Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Morphological diversities and ecozones of Ethiopian horse populations

  • E. Kefena (a1), T. Dessie (a2), J.L. Han (a3), M.Y. Kurtu (a4), S. Rosenbom (a5) and A. Beja-Pereira (a5)...
Summary

Using standard survey approaches, we carried out a nationwide survey to morphologically characterize and identify ecozones of Ethiopian horse populations. Accordingly, we explored one new feral horse population previously unreported and seven other distinct horse populations. A total of 17 selected morphological variables were recorded on 503 horses (293 stallions and 210 mares) that belong to five out of eight identified horse populations. Pair-wise multiple mean comparisons (PMMC) using one-way analysis of variance and multivariate analyses were performed separately for each sex and least-squares means was used in the case of aggregated sexes. Results of PMMC showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the means for most of the variables recorded. Principal component analysis showed that height at wither, height at back, height at rump, body length, back length and barrel length jointly account for about 80 percent of the variations. All squared Mahalanobis distance between populations were significant (P < 0.01). The greatest phenotypic divergence was observed between Bale and Selale horse populations and the least phenotypic divergence was between Horro and Kafa populations. Canonical discriminant function analysis showed that 77.05 percent of individuals were correctly categorized into their respective populations. Moreover, cluster analysis based on squared Mahalanobis distances grouped the five measured Ethiopian horse populations into three major breed groups and five distinct horse populations.

Nous avons réalisé une enquête sur l'ensemble du territoire pour caractériser morphologiquement les populations de chevaux éthiopiens et pour en identifier les écozones en utilisant des méthodes d'enquêtes standardisées. Par conséquent, nous avons étudié une nouvelle population marronisée de chevaux qui n'avait pas été déclarée auparavant et sept autres populations distinctes. Au total, nous avons enregistré 17 variables morphologiques sélectionnées de 503 chevaux (293 étalons et 210 juments) qui appartiennent à cinq des huit populations identifiées. Des comparaisons multiples moyennes par paires en utilisant des analyses de variance simple et des analyses multivariables ont été réalisées séparément pour chaque sexe tandis que la moyenne des moindres carrés a été utilisée pour l'étude des deux sexes agrégés. Les résultats des comparaisons ont indiqué des différences significatives (P < 0.05) entre les moyennes pour la plupart des variables enregistrées. L'analyse en composantes principales a montré que la hauteur au garrot, au dos et à la croupe, et la longueur du tronc, du dos et du ventre expliquaient ensemble environ 80 pourcent des variations. Toutes les distances carrées de Mahalanobis entre les populations étaient considérables (P < 0.01). La divergence phénotypique la plus importante a été observée entre les populations de chevaux Bale et Selale et la plus faible entre les populations Horro et Kafa. L'analyse canonique discriminante a indiqué que 77.05 pourcent des animaux avaient été classés correctement dans les populations respectives. De plus, l'analyse typologique basée sur les distances de Mahalanobis a regroupé les cinq populations mesurées de chevaux éthiopiens dans trois groupes principaux de races et dans trois populations distinctes de chevaux.

Utilizando un enfoque de encuestas estándar, se llevó a cabo una encuesta a nivel nacional para caracterizar morfológicamente e identificar las ecozonas de las poblaciones equinas caballares de Etiopía. Como consecuencia, se ha estudiado una nueva población de caballos asilvestrados no investigada con anterioridad y otras siete poblaciones de caballos diferentes. Se estudió un total de diecisiete variables morfológicas en 503 caballos (293 sementales y 210 yeguas), pertenecientes a cinco de las ocho poblaciones equinas caballares identificadas. Las comparaciones múltiples entre medias por pares (PMMC por sus siglas en inglés), utilizando un modelo lineal y análisis multivariantes, se realizaron por separado para cada sexo y los mínimos cuadrados medios se utilizaron en el caso de los sexos agregados. Los resultados del PMMC mostraron que existían diferencias significativas (P < 0.05) entre las medias de la mayoría de las variables estudiadas. El análisis de los componentes principales mostró que la altura a la cruz, la altura al dorso, la altura a la grupa, longitud corporal, la longitud dorsal y la longitud ventral en conjunto representaban alrededor del 80 percent de las variaciones. Todas las distancias de Mahalanobis al cuadrado entre las poblaciones fueron significativas (P < 0.01). Las mayores diferencias fenotípicas fueron observadas entre las poblaciones equinas caballares de Bale y Selale y las menores entre las poblaciones Horro y Kafa. La función del análisis canónico discriminante mostró que el 77.05 percent de los individuos fueron clasificados correctamente dentro de sus respectivas poblaciones. Por otra parte, el análisis de agrupamiento, basado en las distancias de Mahalanobis al cuadrado, agrupó las cinco poblaciones equinas caballares estudiadas de Etiopía en tres grandes grupos y en cinco poblaciones de caballos diferentes.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence to: Kefena Effa, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Holetta Agricultural Research Center, Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. email: kefenaol@yahoo.com
References
Hide All
Bowling, A.T. & Ruvinsky, A. 2000. Genetic aspects of domestication, breeds and their origins. In Bowling, A.T. & Ruvinsky, A. eds. The genetics of the horse, pp. 2548, Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing.
Brooks, S.A., Makvandi-Nejad, S., Chu, E., Allen, J.J., Streeter, C., Gu, E., McCleery, B., Murphy, B.A., Bellone, R. & Sutter, N.B. 2010. Morphological variation in the horse: defining complex traits of body size and shape. Anim. Genet., 41: 159165.
CSA. 2009. Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia. Statistical Report on Farm Management Practices, Livestock and Farm Implements. Part II. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, CSA.
Diamond, J. 2002. Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication. Nature, 418: 700707.
Epstein, H. 1971. The origins of the domesticated animals of Africa. New York, USA, African Publishing Corporation.
FAO/UNEP. 2000. World watch list for domestic animal diversity. 3rd edition, edited by Scherf, B.D., Rome. (also available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/x8750e/x8750e00.htm).
FAO. 2007. The state of the world's animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. Rome, Italy.
FAO. 2010. Intergovernmental technical working group on animal genetic resources for food and agriculture, Rome, 24–26 November 2010, pp. 187.
Goodall, D.M. 1973. Horses of the world. New York, USA, MACMILLAN Publishing Co., Inc.
Gubitz, T., Thorpe, R.S. & Malhotra, A. 2000. Phylogeographic and natural selection in the Tenerife gecko Tarentoal delalandii: testing historical and adaptive hypothesis. Mol. Ecol., 9: 12131221.
Holm, S. 1979. A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand. J. Stat., 6: 6570.
Kefena, E., Beja-Pereira, A., Han, J.L., Haile, A., Mohammed, Y.K. & Dessie, T. 2011. Eco-geographical structuring and morphological diversities in Ethiopian donkey populations. Livestock Sci., 141: 232241.
Khadka, R. 2010. Global horse population with respect to breeds and risk status. European Masters in Animal Genetics and Breeding (Erasmus Mundus), Uppsala, Sweden: 77 pp. (M.Sc. thesis)
Mahalanobis, P.C. 1936. On the generalized distance in statistics. Proc. Nat. Inst. India, 2: 49.55.
Manly, B.F.J. 1986. Multivariate statistical methods. London, UK, Chapman and Hall.
Oulehla, J. 1996. Zuechterische Standards in der Lipizzanerpferde-Population. Brno-Piber, Habilitationsarbeit.
Pinto, L.F.B., Almeida, F.Q.de. Quirino, C.R., Azevedo, P.C.N.de. Cabral, G.C., Santos, E.M., Corassa, A. 2008. Evaluation of the sexual dimorphism in Mangalarga Marchador horses using discriminant analysis. Livestock Sci., 119(1): 161166.
Pretorius, S.M., Marle-Köster, E.V. & Mostert, B.E. 2004. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and Namibia. South Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 34: 149157.
Rastija, T., Baban, M., Antunovic, Z. & Mandic, I. 2004. A comparison and development of morphometeric characteristics of stallions and mares on the Lipizzaner stud of Dakovo. Acta Agric. Slovenica, 1: 95200.
SAS. 2004. Statistical Analysis System Institute, SAS guide for personal computers. NC, USA, SAS Institute, Kary.
SPSS. 2006. Statistical package for social sciences, SPSS 15 for windows, user's guide. Chicago IL, SPSS Inc.
Storz, J.F. 2002. Contrasting patterns of divergence in quantitative traits and neutral DNA markers: analysis of clinical variation. Molecular Ecology, 11: 25372551.
Vila, C., Leonard, A.J., Gotherstrom, A., Marklund, S., Sandberg, K., Lide, K., Wayne, R.K. & Ellegren, H. 2001. Widespread origins of domestic horse lineages. Science, 291: 474477.
Zechner, P., Zohman, F., Solkner, J., Bodo, I., Habe, F., Marti, E. & Brem, G. 2001. Morphological description of the Lipizzan horse population. Livestock Prod. Sci., 69: 163177.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations). Domestic Animal Diversity-Information System (DAD-IS) (available at http://www.dad.fao.org/).
Breeds of Livestock. Horse Breeds 1995. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma (available at http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/horses/).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Genetic Resources/Resources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales
  • ISSN: 2078-6336
  • EISSN: 2078-6344
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-genetic-resources-resources-genetiques-animales-recursos-geneticos-animales
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed