Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Evaluation of titanium dioxide and chromic oxide as digestibility markers in ponies fed alfalfa hay in relation to marker dosing frequency

  • F. J. W. C. Schaafstra (a1), D. A. van Doorn (a1) (a2), J. T. Schonewille (a1), R. van den Boom (a2), M. Verschuur (a3), M. C. Blok (a4) and W. H. Hendriks (a1) (a3)...
Abstract

In equines, Cr2O3 is widely accepted as an indigestible marker, but there are health concerns regarding the carcinogenic properties of Cr2O3. Recently, TiO2 has been suggested to be an alternative digestibility marker in equines. However, a comparison between Cr2O3 and TiO2 has not been made in equines. Six Welsh pony geldings (initial BW: 254±3 kg; 7 years of age) fed chopped alfalfa hay were used to evaluate the use of TiO2 (Ti) and Cr2O3 (Cr) as markers for calculating apparent digestibility and to investigate the effect of frequency of marker administration on the measurement of digestibility values. Diets contained 4.65 kg dry matter (DM) chopped alfalfa hay supplemented with minerals, vitamins, TiO2 (3.3 g Ti/day) and Cr2O3 (3.2 g Cr/day). Ponies were dosed with either 3.3 g Ti and 3.2 g Cr once daily (DF1) or with 1.65 g Ti and 1.60 g Cr twice daily (DF2). After adaptation to the diets and procedures for 14 days, voluntary voided faeces were collected quantitatively over 7 days and analysed for moisture, ash, Ti and Cr. Apparent total tract DM digestibility (DMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) were calculated using the total faecal collection (TFC) and marker method (Ti and Cr). The overall mean cumulative faecal recovery of Cr and Ti (as % of intake) were 102.0% and 96.6%, respectively. Mean daily faecal recoveries of Cr as well as of Ti were not different (P=0.323; P=0.808, respectively) between treatments. Overall daily faecal recovery of Cr differed (P=0.019) from 100% when the marker was dosed once daily, whereas overall daily faecal recovery was similar to 100% for both administration frequencies when Ti was used as a marker. For both markers, the coefficient of variation of the mean faecal marker recovery between horses was lower when the markers were administrated twice per day. Across treatments, cumulative DMD and OMD estimated with Ti were similar (P=0.345; P=0.418, respectively) compared with those values determined by TFC method. When Cr was used, the calculated cumulative DMD tended (P=0.097) to be greater compared with those estimated with TFC, and cumulative OMD values were overestimated (P=0.013). Orally supplemented Ti recovery in the faeces of ponies fed chopped alfalfa hay with Ti administered once or twice daily was close to 100%, making it the preferred marker for digestibility trials in equines.

Copyright
Corresponding author
References
Hide All
Childs-Sanford, SE and Angel, CR 2006. Transit time and digestibility of two experimental diets in the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and domestic dog (Canis lupus). Zoo Biology 25, 369381.
Centraal Veevoederbureau (CVB) 2004. Het EWpa en VREp system. CVB documentatierapport No. 31. (In Dutch) Centraal Veevoederbureau, Lelystad, The Netherlands.
Dove, H and Mayes, RW 1991. The use of plant wax alkanes as marker substances in studies of the nutrition of herbivores: A review. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 42, 913952.
Fenton, TW and Fenton, M 1979. An improved procedure for the determination of chromic oxide in feed and faeces. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 59, 631634.
Food & Drug Administration (FDA) 2016. Summary of color additives for use in the United States in foods, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices online. Retrieved on 5 October 2016 from http://www.fda.gov/ForIndustry/ColorAdditives/ColorAddtiveInventories/ucm115641.htm#table1A.
Glindemann, T, Tas, BM, Wang, C, Alvers, S and Susenbeth, A 2009. Evaluation of titanium dioxide as an inert marker for estimating faecal excretion in grazing sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 152, 186197.
Guzman-Cedillo, AE, Corona, L, Castrejon-Pineda, F, Rosiles-Martínez, R and Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M 2016. Evaluation of chromium oxide and titanium dioxide as inert markers for calculating apparent digestibility in sheep. Journal of Applied Animal Research 45, 275279.
Haenlein, GFW, Smith, RC and Yoon, YM 1966. Determination of faecal excretion rate of horses with chromic oxide. Journal of Animal Science 25, 10911095.
Hafez, S, Junge, W and Kalm, E 1988. Schätzung der Verdaulichkeit mit einer Indikator-Methode bei Milchkühen im Vergleich zum Hohenheimer-Futterwert-Test. (In German). Archiv für Tierernaehrung 38, 929945.
Holland, JL, Kronfeld, DS, Sklan, D and Harris, PA 1998. Calculation of faecal kinetics in horses fed hay or hay and concentrates. Journal of Animal Science 76, 19371944.
Jagger, S, Wiseman, J, Cole, DJA and Craigon, J 1992. Evaluation of inert markers for the determination of ileal and faecal apparent digestibility values in pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 729739.
Kavanagh, S, Lynch, PB, O’Mara, F and Caffrey, PJ 2001. A comparison of total collection and marker technique for the measurement of apparent digestibility of diets for growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 89, 4958.
Lanzetta, VAS, Rezende, ASC, Saliba, EOS, Lana, AMQ, Rodriguez, NM and Moss, PCB 2009. Validação do Lipe® como método para determinar a digestibilidade dos nutrients em eqüinos. (In Portuguese). Revista Brasileira Zootecnia 38, 6974.
Myers, WD, Ludden, PA, Nayigihugu, V and Hess, BW 2006. Excretion patterns of titanium dioxide and chromic oxide in duodenal digesta and faeces of ewes. Small Ruminant Research 63, 135141.
Oliveira, C, de Almeida, FQ, de Filho, S, Vieira, AA, de Almeida, MI, Corassa, A, Lopes, BA and Macedo, R 2003. Estimativa da digestibilidade aparante de nutrients em dieta para eqïinos com o uso de óxida crômico e indicadores internos. (In Portuguese). Revista Brasileira Zootecnia 32, 16811689.
Peddie, J, Dewar, WA, Gilbert, AB and Waddington, D 1982. The use of titanium dioxide for determining apparent digestibility in mature domestic fowls (Gallus domesticus) . Journal of Agricultural Science 99, 233236.
Parkins, JJ, Snow, DH and Adams, S 1982. The apparent digestibility of ‘complete diet’ cubes given to thoroughbred horses and the use of chromic oxide as an inert faecal marker. British Veterinary Journal 138, 350355.
Patterson, DP, Cooper, SR, Freeman, DW and Teeter, RG 2002. Technical note: estimation of faecal output and dry matter digestibility using various chromic oxide marker methods in the horse. The Professional Animal Scientist 18, 176179.
Prigge, EC, Varga, GA, Vicini, JL and Reid, LR 1981. Comparison of ytterbium and chromium sesquioxide as faecal indicators. Journal of Animal Science 53, 16291633.
Sampaio, CB, Detmann, E, Valente, TNP, de Souza, MA, Valaderes Filho, SC and Paulino, MF 2011. Recuperação faecal e vício de tempo longo de indicadores internos e externos em ensaio de digestão com bovinos. (In Portuguese). Revista Brasileira Zootecnia 40, 174182.
Schaafstra, FJWC, van Doorn, DA, Schonewille, JT, Wartena, FC, Zoon, MV, Blok, MC and Hendriks, WH 2015. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different grass hays. Journal of Animal Science 93, 47424749.
Schaafstra, FJWC, van Doorn, DA, Schonewille, JT, van Riet, MMJ, Visser, P, Blok, MC and Hendriks, WH 2017. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios. Animal 11, 19221929.
Schaafstra, FJWC, van Doorn, DA, Schonewille, JT, Roelfsema, E, Westermann, CM, Dansen, O, Jacobs, M, Lee, J-Y, Spronck, EA, Blok, MC and Hendriks, WH 2018. Effect of exercise on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and faecal recovery of ADL and TiO2 in ponies. Animal, 16, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731118000356.
Sedman, RM, Beaumont, J, McDonald, TA, Reynolds, S, Krowech, G and Howd, R 2006. Review of the evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 24, 155182.
Short, FJ, Gorton, G, Wiseman, J and Boorman, KN 1996. Determination of titanium dioxide added as inert marker in chicken digestibility studies. Animal Feed Science and Technology 59, 215221.
Siqueira, RF, Gomes, RC, Rodrigues, PHM, Fukushima, RS, Lorenzo, CLF and Gobesso, AAO 2009. Uso da cutina na estimativa da digestibilidade aparente de dietas para equinos. (In Portuguese). The Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 61, 13731381.
Takagi, H, Hashimoto, Y, Yonemochi, C, Asai, Y, Yoshida, T, Ohta, Y, Ishimashi, T and Watanabe, R 2002. Usefulness of chromic oxide index method for determination of digestibility of nutrients in feeds for Thoroughbreds. Journal of Equine Science 13, 1922.
Titgemeyer, EC, Armendariz, CK, Bindel, DJ, Greenwood, RH and Löest, CA 2001. Evaluation of titanium dioxide as a digestibility marker for cattle. Journal of Animal Science 79, 10591063.
Vander Noot, GW, Symons, LD, Lydman, RK and Fonnesbeck, PV 1967. Rate of passage of various feedstuffs through the digestive tract of horses. Journal of Animal Science 26, 13091311.
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 35833597.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

animal
  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed