Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-sxzjt Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-15T15:38:01.965Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Comparison of gastrointestinal transit times between chickens from D+ and D genetic lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 June 2010

N. Rougière
Unité de Recherches Avicoles, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 37380 Nouzilly, France
B. Carré*
Unité de Recherches Avicoles, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 37380 Nouzilly, France
Get access


D+ (high digestion efficiency) and D (low digestion efficiency) genetic chicken lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency were compared in this experiment. Gizzard functions were tested in terms of digesta mean retention time and reactions to high dilution of a corn diet with 15% coarse sunflower hulls. The corn standard (S) and high fibre (F) experimental diets were given from 9 days of age to chickens from both lines. Besides the measurements of growth efficiencies (9 to 20 days), digestibilities (20 to 23 days) and gut anatomy (0, 9, 29, 42 and 63 days), two digestive transit studies were performed at 9 and 29 days of age. For the transit studies, the S and F diets were labelled with 0.5% TiO2 and 1% Cr-mordanted sunflower hulls. These diets were fed ad libitum during 3 days, and then the birds were euthanized. The digestive contents were analysed for the determination of marker concentrations and mean retention times (MRTs) in digestive compartments (crop + oesophagus, proventriculus + gizzard, duodenum + jejunum, ileum, rectum + cloaca and caeca) were determined. D+ birds were confirmed as better digesters than D birds during the growth period, in association with larger gizzard and pancreas, and lighter small intestine in D+ than in Dbirds. The MRT in the proventriculus-gizzard system, higher in D+ than in D birds, was a major factor associated with differences between D+ and D birds regarding digestion efficiencies and gut anatomy. Diet dilution with fibres reduced differences in digestion efficiencies and proventriculus-gizzard MRT between lines. Differences in gut anatomy between lines tended to disappear after 8 weeks of age. In conclusion, this study showed that MRT in the proventriculus-gizzard system was a major factor associated with genotype differences between the D+ and D genetic chicken lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency, with longer MRT found in D+ than in D birds.

Full Paper
Copyright © The Animal Consortium 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Bolin, DW, King, RP, Klosterman, EW 1952. A simplified method for the determination of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) when used as an index substance. Science 116, 634635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carré, B, Brillouet, JM 1989. Determination of water insoluble cell walls in feed: interlaboratory study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 72, 463467.Google ScholarPubMed
Carré, B, Flores, MP, Gomez, J 1995. Effects of pelleting, lactose level, polyethylene glycol 4000, and guar gum compared to pectin on growth performances, energy values, and losses of lactose, lactic acid, and water in chickens. Poultry Science 74, 18101819.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carré, B, Mignon-Grasteau, S, Péron, A, Juin, H, Bastianelli, D 2007. The wheat value: improvements by feed technology, plant breeding and animal genetics. World’s Poultry Science Journal 63, 585596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carré, B, Idi, A, Maisonnier, S, Melcion, JP, Oury, FX, Gomez, J, Pluchard, P 2002. Relationships between digestibilities of food components and characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) introduced as the only cereal source in a broiler chicken diet. British Poultry Science 43, 404415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carré, B, Muley, N, Gomez, J, Oury, FX, Laffitte, E, Guillou, D, Signoret, C 2005a. Soft wheat instead of hard wheat in pelleted diets results in high starch digestibility in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 46, 6674.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carré, B, Mignon-Grasteau, S, Svihus, B, Péron, A, Bastianelli, D, Gomez, J, Besnard, J, Sellier, N 2005b. Nutritional effects of feed form, and wheat compared to maize, in the D+ and D chicken lines selected for divergent digestion capacity. In Proceedings of the 15th European Symposium of Poultry Nutrition, Balatonfüred, Hungary, pp. 4244. WPSA, Budapest.Google Scholar
Choct, M, Annison, G 1992. The inhibition of nutrient digestion by wheat pentosans. The British Journal of Nutrition 67, 123132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Choct, M, Hughes, RJ, Bedford, MR 1999. Effects of a xylanase on individual bird variation, starch digestion throughout the intestine, and ileal and caecal volatile fatty acid production in chickens fed wheat. British Poultry Science 40, 419422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Choi, KM, Gibbons, SJ, Roeder, JL, Lurken, MS, Zhu, J, Wouters, MM, Miller, SM, Szurszewski, JH, Farrugia, G 2007. Regulation of interstitial cells of Cajal in the mouse gastric body by neuronal nitric oxide. Neurogastroenterology and Motilility 19, 585595.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danicke, S, Vahjen, W, Simon, O, Jeroch, H 1999. Effects of dietary fat type and xylanase supplementation to rye-based broiler diets on selected bacterial groups adhering to the intestinal epithelium, on transit time of feed, and on nutrient digestibility. Poultry Science 78, 12921299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duke, GE 1986. Alimentary canal: Secretion and digestion, special digestive functions, and absorption. In Avian Physiology (ed. PD Sturkie), pp. 289302. Springer- Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duke, GE, Kimmel, JR, Redig, PT, Polluk, HG 1979. Influence of exogenous avian pancreatic polypeptide on gastrointestinal motility in turkeys. Poultry Science 58, 239246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferrando, C, Vergara, P, Jimenez, M, Gonalons, E 1987. Study of the rate of passage of food with chromium-mordanted plant cells in chickens (Gallus gallus). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 72, 251259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fledderus, J, Bikker, P, Kluess, JW 2007. Increasing diet viscosity using carboxymethylcellulose in weaned piglets stimulates protein digestibility. Livestock Science 109, 8992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
García, V, Gomez, J, Mignon-Grasteau, S, Sellier, N, Carré, B 2007. Effects of xylanase and antibiotic supplementations on the nutritional utilisation of a wheat diet in growing chicks from genetic D+ and D lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency. Animal 1, 14351442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonzalez-Alvarado, JM, Jimenez-Moreno, E, Valencia, DG, Lazaro, R, Mateos, GG 2008. Effects of fibre source and heat processing of the cereal on the development and pH of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed diets based on corn or rice. Poultry Science 87, 17791795.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hetland, H, Choct, M, Svihus, B 2004. Role of insoluble non-starch polysaccharides in poultry nutrition. World’s Poultry Science Journal 60, 415422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill, FW, Anderson, DL 1958. Comparison of metabolizable energy and productive energy determination with growing chicks. The Journal of Nutrition 64, 587603.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jensen, LS, Fry, RE, Allred, JB, McGinnis, J 1957. Improvement in the nutritional value of barley for chicks by enzyme supplementation. Poultry Science 36, 919921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, KA 1981. Motility of the stomach and gastroduodenal junction. In Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract (ed. LR Johnson), pp. 393410. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
Kirby, RJ, Howles, PN, Hui, DY 2004. Rate of gastric emptying influences dietary cholesterol absorption efficiency in selected inbred strains of mice. Journal of Lipid Research 45, 8998.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maisonnier, S, Gomez, J, Chagneau, AM, Carré, B 2001. Analysis of variability in nutrient digestibilities in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 42, 7076.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marquardt, RR 1983. A simple spectrophotometric method for the direct determination of uric acid in avian excreta. Poultry Science 62, 21062108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marquardt, RR, Boros, D, Guenter, W, Crow, G 1994. The nutritive value of barley, rye, wheat and corn for young chicks as affected by use of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme preparation. Animal Feed Science and Technology 45, 363378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinez, V, Jimenez, M, Gonalons, E, Vergara, P 1993. Mechanism of action of CCK in avian gastroduodenal motility: evidence for nitric oxide involvement. The American Journal of Physiology 265, G842G850.Google ScholarPubMed
Mashimo, H, Goyal, RK 1999. Lessons from genetically engineered animal models. IV. Nitric oxide synthase gene knockout mice. The American Journal of Physiology 277, G745G750.Google ScholarPubMed
McCracken, KJ, Bedford, MR, Stewart, RA 2001. Effects of variety, the 1B/1R translocation and xylanase supplementation on nutritive value of wheat for broilers. British Poultry Science 42, 638642.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mignon-Grasteau, S, Muley, N, Bastianelli, D, Gomez, J, Péron, A, Sellier, N, Millet, N, Besnard, J, Hallouis, JM, Carré, B 2004. Heritability of digestibilities and divergent selection for digestion ability in growing chicks fed a wheat diet. Poultry Science 83, 860867.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murphy, TC, McCracken, JK, McCann, MEE, George, J, Bedford, MR 2009. Broiler performance and in vivo viscosity as influenced by a range of xylanases, varying in ability to effect wheat in vitro viscosity. British Poultry Science 50, 716724.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Dell, BL, Newberne, PM, Savage, JE 1959. An abnormality of the proventriculus caused by feed texture. Poultry Science 38, 296301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Péron, A, Bastianelli, D, Oury, FX, Gomez, J, Carré, B 2005. Effects of food deprivation and particle size of ground wheat on digestibility of food components in broilers fed on a pelleted diet. British Poultry Science 46, 223230.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Péron, A, Gomez, J, Mignon-Grasteau, S, Sellier, N, Besnard, J, Derouet, M, Juin, H, Carré, B 2006. Effects of wheat quality on digestion differ between the D+ and D chicken lines selected for divergent digestion capacity. Poultry Science 85, 462469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynhout, JK, Duke, GE 1999. Identification of interstitial cells of Cajal in the digestive tract of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). The Journal of Experimental Zoology 283, 426440.3.0.CO;2-C>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riddell, C, Kong, XM 1992. The influence of diet on necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 36, 499503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rougière, N, Gomez, J, Mignon-Grasteau, S, Carré, B 2009. Effects of diet particle size on digestive parameters in D+ and D genetic chicken lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency. Poultry Science 88, 12061215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savory, CJ, Gentle, MJ 1976. Changes in food intake and gut size in Japanese quail in response to manipulation of dietary fiber content. British Poultry Science 17, 571580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shires, A, Thompson, JR, Turner, BV, Kennedy, PM, Goh, YK 1987. Rate of passage of corn-canola meal and corn-soybean meal diets through the gastrointestinal tract of broiler and white leghorn chickens. Poultry Science 66, 289298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Short, FJ, Gorton, P, Wiseman, J, Boorman, KN 1996. Determination of titanium dioxide added as an inert marker in chicken digestibility studies. Animal Feed Science and Technology 59, 215221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uden, P, Colucci, PE, Van Soest, PJ 1980. Investigation of chromium, cerium and cobalt as markers in digesta. Rate of passage studies. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31, 625632.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van der Klis, JD, Verstegen, MWA, De Wit, W 1990. Absorption of minerals and retention time of dry matter in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Poultry Science 69, 21852194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vergara, P, Ferrando, C, Jimenez, M, Fernandez, E, Gonalons, E 1989a. Factors determining gastrointestinal transit time of several markers in the domestic fowl. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology and Cognate Medical Sciences 74, 867874.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vergara, P, Jimenez, M, Ferrando, C, Fernandez, E, Gonalons, E 1989b. Age influence on digestive transit time of particulate and soluble markers in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 68, 185189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeo, A, Boyd, P, Lumsden, S, Saunders, T, Handley, A, Stubbins, M, Knaggs, A, Asquith, S, Taylor, I, Bahari, B, Crocker, N, Rallan, R, Varsani, S, Montgomery, D, Alpers, DH, Dukes, GE, Purvis, I, Hicks, GA 2004. Association between a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome in women. Gut 53, 14521458.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed