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Dairy production systems and the adoption of genetic and breeding technologies in Tanzania, Kenya, India and Nicaragua

  • J.M.K. Ojango (a1), C.B. Wasike (a2), D.K. Enahoro (a1) and A.M. Okeyo (a1)

Summary

Development of the livestock industry and its role in poverty alleviation in developing countries depends on how adaptive the production systems are to changing global environmental and economic trends. This paper characterizes dairy production systems in India, Tanzania, Kenya and Nicaragua, and describes the genetic and breeding technologies that hold promise for the advancement of global development goals. The dairy value chain has been prioritized for development under the CGIAR research programme on Livestock and Fish in Tanzania (East Africa), India (South Asia) and Nicaragua (Latin America), while ILRI is involved in research on dairy development in Kenya. In all the countries, a large number of smallholder farmers operating mixed crop–livestock production systems play a significant role in dairy production. In Tanzania, Kenya and Nicaragua, milk is predominantly produced by cattle of genotypes that differ both across countries and among production systems within the same country. In India, buffaloes contribute to a larger proportion of the national milk than cattle. Information on productivity per animal and on optimal genotypes to utilize within the smallholder production systems of all the countries is however limited. Crossbreeding and artificial insemination were identified as the most widely utilized breeding and reproductive technologies. Only in Kenya is there a national organization conducting livestock recording and monitoring productivity, however, the proportion of the dairy cattle population enrolled in the recording system is small (<2.5 percent). In all the countries, enhanced and adequately planned use of breeding and reproductive technologies, complemented with the relevant infrastructure, is needed to sustainably increase dairy productivity. The capacities of actors in the dairy value chain need to be developed in order to properly implement and manage improvements.

Le développement du secteur de l'élevage et son rôle dans la réduction de la pauvreté dans les pays en développement dépendent de l'adaptabilité des systèmes de production à l'évolution des contextes environnementaux et économiques. Cet article caractérise les systèmes de production laitière en Inde, Tanzanie, Kenya et Nicaragua et décrit la génétique et les méthodes de sélection avec lesquelles l'on cherche à atteindre les objectifs mondiaux de développement. La chaîne de valeur du lait a été une priorité pour le développement dans le cadre du programme de recherche du CGIAR sur l'Élevage et la Pêche en Tanzanie (Afrique Orientale), Inde (Asie du Sud) et Nicaragua (Amérique Latine), alors qu'au Kenya c'est l'ILRI qui a pris en charge la recherche sur le développement du secteur laitier. Dans tous les pays, un grand nombre de petits éleveurs exploitant des systèmes agropastoraux mixtes jouent un rôle important dans la production de lait. En Tanzanie, Kenya et Nicaragua, le lait est principalement produit par des bovins de génotypes qui diffèrent à la fois entre les pays et entre les systèmes de production dans le même pays. En Inde, les bufflonnes contribuent plus que les bovins à la production nationale de lait. Cependant, il existe un manque d'information sur la productivité par animal et sur les génotypes optimaux à utiliser dans les systèmes de production des petits exploitants de ces pays. Les croisements et l'insémination artificielle ont été identifiés comme les stratégies reproductives et de sélection les plus amplement utilisées. Seulement au Kenya il existe une organisation nationale qui procède à l'enregistrement des animaux et qui fait le suivi de la productivité, bien que le pourcentage de bovins laitiers inscrits dans ce registre est faible (<2.5 pour cent). Dans tous les pays, il s'avère nécessaire d'améliorer et de planifier adéquatement l'utilisation des techniques de reproduction et de sélection, ceci complété par l'infrastructure pertinente, afin d'accroître de façon durable la productivité laitière. Les capacités des acteurs de la chaîne de valeur du lait doivent être renforcées afin que les progrès soient convenablement mis en œuvre et gérés.

El desarrollo del sector ganadero y su papel en la mitigación de la pobreza en países en desarrollo dependen de la capacidad de adaptación de los sistemas de producción a contextos ambientales y económicos cambiantes. Este artículo caracteriza los sistemas de producción lechera en India, Tanzania, Kenya y Nicaragua y describe la genética y las técnicas de selección con las que se pretende alcanzar los objetivos mundiales de desarrollo. Con vistas al desarrollo, se ha dado prioridad a la cadena de valor de la leche en el marco del programa de investigación CGIAR sobre Ganadería y Pesca en Tanzania (África Oriental), India (Asia Meridional) y Nicaragua (América Latina), mientras que en Kenya ha sido el ILRI quien ha asumido la investigación sobre el desarrollo del sector lechero. En todos los países, un gran número de pequeños ganaderos, que operan sistemas agropecuarios mixtos, juegan un papel destacado en la producción lechera. En Tanzania, Kenya y Nicaragua, la leche es producida principalmente por ganado bovino de genotipos que difieren entre países y de unos sistemas de producción a otros dentro del mismo país. En India, las búfalas contribuyen en mayor proporción que el ganado bovino a la producción nacional de leche. Sin embargo, es escasa la información sobre la productividad por animal y sobre los genotipos óptimos a utilizar en los sistemas de producción de los pequeños ganaderos de estos países. Los cruzamientos y la inseminación artificial fueron identificados como las estrategias reproductivas y de selección más ampliamente utilizadas. Únicamente en Kenya existe una organización nacional que lleva a cabo el registro del ganado y el seguimiento de la productividad, si bien el porcentaje de ganado bovino lechero inscrito en este registro es bajo (<2.5 por ciento). En todos los países, se necesita mejorar y planificar adecuadamente el uso de las tecnologías reproductivas y de selección, todo ello complementado por la infraestructura pertinente, para incrementar de manera sostenible la productividad lechera. Las capacidades de los actores en la cadena de valor de la leche deben ser desarrolladas con el fin de que las mejoras se implementen y se gestionen convenientemente.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: J.M.K. Ojango, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). email: j.ojango@cgiar.org

References

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