, Lynn M., and Eysenck, H.J.. 1986. “Transmission of Social Atitudes.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 83: 4364–8.
Massey, Douglas, and Denton, Nancy. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McAdams, Dan P. 1995. “What Do We Know When We Know a Person?Journal of Personality 63: 365–96.
McAdams, Dan P., and Pals, Jennifer L.. 2006. “A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality.” American Psychologist 61: 204–17.
McCann, James A. 1997. “Electoral Choices and Core Value Change: The 1992 Presidential Campaign.” American Journal of Political Science 41: 564–83.
McCann, Stewart J.H. 1997. “Threatening Times, ‘Strong’ Presidential Popular Vote Winners, and the Victory Margin, 19241964.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73: 160–70.
McClosky, Herbert. 1958. “Conservatism and Personality.” American Political Science Review 52: 2745.
McClosky, Herbert, and Zaller, John. 1984. The American Ethos. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McCrae, Robert R. 1996. “Social Consequences of Experiential Openness.” Psychological Bulletin 120: 323–37.
McCrae, Robert R., and Costa, Paul T. Jr. 1994. “The Stability of Personality: Observations and Evaluations.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 3: 173–5.
McCrae, Robert R., and Costa, Paul T. Jr. 1996. “Toward a New Generation of Personality Theories: Theoretical Contexts for the Five-Factor Model.” In The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Theoretical Perspectives, ed. Wiggins, Jerry S.. New York: Guilford Press, 5187.
McCrae, Robert R., and Costa, Paul T. Jr. 1999. “A Five-Factor Theory of Personality.” In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, eds. Pervin, Lawrence A. and John, Oliver P.. New York: Guilford Press, 139–53.
McCrae, Robert R., and Costa, Paul T. Jr. 2003. Personlity in Adulthood: A Five-Factor Theory Perspective. 2nd ed.New York: Guilford Press.
McPherson, Miller, Smith-Lovin, Lynn, and Cook, James M.. 2001. “Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks.” Annual Review of Sociology 27: 415–44.
Mehrabian, Albert. 1996. “Relations among Political Attitudes, Personality, and Psychopathology Assessed with New Measures of Libertarianism and Conservatism.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 18: 469–91.
Mondak, Jeffery J., and Halperin, Karen D.. 2008. “A Framework for the Study of Personality and Political Behaviour.” British Journal of Political Science 38: 335–62.
Neuberg, Steven L., and Newsom, Jason T.. 1993. “Personal Need for Structure: Individual Differences in the Desire for Simple Structure.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65: 113–31.
Olver, James M., and Mooradian, Todd A.. 2003. “Personality Traits and Personal Values: A Conceptual and Empirical Integration.” Personality and Individual Differences 35: 109–25.
Paunonen, Sampo V., and Ashton, Michael C.. 2001. “Big Five Factors and Facets and the Prediction of Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81: 524–39.
Plomin, Robert, and Caspi, Avshalom. 1999. “Behavior Genetics and Personality.” In Handbook of Personality Research: Theory and Research, eds. Pervin, L.A. and John, O.P.. New York: Guilford Press, 251–76.
Plomin, Robert, DeFries, John C., McClearn, Gerald E., and McGuffin, Peter. 1990. Behavioral Genetics: A Primer. New York: W.H. Freeman.
Rentfrow, Peter J., Jost, John T., Gosling, Samuel D., and Potter, Jonathan. 2009. “Statewide Differences in Personality Predict Voting Patterns in 1996–2004 U.S. Presidential Elections.” In Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification, eds. Jost, John T., Kay, Aaron C., and Thorisdottir, Hulda. New York: Oxford University Press, 314–47.
Riemann, Rainer, Grubich, Claudia, Hempel, Susanne, Mergl, Susanne, and Richter, Manfred. 1993. “Personality and Attitudes towards Current Political Topics.” Personality and Individual Differences 15: 313–21.
Salgado, Jesus F. 1997. “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community.” Journal of Applied Psychology 82: 3043.
Saucier, Gerard. 1994. “Trapnell versus the Lexical Factor: More Ado about Nothing?European Journal of Personality 8: 291–8.
Schoen, Harald, and Schumann, Siegfried. 2007. “Personality Traits, Partisan Attitudes, and Voting Behavior. Evidence from Germany.” Political Psychology 28: 471–98.
Sellers, Robert M., Smith, Mia A., Shelton, Nicole, Rowley, Stephanie A.J., and Chavous, Tabbye M.. 1998. “Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity: A Reconceptualization of African American Racial Identity.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 2: 1839.
Settle, Jamie E., Dawes, Christopher T., and Fowler, James H.. 2009. “The Heritability of Partisan Attachment.” Political Research Quarterly 62: 601–13.
Sibley, Chris G., and Duckitt, John. 2008. “Personality and Prejudice: A Meta-Analysis and Theoretical Review.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 12: 248–79.
Sidanius, Jim, and Pratto, Felicia. 1999. Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Hierarchy and Domination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sidanius, Jim, Pratto, Felicia, and Bobo, Lawrence. 1996. “Racism, Conservatism, Affirmative Action, and Intellectual Sophistication: A Matter of Principled Conservatism or Group Dominance?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70: 476–90.
Sigelman, Lee, Bledsoe, Timothy, Welch, Susan, and Combs, Michael. 1996. “Making Contact: Black–White Social Interaction in an Urban Setting.” American Journal of Sociology 101: 1306–32.
Sigelman, Lee, Tuch, Steven A., and Martin, Jack K.. 2005. “What's in a Name? Preference for ‘Black’ versus ‘African-American’ among Americans of African Descent.” Public Opinion Quarterly 69: 429–38.
Simien, Evelyn M. 2005. “Race, Gender, and Linked Fate.” Journal of Black Studies 35: 529–50.
Sniderman, Paul M., and Carmines, Edward G.. 1997. Reaching Beyond Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Stenner, Karen. 2005. The Authoritarian Dynamic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tate, Katherine. 1994. From Protest to Politics: The New Black Voters in American Elections. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tomkins, Silvan S. 1963. “Left and Right: A Basic Dimension of Ideology and Personality.” In The Study of Lives, ed. White, Robert W.. Chicago: Atherton, 388411.
Trapnell, Paul D. 1994. “Openness versus Intellect: A Lexical Left Turn.” European Journal of Personality 8: 273–90.
Van Gestel, Sofie, and Van Broeckhoven, Christine. 2003. “Genetics of Personality: Are We Making Progress?Molecular Psychiatry 8: 840–52.
Van Heil, Alain, Kossowska, Malgorzata, and Mervielde, Ivan. 2000. “The Relationship between Openness to Experience and Political Ideology.” Personality and Individual Differences 28: 741–51.
Van Hiel, Alain, and Mervielde, Ivan. 2004. “Openness to Experience and Boundaries in the Mind: Relationships with Cultural and Economic Conservative Beliefs.” Journal of Personality 72: 659–86.
Vavreck, Lynn, and Rivers, Douglas. 2008. “The 2006 Cooperative Congressional Election Study.” Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties 18: 355–66.
Vecchione, Michele, and Caprara, Gian Vittorio. 2009. “Personality Determinants of Political Participation: The Contribution of Traits and Self-Efficacy Beliefs.” Personality and Individual Differences 46: 487–92.
Wilcox, Clyde. 1990. “Race Differences in Abortion Attitudes: Some Additional Evidence.” Public Opinion Quarterly 54: 248–55.
Wilson, Glenn D. 1973. The Psychology of Conservatism. London: Academic Press.
Woods, Stephen A., and Hampson, Sarah E.. 2005. “Measuring the Big Five with Single Items Using a Bipolar Response Scale.” European Journal of Personality 19: 373–90.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Political Science Review
  • ISSN: 0003-0554
  • EISSN: 1537-5943
  • URL: /core/journals/american-political-science-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 56
Total number of PDF views: 1048 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2808 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.