Angrist, J., Graddy, K., and Imbens, G.. 2000. “The Interpretation of Instrumental Variables Estimators in Simultaneous Equations Models with an Application to the Demand for Fish.” Review of Economic Studies 67 (3): 499–527.
Arendt, H. 1963. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Penguin Classics.
Ashton, B., Hill, K., Piazza, A., and Zeitz, R.. 1984. “Famine in China, 1958–61.” Population and Development Review 10: 613–45.
Banister, J. 1984. “An Analysis of Recent Data on the Population of China.” Population and Development Review 10: 241–71.
Barro, R. 1996. “Democracy and Growth.” Journal of Economic Growth 1: 1–27.
Becker, J. 1998. Hungry Ghost: Mao's Secret Famine. New York: Henry Holt.
Bernstein, T. P. 1984 “Stalinism, Famine, and Chinese Peasants: Grain Procurements during the Great Leap Forward.” Theory and Society 13 (3): 339–77.
Bo, Y. 1993. Ruogan Zhongda Juece yu Shijian de Huigu (Several Important Policy Decisions and Events in Retrospect). Beijing: Central Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Press.
Bo, Z. 1996. “Economic Performance and Political Mobility: Chinese Provincial Leaders.” Journal of Contemporary China 5 (12): 135–54.
Bo, Z. 2004. “China's Political Elites in the 21st Century: Technocrats in Command?” Asian Profile 32 (6): 497–517.
Burns, J. P. 1987. “China's Nomenklatura System.” Journal of Problems of Communism 36: 36–51.
Burns, J. P. 1988a. Political Participation in Rural China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Burns, J. P. 1988b. “Contemporary China's Nomenklatura System.” Chinese Law and Government 20: 3–13.
Burns, J. P. 1989. The Chinese Communist Party's Nomenklatura System: A Documentary Study of Party Control of Leadership Selection, 1979–1984. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Burns, J. P. 1994. “Strengthening Central CCP Control of Leadership Selection: The 1990 Nomenklatura.” China Quarterly 138: 458–91.
Cao, S. 2005. “Niande Zhongguo Renkou Siwang Jiqi Chengyin, 1959–1961” (Deaths of China's Population and Its Contributing Factors during 1959–1961). Chinese Journal of Population Science 1: 16–30.
Chen, Y. N. d. “Under the Same Maoist Sky: Accounting for Death Rate Discrepancies in Anhui and Jiangxi.” In New Perspectives on China's Great Leap Forward and Great Famine, eds. Manning, Kimberley Ens and Wemheuer, Felix. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press. Forthcoming.
Chung, J. H. 2000. Central Control and Local Discretion in China: Leadership and Implementation during Post-Mao Decollectivization. New York: Oxford University Press.
Coale, A. J. 1981. “Population Trends, Population Policy, and Population Studies in China.” Population and Development Review 7: 267–97.
Congleton, R. D. 2003. “The Median Voter Model.” In The Encyclopedia of Public Choice, eds. Rowley, C. K. and Friedrich, S.. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 707–12.
Debs, A. 2010. “Economic Theories of Dictatorship.” Economics of Peace and Security Journal 5 (1): 11–17.
Dernberger, R. F. 1972. “Radical Ideology and Economic Development in China: The Cultural Revolution and Its Impact on the Economy.” Asian Survey 12 (12): 1048–65.
Department of Comprehensive Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2000. Xinzhongguo Wushinian Nongye Tongjiziliao (Statistical Materials on 50 Years of New China's Agriculture). Beijing: Statistical Press of China.
Ding, S. 1991. Renhuo: Dayuejin yu Dajihuang (Man-made Disasters: The Great Leap Forward and the Great Famine). Hong Kong: 1990s Press.
Domenach, J. 1982. The Origins of the Great Leap Forward: A Conjuncture in a Chinese Province, 1956–1958. Trans. Berrett, A. M.. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Downs, A. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper.
Edin, M. 2003. “State Capacity and Local Agent Control in China: CCP Cadre Management from a Township Perspective.” China Quarterly 173: 35–52.
Egorov, G., and Sonin, K.. N. d. “Dictators and Their Viziers: Endogenizing the Loyalty-Competence Trade-off.” Journal of the European Economic Association. Forthcoming.
Fisher, F., and Nagin, D.. 1978. “On the Feasibility of Identifying the Crime Function in a Simultaneous Equations Model of Crime and Sanctions.” In Deterrence and Incapacitation: Estimating the Effects of Criminal Sanctions on Crime Rates, eds. Blumstein, A., Nagin, D., and Cohen, J.. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 361–99.
Gandhi, J., and Przeworski, A.. 2007. “Authoritarian Institutions and the Survival of Autocrats.” Comparative Political Studies 40 (11): 1279–1301.
Gao, W. 2006. Renmingongshe Shiqi Zhongguo Nongmin Fanxingwei Diaocha (A Study of the Chinese Peasants’ Resistance Behavior during the Period of the People's Commune). Beijing: Chinese Communist Party History Press.
Goldman, M. 1987. “The Party and the Intellectuals.” In The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 14: The People's Republic, Part 1: The Emergence of Revolutionary China, 1949–1965, eds. MacFarquhar, R. and Fairbank, J. K.. New York: Cambridge University Press, 218–53.
Gregor, J. A. 1974. The Fascist Persuasion in Radical Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gregor, J. A. 1995. Marxism, China, and Development. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Gregor, J. A. 2000. A Place in the Sun: Marxism and Fascism in China's Long Revolution. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Guo, G. 2009. “China's Local Political Budget Cycles.” American Journal of Political Science 53 (3): 621–32.
Harasymiw, B. 1969. “Nomenklatura: The Soviet Communist Party's Leadership Recruitment System.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 2: 493–512.
Henisz, W. J. 2004. “Political Institutions and Policy Volatility.” Economics and Politics 16: 1–27.
Houn, F. W. 1957. “The Eighth Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party: A Study of an Elite.” American Political Science Review 51: 392–404.
Houn, F. W. 1967. A Short History of Chinese Communism. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Jiang, Z., and Li, N.. 1986. “Zhongguo Renkou Dongtai Canshu de Xiaozheng” (An Adjustment of China's Dynamic Population Figures). Academic Journal of Xian Jiaotong University 3: 46–64.
Jiang, Z., and Li, N.. 1988. Zhongguo Renkou Dongtai Guji de Fangfai he Jieguo (Methods and Results of Estimating China's Population Dynamics). Beijing: Economic Management Press.
Jin, H. 1993. “Sannian Ziran Zaihi Beiwanglu” (A Memorandum of ‘Three Years of Natural Disasters.’). Society 3/4: 13–22.
Klein, W. D. 1966. “The ‘Next Generation’ of Chinese Communist Leaders.” In China under Mao, Politics Takes Command: A Selection of Articles from The China Quarterly, ed. MacFarquhar, R.. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 69–86.
Knack, S., and Keefer, P.. 1995. “Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross-country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures.” Economics and Politics 7 (3): 207–27.
Kung, J. K., and Lin, J. Y.. 2003. “The Causes of China's Great Leap Famine, 1959–1961.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 52: 51–73.
Landry, P. F. 2008. Decentralized Authoritarianism in China: The Communist Party's Control of Local Elites in the Post-Mao Era. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Li, B., and Walder, A. G.. 2001. “Career Advancement as Party Patronage: Sponsored Mobility into the Chinese Administrative Elite, 1949–1996.” American Journal of Sociology 106: 1371–1408.
Li, H., and Zhou, L.. 2005. “Political Turnover and Economic Performance: The Incentive Role of Personnel Control in China.” Journal of Public Economics 89: 1743–62.
Liang, Z. 2003. “Boshan Nongyeweixing Jingyanhuiji Guanxiuji” (An Official Account of the Experiences of Agricultural High-yield Satellites in Boshan County). Yanhuang Chunqiu 1: 22–25.
Lieberthal, K. 1995. Governing China: From Revolution through Reform. New York: W. W. Norton.
Lin, Y. 1990. “Collectivization and China's Agricultural Crisis in 1959–61.” Journal of Political Economy 98: 1228–52.
Lin, J. Y., and Yang, D. T.. 2000. “Food Availability, Entitlements and the Chinese Famine of 1959–61.” Economic Journal 110: 136–58.
Liu, A. P. 1980. “The Ideology and Personality of the Radical Left in the People's Republic of China.” Political Psychology 2 (2): 3–21.
Lu, H. 2008. “’Weixing’ Shi Ruhe Shangtiande? Xiangcun Jicengganbu he Dayuejin” (How Was the ‘Satellite’ Launched? Village Grassroots Cadres and the Great Leap Forward). Open Times 5: 116–26.
Manion, M. 1985. “The Cadre Management System, Post-Mao: The Appointment, Promotion, Transfer and Removal of Party and State Leaders.” China Quarterly 102: 203–33.
Mao, Z. 1991. Maozedong Xuanji (Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung). Beijing: People's Press.
Mao, Z. 1992. Jianhuo Yilai Maozedong Wengao (Collected Works of Mao Tse-Tung). Volume 7. Beijing: Central Party Literature Press.
Mueller, D. C. 1989. Public Choice II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nathan, A. J. 2003. “Authoritarian Resilience: China's Changing of the Guard.” Journal of Democracy 14: 18–26.
Ó Gráda, C. 2009. Famine: A Short History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Oi, J. 1989. State and Peasant in Contemporary China: The Political Economy of Village Government. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Oi, J. 1992. “Fiscal Reform and the Economic Foundations of Local State Corporatism in China.” World Politics 45 (1): 99–126.
Olson, M. 1982. The Rise and Decline of Nations. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Organization Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. 2004. Zhongguogongchandang Lijie Zhongyangweiyuan Dacidian, 1921–2003 (A Compendium of Central Committee Members of Various Plenums, 1921–2003). Beijing: Chinese Communist Party History Press.
Peltzman, S. 1976. “Towards a More General Theory of Regulation.” Journal of Law and Economics 19: 211–40.
Peng, X. Z. 1987. “Demographic Consequences of the Great Leap Forward in China's Provinces.” Population and Development Review 13: 639–70.
Perkins, D. H. 1966. Market Control and Planning in Communist China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Planning Office of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fisheries. 1983. “Nonye Jingji Ziliao, 1949–1983” (Materials on the Agricultural Economy, 1949–1983). Unpublished manuscript.
Quinn, D. P., and Woolley, J. T.. 2001. “Democracy and National Economic Performance: The Preference for Stability.” American Journal of Political Science 45 (3): 634–57.
Rigby, T. H. 1968. Communist Party Membership in the USSR, 1917–1967. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sen, A. 1981. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sen, A. 1993. “Political Right and Economic Needs.” John M. Olin Lecture in Law and Economics at the University of Toronto Law School, October 1.
Sheng, Y. 2005. “Central–Provincial Relations at the CCP Central Committees: Institutions, Measurement and Empirical Trends 1978–2002.” China Quarterly 182: 338–55.
Stigler, G. J. 1971. “The Theory of Economic Regulation.” Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science 2: 137–46.
Tang, Z., and Zhang, X.. 2006. “Ningxia ‘Fang Difang Mingzhu Zuyi Fangdang Jituan’ Yundong Ximuo” (The Beginning and End of Ningxia's ‘Anti-local-nationalism and Anti-party’ Movement). Muslim Literary Circle 1: 22–24.
Teiwes, F. C., and Sun, W.. 1998. China's Road to Disaster: Mao, Central Politicians, and Provincial Leaders in the Unfolding of the Great Leap Forward, 1955–1959. New York: East Gate.
ThaxtonR. A., Jr. R. A., Jr. 2008. Catastrophe and Contention in Rural China: Mao's Great Leap Forward Famine and the Origins of Righteous Resistance in Da Fo Village. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Todd, A. 2002. The European Dictatorships: Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Voslensky, M. 1984. Nomenklatura: The Soviet Ruling Class. New York: Doubleday.
Walder, A. G. 1995. “Career Mobility and the Communist Political Order.” American Sociological Review 60: 309–28.
Walder, A. G., and Li, B. 2001. “Career Advancement as Party Patronage: Sponsored Mobility into the Chinese Administrative Elite, 1949–1961.” American Journal of Sociology 106: 1371–1408.
Walker, K. R. 1998. “Food and Mortality in China during the Great Leap Forward, 1958–61.” In Agricultural Development in China, 1949–1989: The Collected Papers of Kenneth R. Walker, ed. Ash, R. F.. New York: Oxford University Press, 106–47.
Wang, C. F. 2001. Contemporary Chinese Politics: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wang, J. 1979. “Huiyi Maozedong Tongzhi yu Wangming Jihuizhuyiluxian de Douzheng” (Recalling the Political Struggle between Comrade Mao Zedong and Wangming's Line of Opportunism). People's Daily, December 27.
Wintrobe, R. 1990. “The Tinpot and the Totalitarian: An Economic Theory of Dictatorship.” American Political Science Review 84: 849–72.
Wintrobe, R. 1998a. The Political Economy of Dictatorship. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wintrobe, R. 1998b. “Some Lessons on the Efficiency of Democracy from a Study of Dictatorship.” In The Political Dimension of Economic Growth, eds. Borner, S. and Paldam, M.. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 20–37.
Wintrobe, R. 2003. “Dictatorship.” In The Encyclopedia of Public Choice, eds. Rowley, C. K. and Friedrich, S.. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, Pp. 707–12.
Xie, C. 1990. Dayaojing Kuanglan (The Mad Tide of the Great Leap Forward). Zhengzhou: Henan People's Press.
Xu, C. N. d.“The Institutional Foundations of China's Reforms and Development.” Journal of Economic Literature. Forthcoming.
Xu, M. 1998. “Wu Zhi-pu yu Henan Dayuejin Yundong” (Wu Zhi-pu and the Great Leap Forward in Henan). Twenty-first Century 48: 37–47.
Xu, Z. 2006. Zhongguo Gongnonghongjun Changzheng Quanshi (A Comprehensive History of the Red Army's Long March). Beijing: Military Science Press.
Yang, B. 1990. From Revolution to Politics: Chinese Communists on the Long March. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Yang, D. 1996. Calamity and Reform in China: State, Rural Society, and Institutional Change since the Great Leap Famine. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Yang, J. 2008. Mubei: Zhongguo Liushi Niandai Dajihuang Jishi (Tombstone: A Documentary of China's Great Famine.) Hong Kong: Cosmos Books.
Yang, K. 2007. “Cong Gongjizhi Dao Zhifudengji Gongzizhi” (From Provision of Goods to a Wage Hierarchy based on Rank). Historical Research 4: 111–39.
Zhang, D. 1991. Zhang Desheng. Xi'an. China: Shaanxi People's Press.
Zhang, Y. 2004. “1958 nian, Wang Renzhong Guo Huangpi” (1958: Wang Renzhong Crosses Huangpi). Materials on Wuhan's Literature and History 4: 8–11.
Zhao, S. 2001. “Dayaojin zhong Quzhe Fazhan de Tongji Gongzuo” (The Winding Development of Statistical Work during the Great Leap Forward). Statistics and Forecasting 109: 54–56.