After a period of sustained viking pressure, from 991 to 1005, the English had to endure two major raids in quick succession: the attack by ‘the great fleet’ in 1006–7, and the attack by ‘the immense raiding army’, also known as ‘Thorkell's army’, in 1009–12. This article reviews the impact of these raids on the English people, as reflected in the writings of Ælfric, abbot of Eynsham, and Wulfstan, archbishop of York, with reference at the same time to Æthelred's programme of prayer (VII Æthelred), devised by the king and his councillors in 1009, to the Agnus Dei coinage, and to the appearance of distinctive chrismons in charters. It is also suggested that Wulfstan's Sermo ad Anglos originated during these tumultuous years.
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