Skip to main content
×
×
Home

An assessment of opportunities to dissect host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases in livestock

  • G. Davies (a1), S. Genini (a1), S. C. Bishop (a2) and E. Giuffra (a1)
Abstract

This paper reviews the evidence for host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases for a wide variety of diseases of economic importance in poultry, cattle, pig, sheep and Atlantic salmon. Further, it develops a method of ranking each disease in terms of its overall impact, and combines this ranking with published evidence for host genetic variation and information on the current state of genomic tools in each host species. The outcome is an overall ranking of the amenability of each disease to genomic studies that dissect host genetic variation in resistance. Six disease-based assessment criteria were defined: industry concern, economic impact, public concern, threat to food safety or zoonotic potential, impact on animal welfare and threat to international trade barriers. For each category, a subjective score was assigned to each disease according to the relative strength of evidence, impact, concern or threat posed by that particular disease, and the scores were summed across categories. Evidence for host genetic variation in resistance was determined from available published data, including breed comparison, heritability studies, quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies, evidence of candidate genes with significant effects, data on pathogen sequence and on host gene expression analyses. In total, 16 poultry diseases, 13 cattle diseases, nine pig diseases, 11 sheep diseases and three Atlantic salmon diseases were assessed. The top-ranking diseases or pathogens, i.e. those most amenable to studies dissecting host genetic variation, were Salmonella in poultry, bovine mastitis, Marek’s disease and coccidiosis, both in poultry. The top-ranking diseases or pathogens in pigs, sheep and Atlantic salmon were Escherichia coli, mastitis and infectious pancreatic necrosis, respectively. These rankings summarise the current state of knowledge for each disease and broadly, although not entirely, reflect current international research efforts. They will alter as more information becomes available and as genome tools become more sophisticated for each species. It is suggested that this approach could be used to rank diseases from other perspectives as well, e.g. in terms of disease control strategies.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      An assessment of opportunities to dissect host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases in livestock
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      An assessment of opportunities to dissect host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases in livestock
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      An assessment of opportunities to dissect host genetic variation in resistance to infectious diseases in livestock
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail: sem.genini@tecnoparco.org
Footnotes
Hide All
b

All authors contributed equally to this article.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Adzhubei, AA, Vlasova, AV, Hagen-Larsen, H, Ruden, TA, Laerdahl, JK, Høyheim, B 2007. Annotated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a searchable data resource. BMC Genomics 8, 209.
Afonso C, Kapczynski D, Pantin-Jackwood M, Sarmento L and Swayne D 2007. Early response of chicken lungs and spleens to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus using microarray analysis. International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health, Paris, France, p. 16.
Ait-Ali, T, Wilson, A, Wescott, DG, Clapperton, M, Mellencamp, M, Drew, TW, Bishop, SC, Archibald, A 2007. Innate immune responses to replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in isolated swine alveolar macrophages. Viral Immunology 20, 105118.
Al-Haddawi, M, Mitchell, GB, Clark, ME, Wood, RD, Caswell, JL 2007. Impairment of innate immune responses of airway epithelium by infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 116, 153162.
Asif, M, Lowenthal, JW, Ford, ME, Schat, KA, Kimpton, WG, Bean, AG 2007. Interleukin-6 expression after infectious bronchitis virus infection in chickens. Viral Immunology 20, 479486.
Atapattu, DN, Czuprynski, CJ 2005. Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin induces apoptosis of bovine lymphoblastoid cells (BL-3) via a caspase-9-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Infection and Immunity 73, 55045513.
Bacon, LD 1987. Influence of the major histocompatability complex on disease resistance and productivity. Poultry Science 66, 802811.
Bacon, LD, Crittenden, LB, Witter, RL, Fadly, A, Motta, J 1981. B-haplotype influence on Marek’s disease, Rous sarcoma, and lymphoid leukosis virus-induced tumors in chickens. Poultry Science 60, 11321139.
Bakker, D, Willemsen, PT, van Zijderveld, FG 2000. Paratuberculosis recognized as a problem at last: a review. The Veterinary Quarterly 22, 200203.
Barillet, F, Arranz, JJ, Carta, A 2005. Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 37, 109123.
Barrow, PA 2007. Salmonella infections: immune and non-immune protection with vaccines. Avian Pathology 36, 113.
Barrow, PA, Bumstead, N, Marston, K, Lovell, MA, Wigley, P 2004. Faecal shedding and intestinal colonization of Salmonella enterica in in-bred chickens: the effect of host-genetic background. Epidemiology and Infection 132, 117126.
Bennett RM and Ijpelaar ACE 2003. Economic assessment of livestock diseases in Great Britain. Final report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Retrieved June 18, 2008, from http://www.apd.rdg.ac.uk/AgEcon/livestockdisease/lstockdisfinrepRMB.pdf
Bishop, SC, Morris, CA 2007. Genetics of disease resistance in sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research 70, 4859.
Boyd, Y, Herbert, EG, Marston, KL, Jones, MA, Barrow, P 2005. Host genes affect intestinal colonisation of newly hatched chickens by Campylobacter jejuni. Immunogenetics 57, 248253.
Briles, WE, Stone, HA, Cole, RK 1977. Marek’s disease: effect of B histocompatibility alleles in resistant and susceptible chicken lines. Science 195, 193195.
Brisbin, JT, Zhou, H, Gong, J, Sabour, P, Akbari, MR, Haghighi, HR, Yu, H, Clarke, A, Sarson, AJ, Sharif, S 2008. Gene expression profiling of chicken lymphoid cells after treatment with Lactobacillus acidophilus cellular components. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 32, 563574.
Bumstead, N 1998a. Genetic resistance to avian viruses. Office International des Épizooties, Scientific and Technical Review 17, 249255.
Bumstead, N 1998b. Genomic mapping of resistance to Marek’s disease. Avian Pathology 27, 7881.
Bumstead, N, Barrow, P 1993. Resistance to Salmonella gallinarum, S. pullorum and Salmonella enteritidis in inbred lines of chickens. Avian Diseases 37, 189193.
Bumstead, N, Millard, BJ 1992. Variation in susceptibility of inbred lines of chickens to 7 species of Eimeria. Parasitology 104, 407413.
Bumstead, N, Reece, RL, Cook, JKA 1993. Genetic differences in susceptibility of chicken lines to infection with infectious bursal disease virus. Poultry Science 72, 403410.
Callaway, TR, Edrington, TS, Anderson, RC, Byrd, JA, Nisbet, DJ 2008. Gastrointestinal microbial ecology and the safety of our food supply as related to Salmonella. Journal of Animal Science 86, 163172.
Cao, H, Kabaroff, LC, You, Q, Rodriguez, A, Boermans, HJ, Karrow, NA 2006. Characterization of ovine hepatic gene expression profiles in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide using a bovine cDNA microarray. BMC Veterinary Research 2, 34.
Carlén, E, Strandberg, E, Roth, A 2004. Genetic parameters for clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, and production in the first three lactations of Swedish holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 30623070.
Caverly, JM, Diamond, G, Gallup, JM, Brogden, KA, Dixon, RA, Ackermann, MR 2003. Coordinated expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide and inflammatory-response elements in the lungs of neonatal calves with acute bacterial pneumonia. Infection and Immunity 71, 29502955.
Cheng, HH 2005. Integrated genomic approaches to understanding resistance to Marek’s disease. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Genetics of Animal Health (ed. SJ Lamont, MF Rothschild and DL Harris), pp. 2433. Iowa State University, Ames, USA.
Chiodini, RJ, Rossiter, CA 1996. Paratuberculosis: a potential zoonosis. The Veterinary clinics of North America-Food Animal Practice 12, 457467.
Cole, RK 1968. Studies on the genetic resistance to Marek’s disease. Avian Diseases 12, 928.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007, from http://www.livestockgenomics.csiro.au/vsheep
Cutlip, RC, Lehmkuhl, HD, Brogden, KA, Sacks, JM 1986. Breed susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia (maedi/visna) virus. Veterinary Microbiology 12, 283288.
Dassanayake, RP, Maheswaran, SK, Srikumaran, S 2007. Monomeric expression of bovine beta2-integrin subunits reveals their role in Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced biological effects. Infection and Immunity 75, 50045010.
Davies, G, Stear, MJ, Benothman, M, Abuagob, O, Kerr, A, Mitchell, S, Bishop, SC 2006. Quantitative trait loci associated with parasitic infection in Scottish Blackface sheep. Heredity 96, 252258.
Diez-Tascon, C, Keane, OM, Wilson, T, Zadissa, A, Hyndman, DL, Baird, DB, McEwan, JC, Crawford, AM 2005. Microarray analysis of selection lines from outbred populations to identify genes involved with nematode parasite resistance in sheep. Physiological Genomics 21, 5669.
Dileepan, T, Kannan, MS, Walcheck, B, Maheswaran, SK 2007. Integrin-EGF-3 domain of bovine CD18 is critical for Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin species-specific susceptibility. FEMS Microbiology Letters 274, 6772.
Dominik, S 2005. Quantitative trait loci for internal nematode resistance in sheep: a review. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 37, 8396.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) 2005. The community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004. The EFSA Journal 310, 1275.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) 2006. The community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents, antimicrobial resistance and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union in 2005. The EFSA Journal 94, 1236.
Ewart, KV, Belanger, JC, Williams, J, Karakach, T, Penny, S, Tsoi, SC, Richards, RC, Douglas, SE 2005. Identification of genes differentially expressed in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida using cDNA microarray technology. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 29, 333347.
Flori, L, Rogel-Gaillard, C, Cochet, M, Lemonnier, G, Hugot, K, Chardon, P, Robin, S, Lefèvre, F 2008. Transcriptomic analysis of the dialogue between Pseudorabies virus and porcine epithelial cells during infection. BMC Genomics 9, 123.
Foresight Project 2006. Infectious Diseases: preparing for the future. Executive Summary. Office of Science and Innovation, London. Retrieved December 20, 2007, from http://www.foresight.gov.uk/Previous_Projects/Detection_and_Identification_of_Infectious_Diseases/Index.html
Fragkou, IA, Skoufos, J, Cripps, PJ, Kyriazakis, I, Papaioannou, N, Boscos, CM, Tzora, A, Fthenakis, GC 2007. Differences in susceptibility to Mannheimia haemolytica-associated mastitis between two breeds of dairy sheep. The Journal of Dairy Research 74, 349355.
Friars, GW, Chambers, JR, Kennedy, A, Smith, AD 1972. Selection for resistance to Marek’s disease in conjunction with other economic traits in chickens. Avian Diseases 16, 210.
Gasbarre, LC, Leighton, EA, Sonstegard, T 2001. Role of the bovine immune system and genome in resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology 98, 5164.
Gauly, M, Bauer, C, Preisinger, R, Erhardt, G 2002. Genetic differences of Ascaridia galli egg output in laying hens following a single dose infection. Veterinary Parasitology 103, 99107.
Gavora, JS, Spencer, JL 1979. Studies on genetic resistance of chickens to Marek’s disease – a review. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2, 359371.
Genini S, Delputte PL, Malinverni R, Cecere M, Stella A, Nauwynck HJ and Giuffra E 2008. Genome-wide transcriptional response of primary alveolar macrophages following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Journal of General Virology 89, 2550–2564.
Gibbons, RA, Sellwood, R, Burrows, M, Hunter, PA 1977. Inheritance of resistance to neonatal E. coli diarrhoea in the pig: examination of the genetic system. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 51, 6570.
Gonda, MG, Chang, YM, Shook, GE, Collins, MT, Kirkpatrick, BW 2006. Genetic variation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 18041812.
Gonda, MG, Kirkpatrick, BW, Shook, GE, Collins, MT 2007. Identification of a QTL on BTA20 affecting susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Animal Genetics 38, 389396.
Gordon, CD, Beard, CW, Hopkins, SR, Siegel, HS 1971. Chick mortality as a criterion of selection towards resistance or susceptibility to Newcastle disease. Poultry Science 50, 783789.
Gougoulis, DA, Kyriazakis, I, Papaioannou, N, Papadopoulos, E, Taitzoglou, IA, Fthenakis, GC 2008. Subclinical mastitis changes the patterns of maternal–offspring behaviour in dairy sheep. Veterinary Journal 176, 378384.
Guy, DR, Bishop, SC, Brotherstone, S, Hamilton, A, Roberts, RJ, McAndrew, BJ, Woolliams, JA 2006. Analysis of the incidence of infectious pancreatic necrosis mortality in pedigreed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., populations. Journal of Fish Diseases 29, 637647.
Gyles, NR, Brown, CJ 1971. Selection in chickens for retrogression of tumours caused by Rous sarcomas. Poultry Sciences 50, 901905.
Haesebrouck, F, Pasmans, F, Chiers, K, Maes, D, Ducatelle, R, Decostere, A 2004. Efficacy of vaccines against bacterial diseases in swine: what can we expect? Veterinary Microbiology 100, 255268.
Hala, K, Moore, C, Plachy, J, Kaspers, B, Bock, G, Hofmann, A 1998. Genes of chicken MHC regulate the adherence activity of blood monocytes in Rous sarcomas progressing and regressing lines. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 66, 143157.
Halbur, PG, Rothschild, MF, Thacker, BJ, Meng, X-J, Paul, PS, Bruna, JD 1998. Differences in susceptibility of Duroc, Hampshire, and Meishan pigs to infection with a high virulence strain (VR2385) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 115, 181189.
Hassan, MK, Afify, MA, Aly, MM 2004. Genetic resistance of Egyptian chickens to infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease. Tropical Animal Health and Production 36, 19.
Hayes, BJ, Nilsen, K, Berg, PR, Grindflek, E, Lien, S 2007. SNP detection exploiting multiple sources of redundancy in large EST collections improves validation rates. Bioinformatics 23, 16921693.
Heringstad, B, Gianola, D, Chang, YM, Odegard, J, Klemetsdal, G 2006. Genetic associations between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score in early first-lactation cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 22362244.
Hickford, JGH, Zhou, H, Slow, S, Fang, Q 2004. Diversity of the ovine DQA2 gene. Journal of Animal Science 82, 15531563.
Houston, RD, Haley, CS, Hamilton, A, Guy, DR, Tinch, AE, Taggart, JB, McAndrew, BJ, Bishop, SC 2008. Major quantitative trait loci affect resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Genetics 178, 11091115.
Hu, JX, Bumstead, N, Barrow, P, Sebastiani, G, Olien, L, Morgan, K, Malo, D 1997. Resistance to salmonellosis in the chicken is linked to NRAMP1 and TNC. Genome Research 7, 693704.
International Sheep Genomics Consortium (ISG) 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007, from http://www.sheephapmap.org
International Swine Sequencing Consortium (SGSC) 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007, from http://www.piggenome.org
Jackwood, MW, Hilt, DA, Lee, CW, Kwon, HM, Callison, SA, Moore, KM, Moscoso, H, Sellers, H, Thayer, S 2005. Data from 11 years of molecular typing infectious bronchitis virus field isolates. Avian Diseases 49, 614618.
Jensen, K, Talbot, R, Paxton, E, Waddington, D, Glass, EJ 2006. Development and validation of a bovine macrophage specific cDNA microarray. BMC Genomics 7, 224.
Jiao, P, Tian, G, Li, Y, Deng, G, Jiang, Y, Liu, C, Liu, W, Bu, Z, Kawaoka, Y, Chen, H 2008. A single-amino-acid substitution in the NS1 protein changes the pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in mice. Journal of Virology 82, 11461154.
Jørgensen CB, Cirera S, Archibald AL, Anderson L, Fredholm M and Edfors-Lilja I 2004. Porcine polymorphisms and methods for detecting them. International application published under the patent cooperation treaty (PCT). PCT/DK2003/000807 or WO2004/048606-A2.
Juul-Madsen, HR, Norup, LR, Handberg, KJ, Jørgensen, PH 2007. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) serum concentration in relation to propagation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens. Viral Immunology 20, 562570.
Kaiser, MG, Cheeseman, JH, Kaiser, P, Lamont, SJ 2006. Cytokine expression in chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells after in vitro exposure to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Poultry Science 85, 19071911.
Kaufman, J, Venugopal, K 1998. The importance of MHC for Rous sarcoma virus and Marek’s disease virus – some Payne-ful considerations. Avian Pathology 27, 8287.
Keane, OM, Zadissa, A, Wilson, T, Hyndman, DL, Greer, GJ, Baird, DB, McCulloch, AF, Crawford, AM, McEwan, JC 2006. Gene expression profiling of naïve sheep genetically resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes. BMC Genomics 7, 42.
Khatkar, MS, Thomson, PC, Tammen, I, Raadsma, HW 2004. Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 36, 163190.
Koets, AP, Adugna, G, Janss, LL, van Weering, HJ, Kalis, CH, Wentink, GH, Rutten, VP, Schukken, YH 2000. Genetic variation of susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 27022708.
Kramer, J, Malek, M, Lamont, SJ 2003. Association of twelve candidate gene polymorphisms and response to challenge with Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. Animal Genetics 34, 339348.
Lamont, SJ, Kaiser, MG, Liu, W 2002. Candidate genes for resistance to Salmonella enteritidis colonization in chickens as detected in a novel genetic cross. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 87, 423428.
Lavi, Y, Cahaner, A, Pleban, T, Pitcovski, J 2005. Genetic variation in major histocompatibility complex class I alpha 2 gene among broilers divergently selected for high or low early antibody response to E. coli. Poultry Science 84, 11991208.
Legarra, A, Ugarte, E 2005. Genetic parameters of udder traits, somatic cell score, and milk yield in Latxa sheep. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 22382245.
Lewis, CRG, Ait-Ali, T, Clapperton, M, Archibald, AL, Bishop, SC 2007. Genetic perspectives on host responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Viral Immunology 20, 343357.
Lewis CRG, Torremorell M, Galina-Pantoja L and Bishop SC 2008. Genetic parameters for performance traits in commercial sows estimated before and after an outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Journal of Animal Science (in press).
Liu, W, Miller, MM, Lamont, SJ 2002. Association of MHC class I and class II gene polymorphisms with vaccine or challenge response to Salmonella enteritidis in young chicks. Immunogenetics 54, 582590.
Liu, W, Kaiser, MG, Lamont, SJ 2003. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene polymorphisms and response to vaccine against or challenge with Salmonella enteritidis in young chicks. Poultry Science 82, 259266.
Longenecker, BM, Pazderka, F, Gavora, JS, Spencer, JL, Stephens, EA, Witter, RL, Ruth, RF 1977. Role of the major histocompatibility complex in resistance to Marek’s disease: restriction of the growth of JMV-MD tumor cells in genetically resistant birds. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 88, 287298.
Lund, MS, Sahana, G, Andersson-Eklund, L, Hastings, N, Fernandez, A, Schulman, N, Thomsen, B, Viitala, S, Williams, JL, Sabry, A, Viinalass, H, Vilkki, J 2007. Joint analysis of quantitative trait loci for clinical mastitis and somatic cell score on five chromosomes in three Nordic dairy cattle breeds. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 52825290.
Lundeheim, N 1979. Genetic analysis of respiratory diseases in pigs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 29, 209215.
Lundeheim, N 1988. Health disorders and growth performance at a Swedish pig progeny testing station. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 38, 7788.
MacKinnon, MJ, Meyer, K, Hetzel, DJS 1991. Genetic variation and co-variation for growth, parasite resistance and heat tolerance in tropical cattle. Livestock Production Science 27, 105122.
Mackintosh, CG, Qureshi, T, Waldrup, K, Labes, RE, Dodds, KG, Griffin, JFT 2000. Genetic resistance to experimental infection with Mycobacterium bovis in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Infection and Immunity 68, 16201625.
Malek, M, Hasenstein, JR, Lamont, SJ 2004. Analysis of chicken TLR4, CD28, MIF, MD-2, and LITAF genes in a Salmonella enteritidis resource population. Poultry Science 83, 544549.
Mariani, P, Barrow, PA, Cheng, HH, Groenen, MAM, Negrini, R, Bumstead, N 2001. Localization to chicken Chromosome 5 of a novel locus determining salmonellosis resistance. Immunogenetics 53, 786791.
Martin, SA, Taggart, JB, Seear, P, Bron, JE, Talbot, R, Teale, AJ, Sweeney, GE, Hoyheim, B, Houlihan, DF, Tocher, DR, Zou, J, Secombes, CJ 2007. Interferon type I and type II responses in an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) SHK-1 cell line by the salmon TRAITS/SGP microarray. Physiological Genomics 32, 3344.
Mavrogianni, VS, Fthenakis, GC 2007. Clinical, bacteriological, cytological and pathological features of teat disorders in ewes. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A-Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine 54, 219223.
Mays, JK, Bacon, LD, Pandiri, AR, Fadly, AM 2005. Response of white leghorn chickens of various B haplotypes to infection at hatch with subgroup J avian leukosis virus. Avian Diseases 49, 214219.
Meijerink, E, Fries, R, Vögeli, P, Masabanda, J, Wigger, G, Stricker, C, Neuenschwander, S, Bertschinger, HU, Stranzinger, G 1997. Two alpha(1,2) fucosyltransferase genes on porcine chromosome 6q11 are closely linked to the blood group inhibitor (S) and Escherichia coli F18 receptor (ECF18R) loci. Mammalian Genome 8, 736741.
Minion, FC, Lefkowitz, EJ, Madsen, ML, Cleary, BJ, Swartzell, SM, Mahairas, GG 2004. The genome sequence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 232, the agent of swine mycoplasmosis. Journal of Bacteriology 186, 71237133.
Mirsky, ML, Olmstead, C, Da, Y, Lewin, HA 1998. Reduced bovine leukaemia virus proviral load in genetically resistant cattle. Animal Genetics 29, 245252.
Moen, T, Fjalestad, KT, Munck, H, Gomez-Raya, L 2004. A multistage testing strategy for detection of quantitative trait loci affecting disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Genetics 167, 851858.
Mortensen, H, Nielsen, SS, Berg, P 2004. Genetic variation and heritability of the antibody response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Danish Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 21082113.
Muggli-Cockett, NE, Cundiff, LV, Gregory, KE 1992. Genetic analysis of bovine respiratory disease in beef calves during the first year of life. Journal of Animal Science 70, 20132019.
Nakajima, E, Morozumi, T, Tsukamoto, K, Watanabe, T, Plastow, G, Mitsuhashi, T 2007. A naturally occurring variant of porcine Mx1 associated with increased susceptibility to influenza virus in vitro. Biochemical Genetics 45, 1124.
National Animal Genome Research Program (NAGRP) 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007, from http://www.animalgenome.org/bioinfo/resources/util/q_bovsnp.html
Nieuwhof, GJ, Bishop, SC 2005. Costs of the major endemic diseases of sheep in Great Britain and the potential benefits of reduction in disease impact. Animal Science 81, 2329.
Nieuwhof GJ, Conington J, Bűnger L, Haresign W and Bishop SC 2008. Genetic and phenotypic aspects of foot lesion scores in sheep of different breeds and ages. Animal 2, 1289–1296.
Niewold, TA, Veldhuizen, EJ, van der Meulen, J, Haagsman, HP, de Wit, AA, Smits, MA, Tersteeg, MH, Hulst, MM 2007. The early transcriptional response of pig small intestinal mucosa to invasion by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Molecular Immunology 44, 13161322.
Noormohammadi, AH 2007. Role of phenotypic diversity in pathogenesis of avian mycoplasmosis. Avian Pathology 36, 439444.
Opriessnig, T, Fenaux, M, Thomas, P, Hoogland, MJ, Rothschild, MF, Meng, XJ, Halbur, PG 2006. Evidence of breed-dependent differences in susceptibility to porcine circovirus type-2-associated disease and lesions. Veterinary Pathology 43, 281293.
Peng, QL, Ren, J, Yan, XM, Huang, X, Tang, H, Wang, YZ, Zhang, B, Huang, LS 2007. The g.243A>G mutation in intron 17 of MUC4 is significantly associated with susceptibility/resistance to ETEC F4ab/ac infection in pigs. Animal Genetics 38, 397400.
Permin, A, Ranvig, H 2001. Genetic resistance to Ascaridia galli infections in chickens. Veterinary Parasitology 102, 101111.
Perry, BD, McDermott, JJ, Randolph, TF, Sones, KR, Thornton, PK 2002. Investing in animal health research to alleviate poverty. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya, 148pp.
Petry, DB, Holl, JW, Weber, JS, Doster, AR, Osorio, FA, Johnson, RK 2005. Biological responses to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus in pigs of two genetic populations. Journal of Animal Science 83, 14941502.
Petry, DB, Lunney, J, Boyd, P, Kuhar, D, Blankenship, E, Johnson, RK 2007. Differential immunity in pigs with high and low responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. Journal of Animal Science 85, 20752092.
Pinard-van der Laan, MH, Monvoisin, JL, Pery, P, Hamet, N, Thomas, M 1998. Comparison of outbred lines of chickens for resistance to experimental infection with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella). Poultry Science 77, 185191.
Pinard-van der Laan, MH, Soubieux, D, Merat, L, Bouret, D, Luneau, G, Dambrine, G, Thoraval, P 2004. Genetic analysis of a divergent selection for resistance to Rous sarcomas in chickens. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 36, 6581.
Purchase, HG 1985. Clinical disease and its economic impact. In Marek’s disease, scientific basis and methods of control (ed. LN Payne), pp. 1742. Martinus Nkjhoff Publishing, Boston, USA.
Python, P, Jörg, H, Neuenschwander, S, Hagger, C, Stricker, C, Bürgi, E, Bertschinger, HU, Stranzinger, G, Vögeli, P 2002. Fine-mapping of the intestinal receptor locus for enterotoxigenic E. coli F4ac on porcine chromosome 13. Animal Genetics 33, 441447.
Raadsma, HW, Egerton, JR, Wood, D, Kristo, C, Nicholas, FW 1994. Disease resistance in Merino sheep III. Genetic variation in resistance to footrot following challenge and subsequent vaccination with an homologous rDNA pilus vaccine under both induced and natural conditions. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 111, 367390.
Reiner, G, Melchinger, E, Kramarova, M, Pfaff, E, Büttner, M, Saalmüller, A, Geldermann, H 2002. Detection of quantitative trait loci for resistance/susceptibility to pseudorabies virus in swine. Journal of General Virology 83, 167172.
Rise, ML, von Schalburg, KR, Brown, GD, Mawer, MA, Devlin, RH, Kuipers, N, Busby, M, Beetz-Sargent, M, Alberto, R, Gibbs, AR, Hunt, P, Shukin, R, Zeznik, JA, Nelson, C, Jones, SR, Smailus, DE, Jones, SJ, Schein, JE, Marra, MA, Butterfield, YS, Stott, JM, Ng, SH, Davidson, WS, Koop, BF 2004. Development and application of a salmonid EST database and cDNA microarray: data mining and interspecific hybridization characteristics. Genome Research 14, 478490.
Roehrig, SC, Tran, HQ, Spehr, V, Gunkel, N, Selzer, PM, Ullrich, HJ 2007. The response of Mannheimia haemolytica to iron limitation: implications for the acquisition of iron in the bovine lung. Veterinary Microbiology 121, 316329.
Ruiz, A, Galina, L, Pijoan, C 2002. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonisation in pigs sired by different boars. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 66, 7985.
Rupp, R, Boichard, D 2003. Genetics of resistance to mastitis in dairy cattle. Veterinary Research 34, 671688.
Sacco, RE, Nestor, KE, Saif, YM, Tsai, HJ, Anthony, NB, Patterson, RA 1994. Genetic-analysis of antibody-responses of turkeys to Newcastle-disease virus and pasteurella-multocida vaccines. Poultry Science 73, 11691174.
Salmon Genome Project (SGP) 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007, from http://www.salmongenome.no/cgi-bin/sgp.cgi
Schmidt, CJ, Romanov, M, Ryder, O, Magrini, V, Hickenbotham, M, Glasscock, J, McGrath, S, Mardis, E, Stein, LD 2008. Gallus GBrowse: a unified genomic database for the chicken. Nucleic Acids Research 36, 719723.
Schou, T, Permin, A, Roepstorff, A, Sorensen, P, Kjaer, J 2003. Comparative genetic resistance to Ascaridia galli infections of 4 different commercial layer-lines. British Poultry Science 44, 182185.
Sellwood, R, Gibbons, RA, Jones, GW, Rutter, JM 1975. Adhesion of enteropathogenic E. coli to pig intestinal brush borders: the existence of two pig phenotypes. Journal of Medical Microbiology 8, 405411.
Smith, AL, Hesketh, P, Archer, A, Shirley, MW 2002. Antigenic diversity in Eimeria maxima and the influence of host genetics and immunization schedule on cross-protective immunity. Infection and Immunity 70, 24722479.
Snowder, GD, Van Vleck, LD, Cundiff, LV, Bennett, GL 2005. Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves. Journal of Animal Science 83, 12471261.
Snowder, GD, Van Vleck, LD, Cundiff, LV, Bennett, GL 2006. Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: environmental, genetic, and economic factors. Journal of Animal Science 84, 19992008.
Sonstegard, TS, Gasbarre, LC 2001. Genomic tools to improve parasite resistance. Veterinary Parasitology 101, 387403.
The Merck Veterinary Manual 2005. CM Kahn and S Line (ed.). 9th Edition, Merck & Co., Inc. and Merial Limited, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA. Retrieved December 20, 2007, from http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/203405.htm
Tilquin, P, Barrow, PA, Marly, J, Pitel, F, Plisson-Petit, F, Velge, P, Vignal, A, Baret, PV, Bumstead, N, Beaumont, C 2005. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting the Salmonella carrier-state in the chicken. Genetics, Selection, Evolution 37, 539561.
Tsai, HJ, Saif, YM, Nestor, KE, Emmerson, DA, Patterson, RA 1992. Genetic-variation in resistance of turkeys to experimental-infection with Newcastle-disease virus. Avian Diseases 36, 561565.
Tuggle, CK, Wang, Y, Couture, O 2007. Advances in swine transcriptomics. International Journal of Biological Sciences 3, 132152.
Udina I 2007. Genetic mechanisms of resistance to leukemia caused by BLV: probable key to understanding human resistance to HTLV-1. International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health, Paris, France, p. 65.
Uthe, JJ, Stabel, TJ, Zhao, SH, Tuggle, CK, Bearson, SM 2006. Analysis of porcine differential gene expression following challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis using suppression subtractive hybridization. Veterinary Microbiology 114, 6071.
Uthe, JJ, Royaee, A, Lunney, JK, Stabel, TJ, Zhao, SH, Tuggle, CK, Bearson, SM 2007. Porcine differential gene expression in response to Salmonella enterica serovars Choleraesuis and Typhimurium. Molecular Immunology 44, 29002914.
Vallejo, RL, Bacon, LD, Liu, HC, Witter, RL, Groenen, MAM, Hillel, J, Cheng, HH 1998. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility to Marek’s disease induced tumours in F2 intercross chickens. Genetics 148, 349360.
Van Diemen, PM, Kreukniet, MB, Galina, L, Bumstead, N, Wallis, TS 2002. Characterisation of a resource population of pigs screened for resistance to salmonellosis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 88, 183196.
Van Dorp, TE, Dekkers, JC, Martin, SW, Noordhuizen, JP 1998. Genetic parameters of health disorders, and relationships with 305-day milk yield and conformation traits of registered Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 81, 22642270.
Van Hemert, S, Hoekman, AJ, Smits, MA, Rebel, JM 2006. Gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine differ between lines. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 114, 247258.
Van Hemert, S, Hoekman, AJ, Smits, MA, Rebel, JM 2007. Immunological and gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine. Veterinary Research 38, 5163.
Van Reeth, K 2007. Avian and swine influenza viruses: our current understanding of the zoonotic risk. Veterinary Research 38, 243260.
Vincent, AL, Thacker, BJ, Halbur, PG, Rothschild, MF, Thacker, EL 2005. In vitro susceptibility of macrophages to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus varies between genetically diverse lines of pigs. Viral Immunology 18, 506512.
Vincent, AL, Thacker, BJ, Halbur, PG, Rothschild, MF, Thacker, EL 2006. An investigation of susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus between two genetically diverse commercial lines of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 84, 4957.
Vögeli, P, Bertschinger, HU, Stamm, M, Stricker, C, Hagger, C, Fries, R, Rapacz, J, Stranzinger, G 1996. Genes specifying receptors for F18 fimbriated E. coli, causind oedema disease and postweaning diarrhoea in pigs, map to chromosome 6. Animal Genetics 27, 321328.
Von Schalburg, KR, Rise, ML, Cooper, GA, Brown, GD, Gibbs, AR, Nelson, CC, Davidson, WS, Koop, BF 2005. Fish and chips: various methodologies demonstrate utility of a 16,006-gene salmonid microarray. BMC Genomics 6, 126.
Wang, Y, Qu, L, Uthe, JJ, Bearson, SM, Kuhar, D, Lunney, JK, Couture, OP, Nettleton, D, Dekkers, JC, Tuggle, CK 2007. Global transcriptional response of porcine mesenteric lymph nodes to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Genomics 90, 7284.
Wetten, M, Aasmundstad, T, Kjøglum, S, Storset, A 2007. Genetic analysis of resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 272, 111117.
Williams, RB 1999. A compartmentalized model for the estimation of the cost of coccidiosis to the world’s poultry production industry. International Journal for Parasitology 29, 12091229.
Williams, SM, Reed, WM, Bacon, LD, Fadly, AM 2004. Response of white leghorn chickens of various genetic lines to infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J. Avian Diseases 48, 6167.
Witter, RL 1998. The changing landscape of Marek’s disease. Avian Pathology 27, 4653.
Yonash, N, Bacon, LD, Witter, RL, Cheng, HH 1999. High resolution mapping and identification of new quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting susceptibility to Marek’s disease. Animal Genetics 30, 126135.
Yonash, N, Cheng, HH, Hillel, J, Heller, DE, Cahaner, A 2001. DNA microsatellites linked to quantitative trait loci affecting antibody response and survival rate in meat-type chickens. Poultry Science 80, 2228.
Yoo, BH, Sheldon, BL 1992. Association of the major histocompatibility complex with avian leukosis virus infection in chickens. British Poultry Science 33, 613620.
Young, JAT, Bates, P, Varmus, HE 1993. Isolation of a gene that confers susceptibility to infection by subgroup A avian leucosis and sarcoma viruses. Journal of Virology 67, 18111816.
Yunis, R, Heller, ED, Hillel, J, Cahaner, A 2002. Microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci controlling antibody response to E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis in young broilers. Animal Genetics 33, 407414.
Zanotti M, Strillacci MP, Polli M, Archetti IL and Longeri M 2002. NRAMP1 gene effect on bovine tuberculosis by microsatellite marker analysis. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Montpellier, France, Communication, pp. 13–43.
Zhang, B, Ren, J, Yan, X, Huang, X, Ji, H, Peng, Q, Zhang, Z, Huang, L 2008. Investigation of the porcine MUC13 gene: isolation, expression, polymorphisms and strong association with susceptibility to enterotoxigenic E. coli F4ab/ac. Animal Genetics 39, 258266.
Zhu, JJ, Lillehoj, HS, Allen, PC, Van Tassell, CP, Sonstegard, TS, Cheng, HH, Pollock, D, Sadjadi, M, Min, W, Emara, MG 2003. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to coccidiosis and growth. Poultry Science 82, 916.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

animal
  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed