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Unique cultural values of Madura cattle: is cross-breeding a threat?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 November 2013

T.S.M. Widi*
Affiliation:
Animal Production Systems Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands Centre for Genetic Resources, PO Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
H.M.J. Udo
Affiliation:
Animal Production Systems Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
K. Oldenbroek
Affiliation:
Centre for Genetic Resources, PO Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
I.G.S. Budisatria
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Production, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Fauna no 3, Kampus Bulaksumur UGM, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
E. Baliarti
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Production, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Fauna no 3, Kampus Bulaksumur UGM, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
A.J. van der Zijpp
Affiliation:
Animal Production Systems Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Correspondence to: T.S.M. Widi, Animal Production Systems Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands. email: widi.tsm@ugm.ac.id
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Summary

In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects of cross-breeding on local traditions in Madura Island. Bull racing (karapan) and cow conformation contests (sonok) are traditional cultural events on Madura. Since 2001, cross-breeding with Limousin is allowed. The local government also promotes a conformation contest for cross-bred (madrasin) cattle. Quantitative and qualitative information were collected through participatory approaches involving farmers (n = 97), government officials, community groups, key informants and through direct observation of sonok, karapan and madrasin events. Phenotypic characteristics were collected from 184 cows. The Madura cattle population and production systems are not homogeneous. Four cattle types could be distinguished: karapan, sonok, madrasin and conventional Madura cattle. These cattle were found in three discrete areas, differing in land sizes, cropping and cattle keeping in terms of management practices and importance of specific cultural practices. Sonok and madrasin cows were significantly bigger and had higher body condition scores than karapan cows and the conventional Madura cows in the madrasin area. Madura cattle participating in cultural events were valued at prices that were 2–3.5 times higher than Madura cattle not participating in cultural events. Cross-breeding will not directly influence the cultural events or the management practices of Madura cattle in the karapan and sonok areas; however, outside the karapan and sonok areas, crossbreds are rapidly replacing conventional Madura cattle. The present top-down approach towards conservation and breeding strategies has to be turned into bottom-up approaches that consider the needs of the sonok and karapan Madura cattle sub-populations. Monitoring and characterization studies have to collect information at different aggregation levels and have to be aware of the sub-populations. The Madura example shows that the cultural values of livestock can be a main driver for maintaining relatively small populations of local breeds.

Résumé

En Indonésie, le croisement des bovins locaux avec des races bovines à viande européennes est largement promu afin d'augmenter la production de viande. Cette pratique menace les races locales qui ont souvent différentes fonctions, y compris des rôles culturels. Cette étude a analysé les valeurs culturelles des bovins Madura et l'impact des croisements sur les traditions locales sur l'île de Madura. Les courses de taureaux (karapan) et les concours de conformation des vaches (sonok) sont des évènements culturels traditionnels en Madura. Depuis 2001, le croisement avec la race Limousine est permis. Le gouvernement local promeut également un concours de conformation pour les bovins croisés (madrasin). Des informations quantitatives et qualitatives ont été recueillies suivant une approche participative impliquant des éleveurs (n = 97), des fonctionnaires des gouvernements, des groupements communautaires et des informateurs clés, et à travers l'observation directe des évènements sonok, karapan et madrasin. Les caractéristiques phénotypiques ont été mesurées sur un total de 184 vaches. La population bovine Madura et les systèmes de production ne sont pas homogènes. Quatre types de bovins ont pu être distingués: karapan, sonok, madrasin et les bovins Madura conventionnels. Ces bovins se trouvent dans trois zones distinctes, qui diffèrent par la taille des terres, les cultures et la production animale en ce qui concerne les pratiques d'élevage et l'importance de pratiques culturelles spécifiques. Les vaches sonok et madrasin ont été significativement plus grandes et ont obtenu des notations de conformation corporelle plus élevées que les vaches karapan et les vaches Madura conventionnelles dans la zone madrasin. Les bovins Madura participant aux évènements culturels atteignent des prix qui sont de 2 à 3,5 fois plus élevés que ceux des bovins Madura qui ne participent pas aux manifestations culturelles. Les croisements n'influenceront pas directement les évènements culturels ou les pratiques d'élevage des bovins Madura dans les zones karapan et sonok. Cependant, en dehors des zones karapan et sonok, les animaux croisés sont rapidement remplacés para des bovins Madura conventionnels. L'actuelle approche descendante dans les stratégies de conservation et de sélection doit être tournée vers une approche ascendante qui tienne compte des besoins des sous-populations sonok et karapan de bovins Madura. Les études de surveillance et de caractérisation doivent recueillir l'information à différents niveaux d'agrégation et doivent prendre en considération les sous-populations. L'exemple Madura montre que les valeurs culturelles du bétail peuvent être un levier important pour le maintien de populations relativement petites de races locales.

Resumen

En Indonesia, el cruzamiento del ganado bovino local con razas europeas de aptitud cárnica es fomentado ampliamente con el fin de incrementar la producción de carne de bovino. Esta práctica supone una amenaza para las razas locales, que tienen a menudo diversas funciones, incluidos roles culturales. Este estudio analizó los valores culturales del ganado bovino Madura y el impacto del cruzamiento sobre las tradiciones locales en la isla de Madura. Las carreras de toros (karapan) y los concursos de conformación de las vacas (sonok) son acontecimientos culturales tradicionales en Madura. Desde 2001, se permite el cruzamiento con ganado Limousin. El gobierno local promueve también un concurso de conformación para ganado bovino cruzado (madrasin). Se recogió información cuantitativa y cualitativa siguiendo un enfoque participativo que implicaba a ganaderos (n = 97), funcionarios públicos, grupos comunitarios y personas de alto rango, y mediante la observación directa de los actos sonok, karapan y madrasin. Las características fenotípicas fueron evaluadas en 184 vacas. La población de ganado bovino Madura y los sistemas de producción no son homogéneos. Ha sido posible diferenciar cuatro tipos de ganado bovino: karapan, sonok, madrasin y ganado bovino Madura convencional. Estos tipos de ganado se encuentran en tres zonas distintas, que difieren en el tamaño de los terrenos, en los cultivos y en la actividad ganadera en relación con el manejo de los animales y la importancia de prácticas culturales específicas. Las vacas sonok y madrasin son significativamente más grandes y alcanzan puntuaciones de condición corporal mayores que las vacas karapan y las vacas Madura convencionales en la zona madrasin. El ganado Madura que participa en actos culturales alcanza precios entre 2 y 3,5 veces mayores que el ganado Madura que no interviene en estos acontecimientos. El cruzamiento no afectará directamente a los actos culturales o a las prácticas de manejo del ganado bovino Madura en las zonas karapan y sonok. Sin embargo, fuera de las zonas karapan y sonok, los animales cruzados están siendo rápidamente sustituidos por ganado bovino Madura convencional. El actual enfoque verticalista descendente en las estrategias de conservación y mejora debe ser redirigido hacia un planteamiento ascendente que considere las necesidades de las subpoblaciones sonok y karapan de ganado bovino Madura. Los estudios de seguimiento y caracterización deben recoger información de los diferentes niveles de agregación y tomar en consideración las subpoblaciones. El ejemplo de Madura muestra que los valores culturales del ganado pueden ser un factor principal para el mantenimiento de poblaciones relativamente pequeñas de razas locales.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2013 

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