Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

An assessment of opportunities to dissect host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases in livestock

  • G. Davies (a1), S. Genini (a1), S. C. Bishop (a2) and E. Giuffra (a1)

This paper reviews the evidence for host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases for a wide variety of diseases of economic importance in poultry, cattle, pig, sheep and Atlantic salmon. Further, it develops a method of ranking each disease in terms of its overall impact, and combines this ranking with published evidence for host genetic variation and information on the current state of genomic tools in each host species. The outcome is an overall ranking of the amenability of each disease to genomic studies that dissect host genetic variation in resistance. Six disease-based assessment criteria were defined: industry concern, economic impact, public concern, threat to food safety or zoonotic potential, impact on animal welfare and threat to international trade barriers. For each category, a subjective score was assigned to each disease according to the relative strength of evidence, impact, concern or threat posed by that particular disease, and the scores were summed across categories. Evidence for host genetic variation in resistance was determined from available published data, including breed comparison, heritability studies, quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies, evidence of candidate genes with significant effects, data on pathogen sequence and on host gene expression analyses. In total, 16 poultry diseases, 13 cattle diseases, nine pig diseases, 11 sheep diseases and three Atlantic salmon diseases were assessed. The top-ranking diseases or pathogens, i.e. those most amenable to studies dissecting host genetic variation, were Salmonella in poultry, bovine mastitis, Marek’s disease and coccidiosis, both in poultry. The top-ranking diseases or pathogens in pigs, sheep and Atlantic salmon were Escherichia coli, mastitis and infectious pancreatic necrosis, respectively. These rankings summarise the current state of knowledge for each disease and broadly, although not entirely, reflect current international research efforts. They will alter as more information becomes available and as genome tools become more sophisticated for each species. It is suggested that this approach could be used to rank diseases from other perspectives as well, e.g. in terms of disease control strategies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      An assessment of opportunities to dissect host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases in livestock
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      An assessment of opportunities to dissect host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases in livestock
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      An assessment of opportunities to dissect host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases in livestock
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Hide All

All authors contributed equally to this article.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

AA Adzhubei , AV Vlasova , H Hagen-Larsen , TA Ruden , JK Laerdahl , B Høyheim 2007. Annotated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a searchable data resource. BMC Genomics 8, 209.

T Ait-Ali , A Wilson , DG Wescott , M Clapperton , M Mellencamp , TW Drew , SC Bishop , A Archibald 2007. Innate immune responses to replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in isolated swine alveolar macrophages. Viral Immunology 20, 105118.

M Al-Haddawi , GB Mitchell , ME Clark , RD Wood , JL Caswell 2007. Impairment of innate immune responses of airway epithelium by infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 116, 153162.

M Asif , JW Lowenthal , ME Ford , KA Schat , WG Kimpton , AG Bean 2007. Interleukin-6 expression after infectious bronchitis virus infection in chickens. Viral Immunology 20, 479486.

DN Atapattu , CJ Czuprynski 2005. Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin induces apoptosis of bovine lymphoblastoid cells (BL-3) via a caspase-9-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Infection and Immunity 73, 55045513.

LD Bacon 1987. Influence of the major histocompatability complex on disease resistance and productivity. Poultry Science 66, 802811.

LD Bacon , LB Crittenden , RL Witter , A Fadly , J Motta 1981. B-haplotype influence on Marek’s disease, Rous sarcoma, and lymphoid leukosis virus-induced tumors in chickens. Poultry Science 60, 11321139.

D Bakker , PT Willemsen , FG van Zijderveld 2000. Paratuberculosis recognized as a problem at last: a review. The Veterinary Quarterly 22, 200203.

F Barillet , JJ Arranz , A Carta 2005. Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 37, 109123.

PA Barrow 2007. Salmonella infections: immune and non-immune protection with vaccines. Avian Pathology 36, 113.

PA Barrow , N Bumstead , K Marston , MA Lovell , P Wigley 2004. Faecal shedding and intestinal colonization of Salmonella enterica in in-bred chickens: the effect of host-genetic background. Epidemiology and Infection 132, 117126.

SC Bishop , CA Morris 2007. Genetics of disease resistance in sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research 70, 4859.

Y Boyd , EG Herbert , KL Marston , MA Jones , P Barrow 2005. Host genes affect intestinal colonisation of newly hatched chickens by Campylobacter jejuni. Immunogenetics 57, 248253.

WE Briles , HA Stone , RK Cole 1977. Marek’s disease: effect of B histocompatibility alleles in resistant and susceptible chicken lines. Science 195, 193195.

JT Brisbin , H Zhou , J Gong , P Sabour , MR Akbari , HR Haghighi , H Yu , A Clarke , AJ Sarson , S Sharif 2008. Gene expression profiling of chicken lymphoid cells after treatment with Lactobacillus acidophilus cellular components. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 32, 563574.

N Bumstead 1998a. Genetic resistance to avian viruses. Office International des Épizooties, Scientific and Technical Review 17, 249255.

N Bumstead 1998b. Genomic mapping of resistance to Marek’s disease. Avian Pathology 27, 7881.

N Bumstead , P Barrow 1993. Resistance to Salmonella gallinarum, S. pullorum and Salmonella enteritidis in inbred lines of chickens. Avian Diseases 37, 189193.

N Bumstead , RL Reece , JKA Cook 1993. Genetic differences in susceptibility of chicken lines to infection with infectious bursal disease virus. Poultry Science 72, 403410.

TR Callaway , TS Edrington , RC Anderson , JA Byrd , DJ Nisbet 2008. Gastrointestinal microbial ecology and the safety of our food supply as related to Salmonella. Journal of Animal Science 86, 163172.

H Cao , LC Kabaroff , Q You , A Rodriguez , HJ Boermans , NA Karrow 2006. Characterization of ovine hepatic gene expression profiles in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide using a bovine cDNA microarray. BMC Veterinary Research 2, 34.

E Carlén , E Strandberg , A Roth 2004. Genetic parameters for clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, and production in the first three lactations of Swedish holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 30623070.

JM Caverly , G Diamond , JM Gallup , KA Brogden , RA Dixon , MR Ackermann 2003. Coordinated expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide and inflammatory-response elements in the lungs of neonatal calves with acute bacterial pneumonia. Infection and Immunity 71, 29502955.

RJ Chiodini , CA Rossiter 1996. Paratuberculosis: a potential zoonosis. The Veterinary clinics of North America-Food Animal Practice 12, 457467.

RK Cole 1968. Studies on the genetic resistance to Marek’s disease. Avian Diseases 12, 928.

RC Cutlip , HD Lehmkuhl , KA Brogden , JM Sacks 1986. Breed susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia (maedi/visna) virus. Veterinary Microbiology 12, 283288.

RP Dassanayake , SK Maheswaran , S Srikumaran 2007. Monomeric expression of bovine beta2-integrin subunits reveals their role in Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced biological effects. Infection and Immunity 75, 50045010.

G Davies , MJ Stear , M Benothman , O Abuagob , A Kerr , S Mitchell , SC Bishop 2006. Quantitative trait loci associated with parasitic infection in Scottish Blackface sheep. Heredity 96, 252258.

C Diez-Tascon , OM Keane , T Wilson , A Zadissa , DL Hyndman , DB Baird , JC McEwan , AM Crawford 2005. Microarray analysis of selection lines from outbred populations to identify genes involved with nematode parasite resistance in sheep. Physiological Genomics 21, 5669.

T Dileepan , MS Kannan , B Walcheck , SK Maheswaran 2007. Integrin-EGF-3 domain of bovine CD18 is critical for Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin species-specific susceptibility. FEMS Microbiology Letters 274, 6772.

S Dominik 2005. Quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep: a review. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 37, 8396.

KV Ewart , JC Belanger , J Williams , T Karakach , S Penny , SC Tsoi , RC Richards , SE Douglas 2005. Identification of genes differentially expressed in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida using cDNA microarray technology. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 29, 333347.

L Flori , C Rogel-Gaillard , M Cochet , G Lemonnier , K Hugot , P Chardon , S Robin , F Lefèvre 2008. Transcriptomic analysis of the dialogue between Pseudorabies virus and porcine epithelial cells during infection. BMC Genomics 9, 123.

IA Fragkou , J Skoufos , PJ Cripps , I Kyriazakis , N Papaioannou , CM Boscos , A Tzora , GC Fthenakis 2007. Differences in susceptibility to Mannheimia haemolytica-associated mastitis between two breeds of dairy sheep. The Journal of Dairy Research 74, 349355.

GW Friars , JR Chambers , A Kennedy , AD Smith 1972. Selection for resistance to Marek’s disease in conjunction with other economic traits in chickens. Avian Diseases 16, 210.

LC Gasbarre , EA Leighton , T Sonstegard 2001. Role of the bovine immune system and genome in resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology 98, 5164.

M Gauly , C Bauer , R Preisinger , G Erhardt 2002. Genetic differences of Ascaridia galli egg output in laying hens following a single dose infection. Veterinary Parasitology 103, 99107.

JS Gavora , JL Spencer 1979. Studies on genetic resistance of chickens to Marek’s disease – a review. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2, 359371.

RA Gibbons , R Sellwood , M Burrows , PA Hunter 1977. Inheritance of resistance to neonatal E. coli diarrhoea in the pig: examination of the genetic system. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 51, 6570.

MG Gonda , YM Chang , GE Shook , MT Collins , BW Kirkpatrick 2006. Genetic variation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 18041812.

MG Gonda , BW Kirkpatrick , GE Shook , MT Collins 2007. Identification of a QTL on BTA20 affecting susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Animal Genetics 38, 389396.

CD Gordon , CW Beard , SR Hopkins , HS Siegel 1971. Chick mortality as a criterion of selection towards resistance or susceptibility to Newcastle disease. Poultry Science 50, 783789.

DA Gougoulis , I Kyriazakis , N Papaioannou , E Papadopoulos , IA Taitzoglou , GC Fthenakis 2008. Subclinical mastitis changes the patterns of maternal–offspring behaviour in dairy sheep. Veterinary Journal 176, 378384.

DR Guy , SC Bishop , S Brotherstone , A Hamilton , RJ Roberts , BJ McAndrew , JA Woolliams 2006. Analysis of the incidence of infectious pancreatic necrosis mortality in pedigreed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., populations. Journal of Fish Diseases 29, 637647.

NR Gyles , CJ Brown 1971. Selection in chickens for retrogression of tumours caused by Rous sarcomas. Poultry Sciences 50, 901905.

F Haesebrouck , F Pasmans , K Chiers , D Maes , R Ducatelle , A Decostere 2004. Efficacy of vaccines against bacterial diseases in swine: what can we expect? Veterinary Microbiology 100, 255268.

K Hala , C Moore , J Plachy , B Kaspers , G Bock , A Hofmann 1998. Genes of chicken MHC regulate the adherence activity of blood monocytes in Rous sarcomas progressing and regressing lines. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 66, 143157.

PG Halbur , MF Rothschild , BJ Thacker , X-J Meng , PS Paul , JD Bruna 1998. Differences in susceptibility of Duroc, Hampshire, and Meishan pigs to infection with a high virulence strain (VR2385) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 115, 181189.

MK Hassan , MA Afify , MM Aly 2004. Genetic resistance of Egyptian chickens to infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease. Tropical Animal Health and Production 36, 19.

BJ Hayes , K Nilsen , PR Berg , E Grindflek , S Lien 2007. SNP detection exploiting multiple sources of redundancy in large EST collections improves validation rates. Bioinformatics 23, 16921693.

B Heringstad , D Gianola , YM Chang , J Odegard , G Klemetsdal 2006. Genetic associations between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score in early first-lactation cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 22362244.

JGH Hickford , H Zhou , S Slow , Q Fang 2004. Diversity of the ovine DQA2 gene. Journal of Animal Science 82, 15531563.

RD Houston , CS Haley , A Hamilton , DR Guy , AE Tinch , JB Taggart , BJ McAndrew , SC Bishop 2008. Major quantitative trait loci affect resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Genetics 178, 11091115.

MW Jackwood , DA Hilt , CW Lee , HM Kwon , SA Callison , KM Moore , H Moscoso , H Sellers , S Thayer 2005. Data from 11 years of molecular typing infectious bronchitis virus field isolates. Avian Diseases 49, 614618.

K Jensen , R Talbot , E Paxton , D Waddington , EJ Glass 2006. Development and validation of a bovine macrophage specific cDNA microarray. BMC Genomics 7, 224.

P Jiao , G Tian , Y Li , G Deng , Y Jiang , C Liu , W Liu , Z Bu , Y Kawaoka , H Chen 2008. A single-amino-acid substitution in the NS1 protein changes the pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in mice. Journal of Virology 82, 11461154.

HR Juul-Madsen , LR Norup , KJ Handberg , PH Jørgensen 2007. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) serum concentration in relation to propagation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens. Viral Immunology 20, 562570.

MG Kaiser , JH Cheeseman , P Kaiser , SJ Lamont 2006. Cytokine expression in chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells after in vitro exposure to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Poultry Science 85, 19071911.

J Kaufman , K Venugopal 1998. The importance of MHC for Rous sarcoma virus and Marek’s disease virus – some Payne-ful considerations. Avian Pathology 27, 8287.

OM Keane , A Zadissa , T Wilson , DL Hyndman , GJ Greer , DB Baird , AF McCulloch , AM Crawford , JC McEwan 2006. Gene expression profiling of naïve sheep genetically resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes. BMC Genomics 7, 42.

MS Khatkar , PC Thomson , I Tammen , HW Raadsma 2004. Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 36, 163190.

AP Koets , G Adugna , LL Janss , HJ van Weering , CH Kalis , GH Wentink , VP Rutten , YH Schukken 2000. Genetic variation of susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 27022708.

J Kramer , M Malek , SJ Lamont 2003. Association of twelve candidate gene polymorphisms and response to challenge with Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. Animal Genetics 34, 339348.

SJ Lamont , MG Kaiser , W Liu 2002. Candidate genes for resistance to Salmonella enteritidis colonization in chickens as detected in a novel genetic cross. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 87, 423428.

Y Lavi , A Cahaner , T Pleban , J Pitcovski 2005. Genetic variation in major histocompatibility complex class I alpha 2 gene among broilers divergently selected for high or low early antibody response to E. coli. Poultry Science 84, 11991208.

A Legarra , E Ugarte 2005. Genetic parameters of udder traits, somatic cell score, and milk yield in Latxa sheep. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 22382245.

CRG Lewis , T Ait-Ali , M Clapperton , AL Archibald , SC Bishop 2007. Genetic perspectives on host responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Viral Immunology 20, 343357.

W Liu , MM Miller , SJ Lamont 2002. Association of MHC class I and class II gene polymorphisms with vaccine or challenge response to Salmonella enteritidis in young chicks. Immunogenetics 54, 582590.

W Liu , MG Kaiser , SJ Lamont 2003. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene polymorphisms and response to vaccine against or challenge with Salmonella enteritidis in young chicks. Poultry Science 82, 259266.

MS Lund , G Sahana , L Andersson-Eklund , N Hastings , A Fernandez , N Schulman , B Thomsen , S Viitala , JL Williams , A Sabry , H Viinalass , J Vilkki 2007. Joint analysis of quantitative trait loci for clinical mastitis and somatic cell score on five chromosomes in three Nordic dairy cattle breeds. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 52825290.

N Lundeheim 1979. Genetic analysis of respiratory diseases in pigs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 29, 209215.

N Lundeheim 1988. Health disorders and growth performance at a Swedish pig progeny testing station. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 38, 7788.

MJ MacKinnon , K Meyer , DJS Hetzel 1991. Genetic variation and co-variation for growth, parasite resistance and heat tolerance in tropical cattle. Livestock Production Science 27, 105122.

CG Mackintosh , T Qureshi , K Waldrup , RE Labes , KG Dodds , JFT Griffin 2000. Genetic resistance to experimental infection with Mycobacterium bovis in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Infection and Immunity 68, 16201625.

M Malek , JR Hasenstein , SJ Lamont 2004. Analysis of chicken TLR4, CD28, MIF, MD-2, and LITAF genes in a Salmonella enteritidis resource population. Poultry Science 83, 544549.

P Mariani , PA Barrow , HH Cheng , MAM Groenen , R Negrini , N Bumstead 2001. Localization to chicken Chromosome 5 of a novel locus determining salmonellosis resistance. Immunogenetics 53, 786791.

SA Martin , JB Taggart , P Seear , JE Bron , R Talbot , AJ Teale , GE Sweeney , B Hoyheim , DF Houlihan , DR Tocher , J Zou , CJ Secombes 2007. Interferon type I and type II responses in an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) SHK-1 cell line by the salmon TRAITS/SGP microarray. Physiological Genomics 32, 3344.

VS Mavrogianni , GC Fthenakis 2007. Clinical, bacteriological, cytological and pathological features of teat disorders in ewes. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A-Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine 54, 219223.

JK Mays , LD Bacon , AR Pandiri , AM Fadly 2005. Response of white leghorn chickens of various B haplotypes to infection at hatch with subgroup J avian leukosis virus. Avian Diseases 49, 214219.

E Meijerink , R Fries , P Vögeli , J Masabanda , G Wigger , C Stricker , S Neuenschwander , HU Bertschinger , G Stranzinger 1997. Two alpha(1,2) fucosyltransferase genes on porcine chromosome 6q11 are closely linked to the blood group inhibitor (S) and Escherichia coli F18 receptor (ECF18R) loci. Mammalian Genome 8, 736741.

FC Minion , EJ Lefkowitz , ML Madsen , BJ Cleary , SM Swartzell , GG Mahairas 2004. The genome sequence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 232, the agent of swine mycoplasmosis. Journal of Bacteriology 186, 71237133.

ML Mirsky , C Olmstead , Y Da , HA Lewin 1998. Reduced bovine leukaemia virus proviral load in genetically resistant cattle. Animal Genetics 29, 245252.

T Moen , KT Fjalestad , H Munck , L Gomez-Raya 2004. A multistage testing strategy for detection of quantitative trait loci affecting disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Genetics 167, 851858.

H Mortensen , SS Nielsen , P Berg 2004. Genetic variation and heritability of the antibody response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Danish Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 21082113.

NE Muggli-Cockett , LV Cundiff , KE Gregory 1992. Genetic analysis of bovine respiratory disease in beef calves during the first year of life. Journal of Animal Science 70, 20132019.

E Nakajima , T Morozumi , K Tsukamoto , T Watanabe , G Plastow , T Mitsuhashi 2007. A naturally occurring variant of porcine Mx1 associated with increased susceptibility to influenza virus in vitro. Biochemical Genetics 45, 1124.

GJ Nieuwhof , SC Bishop 2005. Costs of the major endemic diseases of sheep in Great Britain and the potential benefits of reduction in disease impact. Animal Science 81, 2329.

TA Niewold , EJ Veldhuizen , J van der Meulen , HP Haagsman , AA de Wit , MA Smits , MH Tersteeg , MM Hulst 2007. The early transcriptional response of pig small intestinal mucosa to invasion by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Molecular Immunology 44, 13161322.

AH Noormohammadi 2007. Role of phenotypic diversity in pathogenesis of avian mycoplasmosis. Avian Pathology 36, 439444.

T Opriessnig , M Fenaux , P Thomas , MJ Hoogland , MF Rothschild , XJ Meng , PG Halbur 2006. Evidence of breed-dependent differences in susceptibility to porcine circovirus type-2-associated disease and lesions. Veterinary Pathology 43, 281293.

QL Peng , J Ren , XM Yan , X Huang , H Tang , YZ Wang , B Zhang , LS Huang 2007. The g.243A>G mutation in intron 17 of MUC4 is significantly associated with susceptibility/resistance to ETEC F4ab/ac infection in pigs. Animal Genetics 38, 397400.

A Permin , H Ranvig 2001. Genetic resistance to Ascaridia galli infections in chickens. Veterinary Parasitology 102, 101111.

DB Petry , JW Holl , JS Weber , AR Doster , FA Osorio , RK Johnson 2005. Biological responses to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus in pigs of two genetic populations. Journal of Animal Science 83, 14941502.

DB Petry , J Lunney , P Boyd , D Kuhar , E Blankenship , RK Johnson 2007. Differential immunity in pigs with high and low responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. Journal of Animal Science 85, 20752092.

MH Pinard-van der Laan , JL Monvoisin , P Pery , N Hamet , M Thomas 1998. Comparison of outbred lines of chickens for resistance to experimental infection with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella). Poultry Science 77, 185191.

MH Pinard-van der Laan , D Soubieux , L Merat , D Bouret , G Luneau , G Dambrine , P Thoraval 2004. Genetic analysis of a divergent selection for resistance to Rous sarcomas in chickens. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 36, 6581.

HG Purchase 1985. Clinical disease and its economic impact. In Marek’s disease, scientific basis and methods of control (ed. LN Payne), pp. 1742. Martinus Nkjhoff Publishing, Boston, USA.

P Python , H Jörg , S Neuenschwander , C Hagger , C Stricker , E Bürgi , HU Bertschinger , G Stranzinger , P Vögeli 2002. Fine-mapping of the intestinal receptor locus for enterotoxigenic E. coli F4ac on porcine chromosome 13. Animal Genetics 33, 441447.

HW Raadsma , JR Egerton , D Wood , C Kristo , FW Nicholas 1994. Disease resistance in Merino sheep III. Genetic variation in resistance to footrot following challenge and subsequent vaccination with an homologous rDNA pilus vaccine under both induced and natural conditions. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 111, 367390.

G Reiner , E Melchinger , M Kramarova , E Pfaff , M Büttner , A Saalmüller , H Geldermann 2002. Detection of quantitative trait loci for resistance/susceptibility to pseudorabies virus in swine. Journal of General Virology 83, 167172.

ML Rise , KR von Schalburg , GD Brown , MA Mawer , RH Devlin , N Kuipers , M Busby , M Beetz-Sargent , R Alberto , AR Gibbs , P Hunt , R Shukin , JA Zeznik , C Nelson , SR Jones , DE Smailus , SJ Jones , JE Schein , MA Marra , YS Butterfield , JM Stott , SH Ng , WS Davidson , BF Koop 2004. Development and application of a salmonid EST database and cDNA microarray: data mining and interspecific hybridization characteristics. Genome Research 14, 478490.

SC Roehrig , HQ Tran , V Spehr , N Gunkel , PM Selzer , HJ Ullrich 2007. The response of Mannheimia haemolytica to iron limitation: implications for the acquisition of iron in the bovine lung. Veterinary Microbiology 121, 316329.

R Rupp , D Boichard 2003. Genetics of resistance to mastitis in dairy cattle. Veterinary Research 34, 671688.

RE Sacco , KE Nestor , YM Saif , HJ Tsai , NB Anthony , RA Patterson 1994. Genetic-analysis of antibody-responses of turkeys to Newcastle-disease virus and pasteurella-multocida vaccines. Poultry Science 73, 11691174.

CJ Schmidt , M Romanov , O Ryder , V Magrini , M Hickenbotham , J Glasscock , S McGrath , E Mardis , LD Stein 2008. Gallus GBrowse: a unified genomic database for the chicken. Nucleic Acids Research 36, 719723.

T Schou , A Permin , A Roepstorff , P Sorensen , J Kjaer 2003. Comparative genetic resistance to Ascaridia galli infections of 4 different commercial layer-lines. British Poultry Science 44, 182185.

R Sellwood , RA Gibbons , GW Jones , JM Rutter 1975. Adhesion of enteropathogenic E. coli to pig intestinal brush borders: the existence of two pig phenotypes. Journal of Medical Microbiology 8, 405411.

AL Smith , P Hesketh , A Archer , MW Shirley 2002. Antigenic diversity in Eimeria maxima and the influence of host genetics and immunization schedule on cross-protective immunity. Infection and Immunity 70, 24722479.

GD Snowder , LD Van Vleck , LV Cundiff , GL Bennett 2005. Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves. Journal of Animal Science 83, 12471261.

GD Snowder , LD Van Vleck , LV Cundiff , GL Bennett 2006. Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: environmental, genetic, and economic factors. Journal of Animal Science 84, 19992008.

TS Sonstegard , LC Gasbarre 2001. Genomic tools to improve parasite resistance. Veterinary Parasitology 101, 387403.

P Tilquin , PA Barrow , J Marly , F Pitel , F Plisson-Petit , P Velge , A Vignal , PV Baret , N Bumstead , C Beaumont 2005. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting the Salmonella carrier-state in the chicken. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 37, 539561.

HJ Tsai , YM Saif , KE Nestor , DA Emmerson , RA Patterson 1992. Genetic-variation in resistance of turkeys to experimental-infection with Newcastle-disease virus. Avian Diseases 36, 561565.

JJ Uthe , TJ Stabel , SH Zhao , CK Tuggle , SM Bearson 2006. Analysis of porcine differential gene expression following challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis using suppression subtractive hybridization. Veterinary Microbiology 114, 6071.

JJ Uthe , A Royaee , JK Lunney , TJ Stabel , SH Zhao , CK Tuggle , SM Bearson 2007. Porcine differential gene expression in response to Salmonella enterica serovars Choleraesuis and Typhimurium. Molecular Immunology 44, 29002914.

PM Van Diemen , MB Kreukniet , L Galina , N Bumstead , TS Wallis 2002. Characterisation of a resource population of pigs screened for resistance to salmonellosis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 88, 183196.

TE Van Dorp , JC Dekkers , SW Martin , JP Noordhuizen 1998. Genetic parameters of health disorders, and relationships with 305-day milk yield and conformation traits of registered Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 81, 22642270.

S Van Hemert , AJ Hoekman , MA Smits , JM Rebel 2006. Gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine differ between lines. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 114, 247258.

S Van Hemert , AJ Hoekman , MA Smits , JM Rebel 2007. Immunological and gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine. Veterinary Research 38, 5163.

K Van Reeth 2007. Avian and swine influenza viruses: our current understanding of the zoonotic risk. Veterinary Research 38, 243260.

AL Vincent , BJ Thacker , PG Halbur , MF Rothschild , EL Thacker 2005. In vitro susceptibility of macrophages to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus varies between genetically diverse lines of pigs. Viral Immunology 18, 506512.

AL Vincent , BJ Thacker , PG Halbur , MF Rothschild , EL Thacker 2006. An investigation of susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus between two genetically diverse commercial lines of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 84, 4957.

KR Von Schalburg , ML Rise , GA Cooper , GD Brown , AR Gibbs , CC Nelson , WS Davidson , BF Koop 2005. Fish and chips: various methodologies demonstrate utility of a 16,006-gene salmonid microarray. BMC Genomics 6, 126.

Y Wang , L Qu , JJ Uthe , SM Bearson , D Kuhar , JK Lunney , OP Couture , D Nettleton , JC Dekkers , CK Tuggle 2007. Global transcriptional response of porcine mesenteric lymph nodes to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Genomics 90, 7284.

M Wetten , T Aasmundstad , S Kjøglum , A Storset 2007. Genetic analysis of resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 272, 111117.

RB Williams 1999. A compartmentalized model for the estimation of the cost of coccidiosis to the world’s poultry production industry. International Journal for Parasitology 29, 12091229.

SM Williams , WM Reed , LD Bacon , AM Fadly 2004. Response of white leghorn chickens of various genetic lines to infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J. Avian Diseases 48, 6167.

RL Witter 1998. The changing landscape of Marek’s disease. Avian Pathology 27, 4653.

N Yonash , LD Bacon , RL Witter , HH Cheng 1999. High resolution mapping and identification of new quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting susceptibility to Marek’s disease. Animal Genetics 30, 126135.

N Yonash , HH Cheng , J Hillel , DE Heller , A Cahaner 2001. DNA microsatellites linked to quantitative trait loci affecting antibody response and survival rate in meat-type chickens. Poultry Science 80, 2228.

BH Yoo , BL Sheldon 1992. Association of the major histocompatibility complex with avian leukosis virus infection in chickens. British Poultry Science 33, 613620.

R Yunis , ED Heller , J Hillel , A Cahaner 2002. Microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci controlling antibody response to E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis in young broilers. Animal Genetics 33, 407414.

B Zhang , J Ren , X Yan , X Huang , H Ji , Q Peng , Z Zhang , L Huang 2008. Investigation of the porcine MUC13 gene: isolation, expression, polymorphisms and strong association with susceptibility to enterotoxigenic E. coli F4ab/ac. Animal Genetics 39, 258266.

JJ Zhu , HS Lillehoj , PC Allen , CP Van Tassell , TS Sonstegard , HH Cheng , D Pollock , M Sadjadi , W Min , MG Emara 2003. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to coccidiosis and growth. Poultry Science 82, 916.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 33
Total number of PDF views: 187 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 451 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.