Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Religious Minorities and Resistance to Genocide: The Collective Rescue of Jews in the Netherlands during the Holocaust

  • ROBERT BRAUN (a1)

Abstract

This article hypothesizes that minority groups are more likely to protect persecuted groups during episodes of mass killing. The author builds a geocoded dataset of Jewish evasion and church communities in the Netherlands during the Holocaust to test this hypothesis. Spatial regression models of 93 percent of all Dutch Jews demonstrate a robust and positive correlation between the proximity to minority churches and evasion. While proximity to Catholic churches increased evasion in dominantly Protestant regions, proximity to Protestant churches had the same effect in Catholic parts of the country. Municipality level fixed effects and the concentric dispersion of Catholicism from missionary hotbed Delft are exploited to disentangle the effect of religious minority groups from local level tolerance and other omitted variables. This suggests that it is the local configuration of civil society that produces collective networks of assistance to threatened neighbors.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Robert Braun is a Ph.D. student in Government at Cornell University and a Predoctoral Fellow in Sociology at Northwestern University. Please direct correspondence to Department of Sociology, Northwestern University, 1810 Chicago Avenue Evanston, IL 60208 or (robert.braun@northwestern.edu).

References

Hide All
Berkhoff, Karel. 2009. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Berman, Eli, and Laitin, David. 2008. “Religion, Terrorism and Public Goods: Testing the Club Model.” Journal of Public Economics 92 (10): 1942–67.
Besag, Julian. 1974. “Spatial Interaction and the Statistical Analysis of Lattice Systems.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological) 36 (2): 192236.
Blasnik, Michael. 2010. “RECLINK: Stata Module to Probabilistically Match Records.” Statistical Software Components.
Braun, Robert. 2016. Protectors of Pluralism: Christian Resistance to the Holocaust in the Low Countries. Dissertation. Cornell University.
Brewer, Marilynn, and Silver, Michael. 2000. Group Distinctiveness, Social Identification, and Collective Mobilization. Self, Identity and Social Movements. Twin Cities, MI: University of Minnesota Press, 153–71.
Cabanel, Patrick. 2008. Protestantismes Minoritaires, Affinités judéo-protestantes et Sauvetage des Juifs. La résistance aux génocides: de la pluralité des actes de sauvetage. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 445–56.
CBS. 1931. Census 1930. Den Haag: CBS.
Cressie, Noel. 1993. Statistics for Spatial Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Croes, Marnix, and Tammes, Peter. 2004. Gif Laten wij niet Voortbestaan’: Een Onderzoek naar de Overlevingskansen van Joden in de Nederlandse Gemeenten 1940–1945. Amsterdam: Aksant.
de Jong, Loe. 1969–1991. Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog(14 volumes). Den Haag: SDU Uitgeverij.
Delleman, Thomas. 1949. Opdat wij niet Vergeten. De Bijdrage van de Gereformeerde Kerken, van haar Voorgangers en Leden, in het Verzet Tegen het Nationaal-Socialisme en de Duitse Tyrannie. Kampen: Kok.
Evers-Emden, Bloeme, and Flim, Bert-Jan. 1996. Ondergedoken Geweest: Een Afgesloten Verleden? Joodse ‘Kinderen’ Over hun Onderduiken Vijftig Jaar Later. Amsterdam: Kok.
Fein, Helen. 1979. Accounting for Genocide: National Responses and Jewish Victimization During the Holocaust. New York: Free Press.
Finkel, Evgeny. 2012. “Victims’ Politics: Jewish Behavior during the Holocaust.” Dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Finkel, Evgeny, and Straus, Scott. 2012. “Macro, Meso, and Micro Research on Genocide: Gains, Shortcomings, and Future areas of Inquiry.” Genocide Studies and Prevention 7 (1): 5667.
Flim, Bert-Jan. 1997. Omdat hun hart Sprak: Geschiedenis van de Georganiseerde Hulp aan Joodse Kinderen in Nederland, 1942–1945. Kampen: Kok.
Flim, Bert-Jan. 1998. The Possibilities for Dutch Jews to Hide from the Nazis, 1942–1945. In Dutch Jews as Perceived by Themselves and by Others. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on the History of the Jews in the Netherlands, Jerusalem. pp. 289–305.
Fujii, Lee Ann. 2011. Killing Neighbors: Webs of Violence in Rwanda. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Gramsci, Antonio. 1935. Further Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Griffioen, Pim, and Zeller, Ron. 2011. Jodenvervolging in Nederland, Belgie en Frankrijk, 1940–1945. Overeenkomsten, Verschillen, Oorzaken Amsterdam: Boom.
Gross, Michael. 1994. “Jewish Rescue in Holland and France During the Second World War: Moral Cognition and Collective Action.” Social Forces 73 (2): 463–96.
Hilbrink, Coen. 1989. De Illegalen: Illegaliteit in Twente en het Aangrenzende Salland 1940–1945. Nijmegen: SUN.
Hirschfeld, Gerhard. 1991. Niederlande. Dimension des Völkermords. Die Zahl der Jüdischen Opfer des Nationalsozialismus Munchen: Munchen Verlag, 5272.
Hoffman, Martin. 2001. Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
IKGN. 2011. Inventaris Kerkgebouwen in Nederland. Amsterdam: VU.
Israel, Jonathan. 1995. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Knippenberg, Hans. 1992. De Religieuze Kaart van Nederland: Omvang en Geografische Spreiding van de Godsdienstige Gezindten vanaf de Reformatie tot Heden. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Van Gorcum.
Kopstein, Jeffrey, and Wittenberg, Jason. 2011. “Deadly Communities: Local Political Milieus and the Persecution of Jews in Occupied Poland.” Comparative Political Studies 44 (3): 259.
Kuper, Leo. 1990. “Theological Warrants for Genocide: Judaism, Islam and Christianity.” Terrorism and Political Violence 2 (3): 351–79.
Lijphart, Arend. 1968. The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Longman, Timothy. 2010. Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
McDoom, Omar Shahabudin. 2014. “Antisocial Capital: A Profile of Rwandan Genocide Perpetrators Social Networks.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 58 (5): 866–94.
Michman, Jozeph, Flim, Bert-Jan, Gutman, Israel, and Bender, Sara. 2004. The Encyclopedia of the Righteous Among the Nations: Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust. The Netherlands. Jeruzalem: Yad Vashem.
Monroe, Kristen. 2001. “Morality and a Sense of Self: The Importance of Identity and Categorization for Moral Action.” American Journal of Political Science 45 (3): 491507.
Moore, Bob. 2010. Survivors: Jewish Self-help and Rescue in Nazi-occupied Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Phayer, Michael. 1993. “The Catholic Resistance Circle in Berlin and German Catholic Bishops During the Holocaust.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 7 (2): 216–29.
Presser, Jacob. 1965. Ondergang: De Vervolging en Verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940–1945. Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff.
Pulzer, Peter. 1988. The Rise of Political Anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Democracy. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Ramakers, Jan. 2001. “Conservatisme en antisemitisme.” Trajecta 15 (1): 6275.
Rogier, Ludovicus. 1964. Geschiedenis van het Katholicisme in Noord-Nederland in de 16de en 17de Eeuw. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Snoek, Johan. 1990. De Nederlandse Kerken en de Joden. Kampen: Project Gutenberg.
Straus, Scott. 2006. The Order of Genocide. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Tammes, Peter. 2011. “Residential Segregation of Jews in Amsterdam on the Eve of the Shoah.” Continuity and Change 26 (2): 243–70.
Ternon, Yves. 2008. L’impossible sauvetage des arméniens de Mardin. La Résistance aux Génocides: De la Pluralité des Actes de Sauvetage Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 399409.
Tocqueville, Alexis De. 1840. Democracy in America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
van der Boom, Bart. 2012. Wij Weten Niets van hun Lot: Gewone Nederlanders en de Holocaust. Amsterdam: Boom.
van Rens, Herman. 2013. Vervolgd in Limburg. Joden en Sinti in Nederlands-Limburg tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Hilversum: Verloren.
Varese, Federico, and Yaish, Meir. 2000. “The Importance of Being Asked: The Rescue of Jews in Nazi-Europe.” Rationality and Society 12 (3): 307–34.
Varshney, Ashutosh. 2003. Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Viret, Emmanuel. 2008. Les Musulmans de Mabare Pendant le Génocide Rwandais. La Résistance aux Génocides: De la Pluralité des Actes de Sauvetage. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 491504.
Ward, Michael, and Gleditsch, Kristian. 2002. “Location, Location, Location: An MCMC Approach to Modeling the Spatial Context of War and Peace.” Political Analysis 10 (3): 244–60.
Wood, Elisabeth. 2003. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Religious Minorities and Resistance to Genocide: The Collective Rescue of Jews in the Netherlands during the Holocaust

  • ROBERT BRAUN (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed