Abbott JC, Dill LM 1985. Patterns of aggressive attack in juvenile stellhead trout (Salmo-Gairdneri). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42, 1702–1706.
Allain V, Mirabito L, Arnould C, Colas M, LeBouquin S, Lupo C, Michel V 2009. Skin lesions in broiler chickens measured at the slaughterhouse: relationships between lesions and between their prevalence and rearing factors. British Poultry Science 50, 407–417.
Barton BA, Iwama GK 1991. Physiological changes in fish from stress in aquaculture with emphasis on the response and effects of corticosteroids. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 1, 3–26.
Bicalho RC, Vokey F, Erb HN, Guard CL 2007. Visual locomotion scoring in the first seventy days in milk: impact on pregnancy and survival. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 4586–4591.
Bintz J 1971. Between- and within-subject effect of shock intensity on avoidance in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 75, 92–97.
Bizeray D, Faure JM, Leterrier C 2004. Making broilers walk: what for and how. Productions Animales 17, 45–57.
Bonga SEW 1997. The stress response in fish. Physiological Reviews 77, 591–625.
Borghetti P, Saleri R, Mocchegiani E, Corradi A, Martelli P 2009. Infection, immunity and the neuroendocrine response. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 130, 141–162.
Breward J, Gentle MJ 1985. Neuroma formation and abnormal afferent nerve discharges after partial beak amputation (beak trimming) in poultry. Experientia 41, 1132–1134.
Bright A 2008. Vocalisations and acoustic parameters of flock noise from feather pecking and non-feather pecking laying flocks. British Poultry Science 49, 241–249.
Brown JME, Edwards SA, Smith WJ, Thompson E, Duncan J 1996. Welfare and production implications of teeth clipping and iron injection of piglets in outdoor systems in Scotland. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 27, 95–105.
Capion N, Thamsborg SM, Enevoldsen C 2009. Prevalence and severity of foot lesions in Danish Holstein heifers through first lactation. Veterinary Journal 182, 50–58.
Carroll JA 2008. Bidirectional communication: growth and immunity in domestic livestock. Journal of Animal Science 86, E126–E137.
Carroll JA, Berg EL, Strauch TA, Roberts MP, Kattesh HG 2006. Hormonal profiles, behavioral responses, and short-term growth performance after castration of pigs at three, six, nine, or twelve days of age. Journal of Animal Science 84, 1271–1278.
Cheng H 2006. Morphopathological changes and pain in beak trimmed laying hens. Worlds Poultry Science Journal 62, 41–52.
Cohen RDH, King BD, Thomas LR, Janzen ED 1990. Efficacy and stress of chemical versus surgical castration of cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 70, 1063–1072.
Collias NE 1987. The vocal repertoire of the Red Junglefowl: a spectrographic classification and the code of communication. The Condor 89, 510–524.
Courboulay V, Hémonic A, Gadonna M, Prunier A 2010. Castration avec anesthésie locale ou traitement anti-inflammatoire: quel impact sur la douleur des porcelets et quelles conséquences sur le travail en élevage?. In 42. Journées de la Recherche Porcine, Paris (FRA), pp. 27–33.
Davis GS, Anderson KE, Jones DR 2004. The effects of different beak trimming techniques on plasma corticosterone and performance criteria in single comb White Leghorn hens. Poultry Science 83, 1624–1628.
Done SH, Guise J, Chennells D 2003. Tail biting and tail docking in pigs. Proceedings of the Pig Veterinary Society Meeting, Burleigh Court, Loughborough, UK, 14–15 November 2002, pp. 136–154.
Duncan IJ, Beatty ER, Hocking PM, Duff SR 1991. Assessment of pain associated with degenerative hip disorders in adult male turkeys. Research in Veterinary Science 50, 200–203.
Dunlop R, Millsopp S, Laming P 2006. Avoidance learning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and implications for pain perception. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 97, 255–271.
Earley B, Crowe MA 2002. Effects of ketoprofen alone or in combination with local anesthesia during the castration of bull calves on plasma cortisol, immunological, and inflammatory responses. Journal of Animal Science 80, 1044–1052.
Ehrensing RH, Michell GF, Kastin AJ 1982. Similar antagonism of morphine analgesia by MIF-1 and naloxone in Carassius auratus. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 17, 757–761.
Eicher SD, Morrow-Tesch JL, Albright JL, Dailey JW, Young CR, Stanker LH 2000. Tail-docking influences on behavioral, immunological, and endocrine responses in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 1456–1462.
Elsasser TH, Klasing KC, Filipov N, Thompson F 2000. The metabolic consequences of stress: targets for stress and priorities of nutrient use. In The biology of animal stress. Basic principles and implications for animal welfare (ed. GP Moberg and JA Mench), pp. 77–110. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
Evrard HC, Balthazart J 2002. The assessment of nociceptive and non-nociceptive skin sensitivity in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Journal of Neuroscience Methods 116, 135–146.
Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) 1992. Updates the five freedoms. Veterinary records 17.
Fernandez X, Levasseur P, Ecolan P, Wittmann W 1995. Effect of epinephrine administration on glycogen-metabolism in red and white muscle of anesthetized pigs (Sus Scrofa domesticus). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 68, 231–239.
Fisher AD, Crowe MA, delaVarga MEA, Enright WJ 1996. Effect of castration method and the provision of local anesthesia on plasma cortisol, scrotal circumference, growth, and feed intake of bull calves. Journal of Animal Science 74, 2336–2343.
Flower FC, Weary DM 2006. Effect of hoof pathologies on subjective assessments of dairy cow gait. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 139–146.
Fourichon C, Seegers H, Bareille N, Beaudeau F 1999. Effects of disease on milk production in the dairy cow: a review. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 41, 1–35.
Fraser D, Thompson BK 1991. Armed sibling rivalry among suckling piglets. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 29, 9–15.
Gallois M, Cozler YL, Prunier A 2005. Influence of tooth resection in piglets on welfare and performance. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 69, 13–23.
Gentle MJ 1974. Changes in habituation of the EEG to water deprivation and crop loading in Gallus domesticus. Physiology & Behavior 13, 15–19.
Gentle MJ 2011. Pain issues in poultry. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 135, 252–258.
Gentle MJ, Hunder LN 1991. Physiological and behavioural responses associated with feather removal in Gallus gallus var domesticus. Research in Veterinary Science 50, 95–101.
Gentle MJ, Corr SA 1995. Endogenous analgesia in the chicken. Neuroscience Letters 201, 211–214.
Gentle MJ, Jones RB, Woolley SC 1989. Physiological changes during tonic immobility in Gallus gallus var domesticus. Physiology & Behavior 46, 843–847.
Gentle MJ, Thorp BH, Hughes BO 1995. Anatomical consequences of partial beak amputation (beak trimming) in turkeys. Research in Veterinary Science 58, 158–162.
Gibson TJ, Johnson CB, Stafford KJ, Mitchinson SL, Mellor DJ 2007. Validation of the acute electroencephalographic responses of calves to noxious stimulus with scoop dehorning. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 55, 152–157.
Gillman CE, KilBride AL, Ossent P, Green LE 2009. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of foot lesions in post-weaning pigs and risks associated with floor type on commercial farms in England. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 91, 146–152.
Glatz PC 1987. Effects of beak trimming and restraint on heart rate, food intake, body weight and egg production in hens. British Poultry Science 28, 601–611.
Glatz PC 2000. Beak trimming methods – review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 13, 1619–1637.
Glatz PC, Lunam CA 1994. Production and heart-rate responses of chickens beak-trimmed at hatch or at 10 or 42 days of age. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34, 443–447.
Graham MJ, Kent JE, Molony V 1997. Effects of four analgesic treatments on the behavioural and cortisol responses of 3-week-old lambs to tail docking. Veterinary Journal 153, 87–97.
Grant C 2004. Behavioural responses of lambs to common painful husbandry procedures. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 87, 255–273.
Guatteo R, Levionnois O, Fournier D, Guémené D, Latouche K, Leterrier C, Mormède P, Prunier A, Servière J, Terlouw C, Le Neindre P 2012. Minimising pain in farm animals: the 3S approach – ‘suppress, substitute, soothe’. Animal 6, 1261–1274.
Haga HA, Ranheim B 2005. Castration of piglets: the analgesic effects of intratesticular and intrafunicular lidocaine injection. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32, 1–9.
Hay M, Vulin A, Génin S, Sales P, Prunier A 2003. Assessment of pain induced by castration in piglets: behavioral and physiological responses over the subsequent 5 days. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 82, 201–218.
Hay M, Rue J, Sansac C, Brunel G, Prunier A 2004. Long-term detrimental effects of tooth clipping or grinding in piglets: a histological approach. Animal Welfare 13, 23–32.
Herr K, Bjoro K, Decker S 2006. Tools for assessment of pain in nonverbal older adults with dementia: a state-of-the-science review. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 31, 170–192.
Herskin MS, Muller R, Schrader L, Ladewig J 2003. A laser-based method to measure thermal nociception in dairy cows: short-term repeatability and effects of power output and skin condition. Journal of Animal Science 81, 945–954.
Hocking PM, Robertson GW, Gentle MJ 2001. Effects of anti-inflammatory steroid drugs on pain coping behaviours in a model of articular pain in the domestic fowl. Research in Veterinary Science 71, 161–166.
Hocking PM, Gentle MJ, Bernard R, Dunn LN 1997. Evaluation of a protocol for determining the effectiveness of pretreatment with local analgesics for reducing experimentally induced articular pain in domestic fowl. Research in Veterinary Science 63, 263–267.
Holton L, Reid J, Scott EM, Pawson P, Nolan A 2001. Development of a behaviour-based scale to measure acute pain in dogs. Veterinary Record 148, 525–531.
Hutter S, Heinritzi K, Reich E, Ehret W 1994. Efficacité de différentes méthodes de résection des dents chez le porcelet non sevré. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire 145, 205–213.
Jarvis S, McLean KA, Chirnside J, Deans LA, Calvert SK, Molony V, Lawrence AB 1997. Opioid-mediated changes in nociceptive threshold during pregnancy and parturition in the sow. Pain 72, 153–159.
Kestin SC, Knowles TG, Tinch AE, Gregory NG 1992. Prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chickens and its relationship with genotype. Veterinary Record 131, 190–194.
Kielly J, Dewey CE, Cochran M 1999. Castration at 3 days of age temporarily slows growth of pigs. Swine Health and Production 7, 151–153.
Lamont LA, Tranquilli WJ, Grimm KA 2000. Physiology of pain. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal Practice 30, 703–728.
Lay DC, Friend TH, Bowers CL, Grissom KK, Jenkins OC 1992a. A comparative physiological and behavioral study of freeze and hot-iron branding using dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science 70, 1121–1125.
Lay DC, Friend TH, Randel RD, Bowers CL, Grissom KK, Jenkins OC 1992b. Behavioral and physiological effects of freeze or hot-iron branding on crossbred cattle. Journal of Animal Science 70, 330–336.
Lay D, Friend T, Grissom K, Bowers C, Mal M 1992c. Effects of freeze or hot-iron branding of Angus calves on some physiological and behavioral indicators of stress. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 33, 137–147.
Le Neindre P, Guattéo R, Guémené D, Guichet JL, Latouche K, Leterrier C, Levionnois O, Mormède P, Prunier A, Serrie A, Serviere J 2009. Animal pain identifying, understanding and minimising pain in farm animals. Multidisciplinary scientific assessment. Summary of the Expert Report, INRA, France, 98pp. Retrieved October 18, 2012, from http://www.international.inra.fr/the_institute/scientific_expertise/expert_reports/pain_in_farm_animals
Leach KA, Dippel S, Huber J, March S, Winckler C, Whay HR 2009. Assessing lameness in cows kept in tie-stalls. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 1567–1574.
Lester SJ, Mellor DJ, Ward RN, Holmes RJ 1991. Cortisol responses of young lambs to castration and tailing using different methods. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 39, 134–138.
Lester SJ, Mellor DJ, Holmes RJ, Ward RN, Stafford KJ 1996. Behavioural and cortisol responses of lambs to castration and tailing using different methods. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 44, 45–54.
Leterrier C, Nys Y 1992. Clinical and anatomical differences in varus and valgus deformities of chick limbs suggest different etiopathogenesis. Avian Pathology 21, 429–442.
Lewin-Kowalik J, Marcol W, Kotulska K, Mandera M, Klimczak A 2006. Prevention and management of painful neuroma. Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica 46, 62–67.
Llamas Moya SL, Boyle LA, Lynch PB, Arkins S 2008. Effect of surgical castration on the behavioural and acute phase responses of 5-day-old piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 111, 133–145.
Logue DN, Offer JE, Hyslop JJ 1994. Relationship of diet, hoof type and locomotion score with lesions of the sole and white line in dairy-cattle. Animal Production 59, 173–181.
Manteuffel G, Puppe B, Schon PC 2004. Vocalization of farm animals as a measure of welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 88, 163–182.
Marchant-Forde JN, Lay DC Jr, McMunn KA, Cheng HW, Pajor EA, Marchant-Forde RM 2009. Postnatal piglet husbandry practices and well-being: the effects of alternative techniques delivered separately. Journal of Animal Science 87, 1479–1492.
Marx G, Horn T, Thielebein J, Knubel B, Von Borell E 2003. Analysis of pain-related vocalization in young pigs. Journal of Sound and Vibration 266, 687–698.
Matteri RL, Crarroll JA, Dyer CJ 2000. Neuroendocrine responses to stress. In The biology of animal stress: basic principles and implications for animal welfare (ed. GP Moberg and JA Mench), pp. 1–21. CABI Publisher, Wallingford, UK.
McCarthy RN, Jeffcott LB, Clarke IJ 1993. Preliminary studies on the use of plasma beta-endorphin in horses as an indicator of stress and pain. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 13, 216–219.
McGlone JJ, Hellman JM 1988. Local and general anesthetic effects on behavior and performance of two- and seven-week-old castrated and uncastrated piglets. Journal of Animal Science 66, 3049–3058.
McGlone JJ, Nicholson RI, Hellman JM, Herzog DN 1993. The development of pain in young pigs associated with castration and attempts to prevent castration-induced behavioral changes. Journal of Animal Science 71, 1441–1446.
Meagher RK 2009. Observer ratings: validity and value as a tool for animal welfare research. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 119, 1–14.
Melendez P, Bartolome J, Archbald LF, Donovan A 2003. The association between lameness, ovarian cysts and fertility in lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology 59, 927–937.
Mellor DJ, Murray L 1989. Changes in the cortisol responses of lambs to tail docking, castration and ACTH injection during the first seven days after birth. Research in Veterinary Science 46, 392–395.
Mellor DJ, Cook CJ, Stafford KJ 2000. Quantifying some responses to pain as a stressor. In The biology of animal stress: basic principles and implications for welfare (ed. GP Moberg and JA Mench), pp. 171–198. CAB International, Wallingford.
Mellor DJ, Stafford KJ, Todd SE, Lowe TE, Gregory NG, Bruce RA, Ward RN 2002. A comparison of catecholamine and cortisol responses of young lambs and calves to painful husbandry procedures. Australian Veterinary Journal 80, 228–233.
Melzack R, Wall PD 1965. Pain mechanisms – a new theory. Science 150, 971–971.
Merlot E, Mounier AM, Prunier A 2011. Endocrine response of gilts to various common stressors: a comparison of indicators and methods of analysis. Physiology & Behavior 102, 259–265.
Mettam JJ, Oulton LJ, McCrohan CR, Sneddon LU 2011. The efficacy of three types of analgesic drugs in reducing pain in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133, 265–274.
Moberg GP 2000. Biological response to stress: implications for animal welfare. In The biology of animal stress: basic principles and implications for animal welfare (ed. GP Moberg and JA Mench), pp. 1–21. CABI Publisher, Wallingford, UK.
Molony V, Kent JE 1997. Assessment of acute pain in farm animals using behavioral and physiological measurements. Journal of Animal Science 75, 266–272.
Molony V, Kent JE, Robertson IS 1993. Behavioural responses of lambs of three ages in the first three hours after three methods of castration and tail docking. Research in Veterinary Science 55, 236–245.
Molony V, Kent JE, Robertson IS 1995. Assessment of acute and chronic pain after different methods of castration of calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 46, 33–48.
Molony V, Kent JE, McKendrick IJ 2002. Validation of a method for assessment of an acute pain in lambs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76, 215–238.
Molony V, Kent JE, Hosie BD, Graham MJ 1997. Reduction in pain suffered by lambs at castration. Veterinary Journal 153, 205–213.
Morisse JP, Cotte JP, Huonnic D 1995. Effect of dehorning on behaviour and plasma cortisol responses in young calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 43, 239–247.
Morton D, Griffiths P 1985. Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress and discomfort in experimental animals and an hypothesis for assessment. Veterinary Record 116, 431–436.
Mouttotou N, Hatchell FM, Green LE 1999. Foot lesions in finishing pigs and their associations with the type of floor. Veterinary Record 144, 629–632.
Noonan GJ, Rand JS, Priest J, Ainscow J, Blackshaw JK 1994. Behavioural observations of piglets undergoing tail docking, teeth clipping and ear notching. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 39, 203–213.
Nyborg PY, Srig A, Lykkegaard K, Svendsen O 2000. Nociception after castration of juvenile pigs determined by quantitative estimation of c-Fos expressing neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Dansk Veterinartidsskrift 83, 16–17.
O'Callaghan KA, Cripps PJ, Downham DY, Murray RD 2003. Subjective and objective assessment of pain and discomfort due to lameness in dairy cattle. Animal Welfare 12, 605–610.
Paull DR, Lee C, Colditz IG, Fisher AD 2009. Effects of a topical anaesthetic formulation and systemic carprofen, given singly or in combination, on the cortisol and behavioural responses of Merino lambs to castration. Australian Veterinary Journal 87, 230–237.
Persson Y, Soderquist L, Ekman S 2007. Joint disorder: a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls? Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 49, 31.
Prunier A 2002. Evaluation et prévention de la douleur induite par les interventions de convenance chez le porcelet. In Journée d’étude bien-être des porcs et des volailles, Gembloux (BEL), 2002/10/16.
Prunier A, Hay M, Servrière J 2002. Evaluation et prévention de la douleur induite par les interventions de convenance chez le porcelet. Journées de la Recherche Porcine 34, 257–268.
Prunier A, Mounier AM, Hay M 2005. Effects of castration, tooth resection, or tail docking on plasma metabolites and stress hormones in young pigs. Journal of Animal Science 83, 216–222.
Prunier A, Bonneau M, Von Borell EH, Cinotti S, Gunn M, Frediksen B, Giersing M, Morton DB, Tuyttens FAM, Velarde A 2006. A review of the welfare consequences of surgical castration in piglets and the evaluation of non-surgical methods. Animal Welfare 15, 277–289.
Puppe B, Schon PC, Tuchscherer A, Manteuffel G 2005. Castration-induced vocalisation in domestic piglets, Sus scrofa: complex and specific alterations of the vocal quality. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 95, 67–78.
Reilly SC, Quinn JP, Cossins AR, Sneddon LU 2008. Behavioural analysis of a nociceptive event in fish: comparisons between three species demonstrate specific responses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 114, 248–259.
Rietmann TR, Stauffacher M, Bernasconi P, Auer JA, Weishaupt MA 2004. The association between heart rate, heart rate variability, endocrine and behavioural pain measures in horses suffering from laminitis. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A – Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 51, 218–225.
Ren K, Torres R 2009. Role of interleukin-1β during pain and inflammation. Brain Research Reviews 60, 57–64.
Robert S, Thompson BK, Fraser D 1995. Selective tooth clipping in the management of low-birth weight piglets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 75, 285–289.
Robertson IS, Kent JE, Molony V 1994. Effect of different methods of castration on behavior and plasma cortisol in calves of three ages. Research in Veterinary Science 56, 8–17.
Roozen AWN, Tsuma VT, Magnusson U 1995. Effects of short-term restraint on plasma-concentrations of catecholamines, beta-endorphin, and cortisol in gilts. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56, 1225–1227.
Rushen J, Pombourcq E, Passillé AMD 2007. Validation of two measures of lameness in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 106, 173–177.
Schwartzkopf-Genswein KS, Stookey JM, Welford R 1997. Behavior of cattle during hot-iron and freeze branding and the effects of subsequent handling ease. Journal of Animal Science 75, 2064–2072.
Schwartzkopf-Genswein KS, Stookey JM, Crowe TG, Genswein BM 1998. Comparison of image analysis, exertion force, and behavior measurements for use in the assessment of beef cattle responses to hot-iron and freeze branding. Journal of Animal Science 76, 972–979.
Shutt DA, Fell LR, Connell R, Bell AK, Wallace CA, Smith AI 1987. Stress-induced changes in plasma concentrations of immunoreactive beta-endorphin and cortisol in response to routine surgical procedures in lambs. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 40, 97–103.
Simonsen HB, Klinken L, Bindseil E 1991. Histopathology of intact and docked pigtails. British Veterinary Journal 147, 407–412.
Sneddon LU 2003. The evidence for pain in fish: the use of morphine as an analgesic. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 83, 153–162.
Stafford KJ, Mellor DJ 2005. Dehorning and disbudding distress and its alleviation in calves. The Veterinary Journal 169, 337–349.
Stafford KJ, Mellor DJ, Todd SE, Bruce RA, Ward RN 2002. Effects of local anaesthesia or local anaesthesia plus a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on the acute cortisol response of calves to five different methods of castration. Research in Veterinary Science 73, 61–70.
Stewart M, Stafford KJ, Dowling SK, Schaefer AL, Webster JR 2008. Eye temperature and heart rate variability of calves disbudded with or without local anaesthetic. Physiology & Behavior 93, 789–797.
Stewart M, Verkerk GA, Stafford KJ, Schaefer AL, Webster JR 2010. Noninvasive assessment of autonomic activity for evaluation of pain in calves, using surgical castration as a model. Journal of Dairy Science 93, 3602–3609.
Sutherland MA, Davis BL, Brooks TA, McGlone JJ 2010. Physiology and behavior of pigs before and after castration: effects of two topical anesthetics. Animal 4, 2071–2079.
Sylvester SP, Mellor DJ, Stafford KJ, Bruce RA, Ward RN 1998. Acute cortisol responses of calves to scoop dehorning using local anaesthesia and/or cautery of the wound. Australian Veterinary Journal 76, 118–122.
Thornton PD, Waterman-Pearson AE 1999. Quantification of the pain and distress responses to castration in young lambs. Research in Veterinary Science 66, 107–118.
Tilbrook AJ, Turner AI, Clarke IJ 2000. Effects of stress on reproduction in non-rodent mammals: the role of glucocorticoids and sex differences. Reviews of Reproduction 5, 105–113.
Ting STL, Earley B, Hughes JML, Crowe MA 2003. Effect of ketoprofen, lidocaine local anesthesia, and combined xylazine and lidocaine caudal epidural anesthesia during castration of beef cattle on stress responses, immunity, growth, and behavior. Journal of Animal Science 81, 1281–1293.
Torrey S, Devillers N, Lessard M, Farmer C, Widowski T 2009. Effect of age on the behavioral and physiological responses of piglets to tail docking and ear notching. Journal of Animal Science 87, 1778–1786.
Turnbull AV, Rivier CL 1999. Regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis by cytokines: actions and mechanisms of action. Physiological Reviews 79, 1–71.
Turnbull JF, Adams CE, Richards RH, Robertson DA 1998. Attack site and resultant damage during aggressive encounters in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr. Aquaculture 159, 345–353.
Valros A, Ahlstrom S, Rintala H, Hakkinen T, Saloniemi H 2004. The prevalence of tail damage in slaughter pigs in Finland and associations to carcass condemnations. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A – Animal Science 54, 213–219.
Veissier I, Rushen J, Colwell D, De Passille AM 2000. A laser-based method for measuring the pain sensitivity of cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 66, 289–304.
Vestergaard KS, Sanotra GS 1999. Relationships between leg disorders and changes in the behaviour of broiler chickens. Veterinary Record 144, 205–209.
Von Borell E, Langbein J, Despres G, Hansen S, Leterrier C, Marchant-Forde J, Marchant-Forde R, Minero M, Mohr E, Prunier A, Valance D, Veissier I 2007a. Heart rate variability as a measure of autonomic regulation of cardiac activity for assessing stress and welfare in farm animals – a review. Physiology & Behavior 92, 293–316.
Von Borell E, Dobson H, Prunier A 2007b. Stress, behaviour and reproductive performance in female cattle and pigs. Hormones and Behavior 52, 130–138.
Watts JM, Stookey JM 1999. Effects of restraint and branding on rates and acoustic parameters of vocalization in beef cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62, 125–135.
Watts JM, Stookey JM 2000. Vocal behaviour in cattle: the animal's commentary on its biological processes and welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67, 15–33.
Weary DM, Braithwaite LA, Fraser D 1998. Vocal response to pain in piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 56, 161–172.
Weeks CA, Davies HC, Hunt P 1997. Effect of leg weakness on feeding behaviour of broilers. BSAS Occasional Publication 20, 124–125.
Weeks CA, Danbury TD, Davies HC, Hunt P, Kestin SC 2000. The behaviour of chickens and its modification by lameness. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 67, 111–125.
Welsh EM, Gettinby G, Nolan AM 1993. Comparison of a visual analogue scale and a numerical rating scale for assessment of lameness, using sheep as a model. American Journal of Veterinary Research 54, 976–983.
White RG, Deshazer JA, Tressler CJ, Borcher GM, Davey S, Waninge A, Parkhurst AM, Milanuk MJ, Clemens ET 1995. Vocalization and physiological response of pigs during castration with or without a local anesthetic. Journal of Animal Science 73, 381–386.
Widowski TM, Cottrell T, Dewey CE, Friendship RM 2003. Observations of piglet-directed behavior patterns and skin lesions in eleven commercial swine herds. Journal of Swine Health and Production 11, 181–185.
Wolff A, Vanduynhoven E, van Kleef M, Huygen F, Pope JE, Mekhail N 2011. Phantom pain. Pain Practice 11, 403–413.
Wylie LM, Gentle MJ 1998. Feeding-induced tonic pain suppression in the chicken: reversal by naloxone. Physiology and Behavior 64, 27–30.