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Phenotypic cluster and diversity analysis of native chickens in Western Visayas, Philippines

  • J.C. Cabarles (a1)
Summary

Western Visayas has largest population of native chickens in the Philippines; however, data on the phenotypic and genetic diversity is limited. Eight hundred and ten chickens from 270 different flocks, from six provinces within the region were chosen for characterization. Data collected includes farmer selection practices, means of identifying genetic groups and information on phenotypic traits of native chickens. This information was analysed using statistical tools suggested by FAO. Phenotypic diversity and equitability of distribution were analysed using Simpson's diversity index and equality of distribution. Results showed that native chicken genetic resources are comprised of two types, the Jolo and Bisaya; the latter was further divided into Bisaya–Cluster I and Bisaya–Cluster II. Jolo chickens were the heaviest (P < 0.01) but comparable with Bisaya–Cluster II in terms of egg weight, head shape and phenotypic distance. They all had higher diversity and equitability of distribution in their plumage colour and pattern, though the iris and shank colour had higher diversity but had limited distributions. Bisaya–Cluster II and Jolo chickens had higher diversity and above average distribution in liveweight. They were also homogenous in feather morphology and distribution; head and breast shape, and skeletal variants. Thus, the observed diversities and distributions can be used in identifying genetic materials for any breeding undertakings.

Western Visayas possède la plus grande population de poulet indigène dans les Philippines. Toutefois, les données sur la diversité génétique et phénotypique est limité. Huit cent dix (810) poulets à partir de 270 troupeaux différents provenant également de six provinces de la région ont été caractérisés. Les données recueillies comprennent les pratiques de sélection des agriculteurs et des moyens d'identifier les groupes génétiques. Informations sur les traits phénotypiques des poulets indigènes ont été recueillies, aussi. Ceux-ci ont été analysées à l'aide d'outils statistiques proposés par la FAO. La diversité phénotypique et de l'équité de la distribution ont été analysés en utilisant l'indice de diversité de Simpson et l'égalité de la distribution. Les résultats ont montré que les ressources génétiques indigènes de poulet sont constitués de Jolo et Bisaye mais celle-ci a été encore divergé en Bisaye – Groupe I et Bisaye – Groupe II. Poulets Jolo étaient les plus lourds (P < 0.01), mais comparable à Bisaye – Groupe II en termes de poids de l'œuf, forme de la tête et de la distance phénotypique. Ils avaient tous une plus grande diversité et de l'équité de la distribution dans leur plumage couleur et le motif. La couleur de l'iris et de la tige a une plus grande diversité, mais avait distributions limitées. Bisaye – Groupe II et des poulets Jolo eu une plus grande diversité et surtout la distribution moyenne en poids vif. Ils étaient homogènes dans la morphologie des plumes et des variantes de distribution, la tête et la forme du sein, et du squelette. Ainsi, les diversités observées et les distributions peuvent être utilisés pour identifier le matériel génétique pour toutes les entreprises d'élevage.

Visayas Occidental tiene la mayor población de pollos nativos en las Filipinas. Sin embargo, los datos sobre la diversidad fenotípica y genética es limitada. Se caracterizaron 810 ocho trescientos diez pollos de 270 diferentes rebaños que estaban divididos igualmente en seis provincias de la región. Los datos recogidos incluyen prácticas de los agricultores de selección y los medios de identificación de los grupos genéticos. La información sobre los rasgos fenotípicos de pollos nativos se reunieron, también. Estos fueron analizados utilizando herramientas estadísticas sugeridas por la FAO. Diversidad fenotípica y la equidad de la distribución fueron analizados mediante el índice de Simpson diversidad y la igualdad de la distribución. Los resultados mostraron que los recursos genéticos nativos de pollo se componen de Jolo y Bisaya pero este último se separaron aún más en Bisaya – Grupo I y Bisaya – Grupo II. Jolo pollos fueron las más pesadas (P < 0.01), pero comparable a Bisaya – Grupo II en términos de peso del huevo, forma de la cabeza y la distancia fenotípica. Todos ellos tenían una mayor diversidad y equidad de la distribución en el color de su plumaje y el patrón. El color del iris y la caña tuvieron mayor diversidad, pero tenían distribuciones limitadas. Bisaya – II Cluster y pollos Jolo presentaron mayor diversidad y distribución por encima del promedio en peso vivo. Ellos fueron homogéneos en la morfología de las plumas y las variantes de distribución, la cabeza y la forma del pecho y esquelético. Por lo tanto, las diversidades observadas y las distribuciones se puede utilizar en la identificación de los materiales genéticos de las empresas de cría.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence to: J.C. Cabarles Jr., Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City, 5000, Philippines. tel.: +63–033 – 329 -1971; emails: jamescabarlesjr@gmail.com; jamescabarlesjr@yahoo.com
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