Aarøe, Lene, and Petersen, Michael Bang. 2018. “Cognitive Biases and Communication Strength in Social Networks: The Case of Episodic Frames.” British Journal of Political Science 1–21. Published online 22 October 2018. DOI: 10.1017/S0007123418000273.
Ahn, T. K., Huckfeldt, Robert, and Ryan, John Barry. 2014. Experts, Activists, and Democratic Politics: Are Electorates Self-Educating? Cambridge Studies in Public Opinion and Political Psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Arceneaux, Kevin, and Johnson, Martin. 2013. Changing Minds or Changing Channels? Partisan News in an Age of Choice. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Bartels, Larry M. 1993. “Messages Received: The Political Impact of Media Exposure.” American Political Science Review 87 (2): 267–85.
Baum, Matthew A. 2002. “Sex, Lies, and War: How Soft News Brings Foreign Policy to the Inattentive Public.” American Political Science Review 96 (1): 91–109.
Benoit, Kenneth, Watanabe, Kohei, Wang, Haiyan, Nulty, Paul, Obeng, Adam, Müller, Stefan, Matsuo, Akitaka, Perry, Patrick O., Kuha, Jouni, Lauderdale, Benjamin, and Lowe, William. 2018. “Quanteda: An R Package for the Quantitative Analysis of Textual Data.” Journal of Open Source Software, 3 (30): 774. https://quanteda.io.
Berelson, Bernard R., Lazarsfeld, Paul F., and McPhee, William N.. 1954. Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Berinsky, Adam J., Huber, Gregory A., and Lenz, Gabriel S.. 2012. “Evaluating Online Labor Markets for Experimental Research: Amazon. Com’s Mechanical Turk.” Political Analysis 20 (3): 351–68.
Budak, Ceren, Goel, Sharad, and Rao, Justin M.. 2016. “Fair and Balanced? Quantifying Media Bias through Crowdsourced Content Analysis.” Public Opinion Quarterly 80 (1): 250–71.
Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip E., Miller, Warren E., and Stokes, Donald E.. 1960. The American Voter. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Carlson, Taylor N. 2018. “Modeling Political Information Transmission as a Game of Telephone.” The Journal of Politics 80 (1).
Conover, Michael, Ratkiewicz, Jacob, Francisco, Matthew R., Goncalves, Bruno, Menczer, Filippo, and Flammini, Alessandro. 2011. “Political Polarization on Twitter.” ICWSM 133: 89–96.
Coppock, Alexander Edwards. 2016. “Positive, Small, Homogeneous, and Durable: Political Persuasion in Response to Information.” PhD thesis, Columbia University.
Delli Carpini, Michael X., and Keeter, Scott. 1996. What Americans Know about Politics and Why it Matters. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Drew, Dan, and Weaver, David H.. 1990. “Media Attention, Media Exposure, and Media Effects.” Journalism Quarterly 67 (4): 740–48.
Druckman, James N., Levendusky, Matthew, and McLain, Audrey. 2018. “No Need to Watch: How the Effects of Partisan Media Can Spread via Inter-Personal Discussions.” American Journal of Political Science 62 (1): 99–112.
Ellison, Glenn, and Fudenberg, Drew. 1995. “Word-of-Mouth Communication and Social Learning.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 110 (1): 93–125.
Erisen, Cengiz, Redlawsk, David P., and Erisen, Elif. 2017. “Complex Thinking as a Result of Incongruent Information Exposure.” American Politics Research 46 (2): 217–45.
Eveland, William P. 2001. “The Cognitive Mediation Model of Learning from the News: Evidence from Nonelection, Off-Year Election, and Presidential Election Context.” Communication Research 28: 571–601.
Flaxman, Seth, Goel, Sharad, and Rao, Justin M.. 2016. “Filter Bubbles, Echo Chambers, and Online News Consumption.” Public Opinion Quarterly 80 (S1): 298–320.
Gaines, Brian J., Kuklinski, James H., Quirk, Paul J., Peyton, Buddy, and Verkuilen, Jay. 2007. “Same facts, Different Interpretations: Partisan Motivation and Opinion on Iraq.” The Journal of Politics 69 (4): 957–74.
Graves, Lucas, Nyhan, Brendan, and Reifler, Jason. 2016. “Understanding Innovations in Journalistic Practice: A Field Experiment Examining Motivations for Fact-Checking.” Journal of Communication 66 (1): 102–38.
Hill, Seth J. 2017. “Learning Together Slowly: Bayesian Learning about Political Facts.” The Journal of Politics 79 (4): 1403–18.
Hovland, Carl I. 1948. “Social Communication.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 92 (5): 371–75.
Huang, Anna. 2008. “Similarity Measures for Text Document Clustering.” In Proceedings of the Sixth New Zealand Computer Science Research Student Conference (NZCSRSC2008), Christchurch, New Zealand, 49–56.
Huckfeldt, Robert, and Sprague, John. 1995. Citizens, Politics, and Social Communication: Information and Influence in an Election Campaign. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Huckfeldt, Robert, Beck, Paul Allen, Dalton, Russell J., and Levine, Jeffrey. 1995. “Political Environments, Cohesive Social Groups, and the Communication of Public Opinion.” American Journal of Political Science 39 (4): 1025–54.
Huckfeldt, Robert, Johnson, Paul E., and Sprague, John. 2004. Political Disagreement: The Survival of Diverse Opinions within Communication Networks. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Iyengar, Shanto, and Kinder, Donald R.. 1987. News that Matters: Agenda-Setting and Priming in a Television Age. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Katz, Elihu. 1957. “The Two-Step Flow of Communication: An Up-To-Date Report on an Hypothesis.” Public Opinion Quarterly 21 (1): 61–78.
Katz, Elihu, and Lazarsfeld, Paul F.. 1955. Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications. New York, NY: Free Press.
Kim, Jim Woo. 2017. “Assessing Civic Competence against the Normative Benchmark of Considered Opinions.” PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania.
Krupnikov, Yanna, and Levine, Adam Seth. 2014. “Cross-Sample Comparisons and External Validity.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 1: 59–80.
Kuklinski, James H., Quirk, Paul J., Jerit, Jennifer, Schwieder, David, and Rich., Robert F. 2000. “Misinformation and the Currency of Democratic Citizenship.” The Journal of Politics 62 (3): 790–816.
Kunda, Ziva. 1990. “The Case for Motivated Reasoning.” Psychological Bulletin 8 (3): 480–98.
Levendusky, Matthew. 2013. How Partisan Media Polarized America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles S.. 2000. “Three Steps toward a Theory of Motivated Political Reasoning.” In Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality, eds. Lupia, Arthur, McCubbins, Mathew D., and Popkin, Samuel. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 183–213.
Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles S.. 2013. The Rationalizing Voter. Cambridge UK: Cambridge Universtiy Press.
Lupia, Arthur, and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1998. The Democratic Dilemma: Can Citizens Learn what They Need to Know? Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
Moussaïd, Mehdi, Brighton, Henry, and Gaissmaier, Wolfgang. 2015. “The Amplification of Risk in Experimental Diffusion Chains.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (18): 5631–6.
Mullinix, Kevin J., Leeper, Thomas J., Druckman, James N., and Freese., Jeremy 2015. “The Generalizability of Survey Experiments.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 2 (2): 109–38.
Nyhan, Brendan, Porter, Ethan, Reifler, Jason, and Wood, Thomas. 2019. “Taking Fact-checks Literally But Not Seriously? The Effects of Journalistic Fact-checking on Factual Beliefs and Candidate Favorability.” Political Behavior 1–22. Published online 21 January 2019.
Popkin, Samuel L. 1994. The Reasoning Voter: Communication and Persuasion in Presidential Campaigns. University of Chicago Press.
Redlawsk, David P. 2002. “Hot Cognition or Cool Consideration? Testing the Effects of Motivated Reasoning on Political Decision Making.” The Journal of Politics 64 (4): 1021–44.
Ryan, John Barry. 2011. “Accuracy and Bias in Perceptions of Political Knowledge.” Political Behavior 33 (2): 335–56.
Taber, Charles S., and Lodge, Milton. 2006. “Motivated Skepticism in the Evaluation of Political Beliefs.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (3): 755–69.
Weaver, David H. 1996. “What Voters Learn from Media.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 546 (1): 34–47.
Wei, Ran, and Lo, Ven-hwei. 2008. “News Media Use and Knowledge about the 2006 US Midterm Elections: Why Exposure Matters in Voter Learning.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 20 (3): 347–62.
Zaller, John R. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.