Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bradford, Barry J. Yuan, Kai and Ylioja, Caroline 2016. Managing complexity: Dealing with systemic crosstalk in bovine physiology1. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 99, Issue. 6, p. 4983.

    Fu, Manjie Zhang, Lingsong Ahmed, Azza Plaut, Karen Haas, David M. Szucs, Kinga and Casey, Theresa M. 2015. Does Circadian Disruption Play a Role in the Metabolic–Hormonal Link to Delayed Lactogenesis II?. Frontiers in Nutrition, Vol. 2,

    Wang, Mengzhi Jing, Yujia Hu, Liangyu Gao, Jian Ding, Luyang and Zhang, Jun 2015. Recent advances on the circadian gene PER2 and metabolic rhythm of lactation of mammary gland. Animal Nutrition, Vol. 1, Issue. 4, p. 257.

    Wang, M. Zhou, Z. Khan, M.J. Gao, J. and Loor, J.J. 2015. Clock circadian regulator (CLOCK) gene network expression patterns in bovine adipose, liver, and mammary gland at 3 time points during the transition from pregnancy into lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 98, Issue. 7, p. 4601.

    Schmitt, Benjamin Povinelli, Lucia Crodian, Jennifer Casey, Theresa and Plaut, Karen 2014. Circadian rhythms of ewes suckling singletons versus twins during the second week of lactation. BIOS, Vol. 85, Issue. 4, p. 207.

    Klopčič, M. Koops, W.J. and Kuipers, A. 2013. Technical note: A mathematical function to predict daily milk yield of dairy cows in relation to the interval between milkings. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 96, Issue. 9, p. 6084.

    Lee, Deukhwan and Min, Hongrip 2013. Estimation of Daily Milk Yields from AM/PM Milking Records. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, Vol. 55, Issue. 6, p. 489.

    Stelwagen, K. and Bruckmaier, R. M. 2012. Lactation biology. animal, Vol. 6, Issue. 03, p. 353.


Does the circadian system regulate lactation?

  • K. Plaut (a1) and T. Casey (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 11 November 2011

Environmental variables such as photoperiod, heat, stress, nutrition and other external factors have profound effects on quality and quantity of a dairy cow's milk. The way in which the environment interacts with genotype to impact milk production is unknown; however, evidence from our laboratory suggests that circadian clocks play a role. Daily and seasonal endocrine rhythms are coordinated in mammals by the master circadian clock in the hypothalamus. Peripheral clocks are distributed in every organ and coordinated by signals from the master clock. We and others have shown that there is a circadian clock in the mammary gland. Approximately 7% of the genes expressed during lactation had circadian patterns including core clock and metabolic genes. Amplitude changes occurred in the core mammary clock genes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation and were coordinated with changes in molecular clocks among multiple tissues. In vitro studies using a bovine mammary cell line showed that external stimulation synchronized mammary clocks, and expression of the core clock gene, BMAL1, was induced by lactogens. Female clock/clock mutant mice, which have disrupted circadian rhythms, have impaired mammary development and their offspring failed to thrive suggesting that the dam's milk production was not adequate enough to nourish their young. We envision that, in mammals, during the transition from pregnancy to lactation the master clock is modified by environmental and physiological cues that it receives, including photoperiod length. In turn, the master clock coordinates changes in endocrine milieu that signals peripheral tissues. In dairy cows, it is clear that changes in photoperiod during the dry period and/or during lactation influences milk production. We believe that the photoperiod effect on milk production is mediated, in part by the ‘setting’ of the master clock with light, which modifies peripheral circadian clocks including the mammary core clock and subsequently impacts milk yield and may impact milk composition.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Does the circadian system regulate lactation?
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Does the circadian system regulate lactation?
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Does the circadian system regulate lactation?
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Y Aharoni , A Brosh , E Ezra 2000. Short communication: prepartum photoperiod effect on milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 27792781.

RA Akhtar , AB Reddy , ES Maywood , JD Clayton , VM King , AG Smith , TW Gant , MH Hastings , CP Kyriacou 2002. Circadian cycling of the mouse liver transcriptome, as revealed by cDNA microarray, is driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Current Biology 12, 540550.

H Andersson , JD Johnston , S Messager , D Hazlerigg , G Lincoln 2005. Photoperiod regulates clock gene rhythms in the ovine liver. General and Comparative Endocrinology 142, 357363.

H Ando , H Yanagihara , Y Hayashi , Y Obi , S Tsuruoka , T Takamura , S Kaneko , A Fujimura 2005. Rhythmic messenger ribonucleic acid expression of clock genes and adipocytokines in mouse visceral adipose tissue. Endocrinology 146, 56315636.

BR Andrade , AA Salama , G Caja , V Castillo , E Albanell , X Such 2008. Response to lactation induction differs by season of year and breed of dairy ewes. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 22992306.

TL Auchtung , PE Kendall , JL Salak-Johnson , TB McFadden , GE Dahl 2003. Photoperiod and bromocriptine treatment effects on expression of prolactin receptor mRNA in bovine liver, mammary gland and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Journal of Endocrinology 179, 347356.

TL Auchtung , AG Rius , PE Kendall , TB McFadden , GE Dahl 2005. Effects of photoperiod during the dry period on prolactin, prolactin receptor, and milk production of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 121127.

A Balsalobre , F Damiola , U Schibler 1998. A serum shock induces circadian gene expression in mammalian tissue culture cells. Cell 93, 929937.

EN Barkova , EV Nazarenko , EV Zhdanova 2005. Diurnal variations in qualitative composition of breast milk in women with iron deficiency. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 140, 394396.

J Bass , JS Takahashi 2010. Circadian integration of metabolism and energetics. Science 330, 13491354.

DE Bauman , WB Currie 1980. Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: a review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. Journal of Dairy Science 63, 15141529.

A Bell , D Bauman 1997. Adaptations of glucose metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 2, 265278.

U Bernabucci , L Basirico , N Lacetera , P Morera , B Ronchi , PA Accorsi , E Seren , A Nardone 2006. Photoperiod affects gene expression of leptin and leptin receptors in adipose tissue from lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 46784686.

J Bitman , DL Wood , AM Lefcourt 1990. Rhythms in cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, free fatty acids, and triglycerides in blood of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 73, 948955.

O Bosler , A Beaudet 1985. VIP neurons as prime synaptic targets for serotonin afferents in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: a combined radioautographic and immunocytochemical study. Journal of Neurocytology 14, 749763.

M Brewer , D Lange , R Baler , A Anzulovich 2005. SREBP-1 as a transcriptional integrator of circadian and nutritional cues in the liver. Journal of Biological Rhythms 20, 195205.

SA Brown , U Schibler 1999. The ins and outs of circadian timekeeping. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 9, 588594.

ED Buhr , S-H Yoo , JS Takahashi 2010. Temperature as a universal resetting cue for mammalian circadian oscillators. Science 330, 379385.

T Casey , O Patel , K Dykema , H Dover , K Furge , K Plaut 2009. Molecular signatures reveal the homeorhetic response to lactation may be orchestrated by circadian clocks. PLoS One 4, e7395.

RJ Collier , MA Miller , CL McLaughlin , HD Johnson , CA Baile 2008. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) and season on plasma and milk insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-I) and II (IGF-II) in lactating dairy cows. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 35, 1623.

GE Dahl 2008. Effects of short day photoperiod on prolactin signaling in dry cows: a common mechanism among tissues and environments?. Journal of Animal Science 86, 1014.

GE Dahl , D Petitclerc 2003. Management of photoperiod in the dairy herd for improved production and health. Journal of Animal Science 81 (suppl. 3), 1117.

GE Dahl , BA Buchanan , HA Tucker 2000. Photoperiodic effects on dairy cattle: a review. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 885893.

GE Dahl , TH Elsasser , AV Capuco , RA Erdman , RR Peters 1997. Effects of a long daily photoperiod on milk yield and circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I. Journal of Dairy Science 80, 27842789.

F Damiola 2000. Restricted feeding uncouples circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues from the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Genes and Developement 14, 29502961.

TK Darlington 1998. Closing the circadian loop: CLOCK-induced transcription of its own inhibitors per and tim. Science 280, 15991600.

K Darul , H Kruczynska 2004. Effect of melatonin on biochemical variables of the blood in dairy cows. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 52, 361367.

TJ DeVries , MA von Keyserlingk , KA Beauchemin 2003. Short communication: diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 40794082.

JK Drackley 1999. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award. Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier?. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 22592273.

S Eleswarapu , H Jiang 2005. Growth hormone regulates the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 gamma and other liver-enriched transcription factors in the bovine liver. Journal of Endocrinology 184, 95105.

O Froy 2007. The relationship between nutrition and circadian rhythms in mammals. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 28, 6171.

N Gekakis 1998. Role of the CLOCK protein in the mammalian circadian mechanism. Science 280, 15641569.

CB Green , JS Takahashi , J Bass 2008. The meter of metabolism. Cell 134, 728742.

RR Grummer , MC Wiltbank , PM Fricke , RD Watters , N Silva-Del-Rio 2010. Management of dry and transition cows to improve energy balance and reproduction. The Journal of Reproduction and Development 56 (suppl.), S22S28.

F Guillaumond , H Dardente , V Giguère , N Cermakian 2005. Differential control of Bmal1 circadian transcription by REV–ERB and ROR nuclear receptors. Journal Biological Rhythms 20, 391403.

DL Hadsell , AF Parlow , D Torres , J George , W Olea 2008. Enhancement of maternal lactation performance during prolonged lactation in the mouse by mouse GH and long-R3-IGF-I is linked to changes in mammary signaling and gene expression. Journal of Endocrinology 198, 6170.

M Hastings , JS O'Neill , ES Maywood 2007. Circadian clocks: regulators of endocrine and metabolic rhythms. Journal of Endocrinology 195, 187198.

L Hedlund , MM Lischko , MD Rollag , GD Niswender 1977a. Melatonin: daily cycle in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of calves. Science 195, 686687.

L Hedlund , SG Doelger , AJ Tollerton , MM Lischko , HD Johnson 1977b. Plasma growth hormone concentrations after cerebroventricular and jugular injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 156, 422425.

LL Hernandez , CM Stiening , JB Wheelock , LH Baumgard , AM Parkhurst , RJ Collier 2008. Evaluation of serotonin as a feedback inhibitor of lactation in the bovine. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 18341844.

B Jacobs , F Martin-Cora , C Fornal 2002. Activity of medullary serotonergic neurons in freely moving animals. Brain Research Reviews 40, 4552.

DJ Kennaway , JA Owens , A Voultsios , TJ Varcoe 2006. Functional central rhythmicity and light entrainment, but not liver and muscle rhythmicity, are clock independent. American Journal of Physiology Regulation, Integration, and Comparative Physiology 291, R1172R1180.

A Kohsaka , J Bass 2007. A sense of time: how molecular clocks organize metabolism. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 18, 411.

A Kohsaka , AD Laposky , KM Ramsey , C Estrada , C Joshu , Y Kobayashi , FW Turek , J Bass 2007. High-fat diet disrupts behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in mice. Cell Metabolism 6, 414421.

NJ Kuhn , DT Carrick , CJ Wilde 1980. Symposium: milk synthesis : lactose synthesis: The possibilities of regulation. Journal of Dairy Science 63, 328336.

K Kume 1999. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. Cell 98, 193205.

S LeBlanc 2010. Monitoring metabolic health of dairy cattle in the transition period. The Journal of Reproduction and Development 56 (suppl.), S29S35.

AM Lefcourt , J Bitman , S Kahl , DL Wood 1993. Circadian and ultradian rhythms of peripheral cortisol concentrations in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 26072612.

AM Lefcourt , J Bitman , DL Wood , RM Akers 1995. Circadian and ultradian rhythms of peripheral growth hormone concentrations in lactating dairy cows. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 12, 247256.

AM Lefcourt , JB Huntington , RM Akers , DL Wood , J Bitman 1999. Circadian and ultradian rhythms of body temperature and peripheral concentrations of insulin and nitrogen in lactating dairy cows. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 16, 4155.

R Lubetzky , Y Littner , FB Mimouni , S Dollberg , D Mandel 2006. Circadian variations in fat content of expressed breast milk from mothers of preterm infants. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 25, 151154.

R Lubetzky , FB Mimouni , S Dollberg , M Salomon , D Mandel 2007. Consistent circadian variations in creamatocrit over the first 7 weeks of lactation: a longitudinal study. Breastfeeding Medicine 2, 1518.

PD Maningat , P Sen , M Rijnkels , AL Sunehag , DL Hadsell , M Bray , MW Haymond 2009. Gene expression in the human mammary epithelium during lactation: the milk fat globule transcriptome. Physiological Genomics 37, 1222.

M Matsuda , T Imaoka , AJ Vomachka , GA Gudelsky , Z Hou , M Mistry , JP Bailey , KM Nieport , DJ Walther , M Bader , ND Horseman 2004. Serotonin regulates mammary gland development via an autocrine–paracrine loop. Developmental Cell 6, 193203.

J Mendoza 2007. Circadian clocks: setting time by food. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 19, 127137.

R Metz , X Qu , B Laffin , DJ Earnest , W Porter 2006. Circadian clock and cell cycle gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cells and in the developing mouse mammary gland. Developmental Dynamics 235, 263271.

CM Mikolayunas , DL Thomas , GE Dahl , TF Gressley , YM Berger 2008. Effect of prepartum photoperiod on milk production and prolactin concentration of dairy ewes. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 8590.

R Moore , A Halaris , B Jones 1978. Serotonin neurons of the midbrain raphe: ascending projections. Journal of Comparative Neurology 180, 417438.

RY Moore , JC Speh 2004. Serotonin innervation of the primate suprachiasmatic nucleus. Brain Research 1010, 169173.

FJ Mulligan , ML Doherty 2008. Production diseases of the transition cow. The Veterinary Journal 176, 39.

NI Nielsen , KL Ingvartsen , T Larsen 2003. Diurnal variation and the effect of feed restriction on plasma and milk metabolites in TMR-fed dairy cows. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A – Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 50, 8897.

M Noshiro , E Usui , T Kawamoto , H Kubo , K Fujimoto , M Furukawa , S Honma , M Makishima , K Honma , Y Kato 2007. Multiple mechanisms regulate circadian expression of the gene for cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a), a key enzyme in hepatic bile acid biosynthesis. Journal of Biological Rhythms 22, 299311.

JE Oates , FJ Bradshaw , SD Bradshaw , EJ Stead-Richardson , DL Philippe 2007. Reproduction and embryonic diapause in a marsupial: insights from captive female Honey possums, Tarsipes rostratus (Tarsipedidae). General and Comparative Endocrinology 150, 445461.

K Oishi , H Fukui , N Ishida 2000. Rhythmic expression of BMAL1 mRNA is altered in clock mutant mice: differential regulation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 268, 164171.

S Panda 2002. Coordinated transcription of key pathways in the mouse by the circadian clock. Cell 109, 307320.

RR Peters , HA Tucker 1978. Prolactin and growth hormone responses to photoperiod in heifers. Endocrinology 103, 229234.

RR Peters , LT Chapin , KB Leining , HA Tucker 1978. Supplemental lighting stimulates growth and lactation in cattle. Science 199, 911912.

RR Peters , LT Chapin , RS Emery , HA Tucker 1981. Milk yield, feed intake, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoid response of cows to supplemented light. Journal of Dairy Science 64, 16711678.

D Petitclerc , LT Chapin , HA Tucker 1984. Carcass composition and mammary development responses to photoperiod and plane of nutrition in holstein heifers. Journal of Animal Science 58, 913919.

D Petitclerc , RD Kineman , SA Zinn , HA Tucker 1985. Mammary growth response of Holstein heifers to photoperiod. Journal of Dairy Science 68, 8690.

G Piccione , G Caolaa , R Refinetti 2003. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and liver function in fed and food-deprived goats. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 134, 563572.

K Plaut , DE Bauman , N Agergaard , RM Akers 1987. Effect of exogenous prolactin administration on lactational performance of dairy cows. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 4, 279290.

R Pohjanvirta , PC Boutros , ID Moffat , J Linden , D Wendelin , AB Okey 2008. Genome-wide effects of acute progressive feed restriction in liver and white adipose tissue. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 230, 4156.

N Preitner , F Damiola , M Luis Lopez , J Zakany , D Duboule , U Albrecht , U Schibler 2002. The orphan nuclear receptor REV–ERB[alpha] controls circadian transcription within the positive limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator. Cell 110, 251260.

SM Reppert , DR Weaver 2002. Coordination of circadian timing in mammals. Nature 418, 935941.

AG Rius , GE Dahl 2006. Exposure to long-day photoperiod prepubertally may increase milk yield in first-lactation cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 20802083.

RD Rudic , P McNamara , AM Curtis , RC Boston , S Panda , JB Hogenesch , GA Fitzgerald 2004. BMAL1 and CLOCK, two essential components of the circadian clock, are involved in glucose homeostasis. PLoS Biology 2, e377.

M Ruiter , SE La Fleur , C van Heijningen , J van der Vliet , A Kalsbeek , RM Buijs 2003. The daily rhythm in plasma glucagon concentrations in the rat is modulated by the biological clock and by feeding behavior. Diabetes 52, 17091715.

EJ Sanchez-Barcelo , MD Mediavilla , SA Zinn , BA Buchanan , LT Chapin , HA Tucker 1991. Melatonin suppression of mammary growth in heifers. Biology of Reproduction 44, 875879.

U Schibler , J Ripperger , SA Brown 2003. Peripheral circadian oscillators in mammals: time and food. Journal of Biological Rhythms 18, 250260.

WJ Sheward , ES Maywood , KL French , JM Horn , MH Hastings , JR Seckl , MC Holmes , AJ Harmar 2007. Entrainment to feeding but not to light: circadian phenotype of VPAC2 receptor-null mice. Journal of Neuroscience 27, 43514358.

V Simonneaux , C Ribelayga 2003. Generation of the melatonin endocrine message in mammals: a review of the complex regulation of melatonin synthesis by norepinephrine, peptides, and other pineal transmitters. Pharmacologic Reviews 55, 325395.

S Sookoian , G Castano , C Gemma , TF Gianotti , CJ Pirola 2007. Common genetic variations in CLOCK transcription factor are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology 13, 42424248.

EP Stanisiewski , NK Ames , LT Chapin , CA Blaze , HA Tucker 1988a. Effect of pinealectomy on prolactin, testosterone and luteinizing hormone concentration in plasma of bull calves exposed to 8 or 16 hours of light per day. Journal of Animal Science 66, 464469.

K-A Stokkan , S Yamazaki , H Tei , Y Sakaki , M Menaker 2001. Entrainment of the circadian clock in the liver by feeding. Science 291, 490493.

K Storch , O Lipan , I Leykin , N Viswanathan , F Davis , W Wong , C Weitz 2002. Extensive and divergent circadian gene expression in liver and heart. Nature 417, 7883.

MA Stull , V Pai , AJ Vomachka , AM Marshall , GA Jacob , ND Horseman 2007. Mammary gland homeostasis employs serotonergic regulation of epithelial tight junctions. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences of The United States Of America 104, 1670816713.

FW Turek , C Joshu , A Kohsaka , E Lin , G Ivanova , E McDearmon , A Laposky , S Losee-Olson , A Easton , DR Jensen , RH Eckel , JS Takahashi , J Bass 2005. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian clock mutant mice. Science 308, 10431045.

C Vollmers , S Gill , L DiTacchio , SR Pulivarthy , HD Le , S Panda 2009. Time of feeding and the intrinsic circadian clock drive rhythms in hepatic gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 2145321458.

EH Wall , TL Auchtung-Montgomery , GE Dahl , TB McFadden 2005. Short communication: Short-day photoperiod during the dry period decreases expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling in mammary gland of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 31453148.

DK Welsh , DE Logothetis , M Meister , SM Reppert 1995. Individual neurons dissociated from rat suprachiasmatic nucleus express independently phased circadian firing rhythms. Neuron 14, 697706.

A Wirz-Justice 2006. Biological rhythm disturbances in mood disorders. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 21 (suppl. 1), S11S15.

PY Woon , PJ Kaisaki , J Braganca , MT Bihoreau , JC Levy , M Farrall , D Gauguier 2007. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (BMAL1) is associated with susceptibility to hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 104, 1441214417.

S Yamazaki , R Numano , M Abe , A Hida , R Takahashi , M Ueda , G Block , Y Sakaki , M Menaker , H Tei 2000. Resetting central and peripheral circadian oscillators in transgenic rats. Science 288, 682685.

Q Yang , R Kurotani , A Yamada , S Kimura , FJ Gonzalez 2006. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation during pregnancy severely impairs mammary lobuloalveolar development in mice. Endocrinology 147, 47724780.

SA Zinn , LT Chapin , HA Tucker 1986. Response of body weight and clearance and secretion rates of growth hormone to photoperiod in holstein heifers. Journal of Animal Science 62, 12731278.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *