Skip to main content
×
Home

Impacts of stocking density on development and puberty attainment of replacement beef heifers

  • K. M. Schubach (a1), R. F. Cooke (a1), A. P. Brandão (a1) (a2), K. D. Lippolis (a1), L. G. T. Silva (a1) (a2), R. S. Marques (a1) and D. W. Bohnert (a1)...
Abstract

In all, 60 Angus×Hereford heifers were ranked by age and BW (210±2 days and 220±2 kg) on day 0, and assigned to: (a) one of three drylot pens (10×14 m pens; 10 heifers/pen) resulting in a stocking density of 14 m2/heifer (HIDENS; n=3), or (b) one of three pastures (25 ha pastures; 10 heifers/pasture), resulting in a stocking density of 25 000 m2/heifer (LOWDENS; n=3). Pastures were harvested for hay before the beginning of this experiment, and negligible forage was available for grazing to LOWDENS heifers during the experiment (days 0 to 182). All heifers received the same limited-fed diet, which averaged (dry matter basis) 4.0 kg/heifer daily of hay and 3.0 kg/heifer daily of a corn-based concentrate. Heifer shrunk BW was recorded after 16 h of feed and water withdrawal on days −3 and 183 for BW gain calculation. On day 0, heifers were fitted with a pedometer behind their right shoulder. Each week, pedometer results were recorded and blood samples were collected for puberty evaluation via plasma progesterone. Plasma samples collected on days 0, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 161 and 182 were also analyzed for cortisol concentrations. On days 0, 49, 98, 147 and 182, hair samples were collected from the tail switch for analysis of hair cortisol concentrations. On days 28, 102 and 175, blood samples were collected for whole blood RNA isolation and analysis of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and HSP72 mRNA expression. Heifers from LOWDENS had more (P<0.01) steps/week compared with HIDENS. No treatment effects were detected (P=0.82) for heifer BW gain. Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P⩽0.05) in LOWDENS compared with HIDENS heifers on days 84, 140, 161 and 182 (treatment×day interaction; P<0.01). Hair cortisol concentrations were greater (P<0.01) in HIDENS compared with LOWDENS heifers beginning on day 98 (treatment×day interaction; P<0.01). Heifers from LOWDENS had greater (P=0.04) mean mRNA expression of HSP72, and tended (P=0.09) to have greater mean mRNA expression of HSP70 compared with HIDENS. Heifers from HIDENS experienced delayed puberty attainment and had less (P<0.01) proportion of pubertal heifers on day 182 compared with LOWDENS (treatment×day interaction; P<0.01). In summary, HIDENS altered heifer stress-related and physiological responses, and delayed puberty attainment compared with LOWDENS.

Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail: reinaldo.cooke@oregonstate.edu
References
Hide All
Albin RC and Thompson GB 1990. Cattle feeding: a guide to management. Trafton Printing, Inc., Amarillo, TX, USA.
Burnett TA, Madureira AML, Silper BF, Nadalin A, Tahmasbi AM, Veira DM and Cerri RLA 2014. Short communication: factors affecting hair cortisol concentration in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 97, 76857690.
Carroll JA and Forsberg NE 2007. Influence of stress and nutrition on cattle immunity. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 23, 105149.
Cooke RF 2014. Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and B. indicus cattle. Journal of Animal Science 92, 53255333.
Cooke RF, Bohnert DW, Cappellozza BI, Mueller CJ and DelCurto T 2012. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. Journal of Animal Science 90, 35473555.
Cooke RF, Schubach KM, Marques RS, Peres RG, Silva LGT, Carvalho R, Cipriano RS, Bohnert DW, Pires AV and Vasconcelos JLM 2017. Effects of temperament on physiological, productive, and reproductive responses in Bos indicus beef cows. Journal of Animal Science 95, 18.
Dobson H and Smith RF 2000. What is stress and how does it affect reproduction? Animal Reproduction Science 60-61, 743752.
Febbraio MA, Ott P, Nielsen HB, Steensberg A, Keller C, Krustrup P, Secher NH and Pedersen BK 2002. Exercise induces hepatosplanchnic release of heat shock protein 72 in humans. Journal of Physiology 544, 957962.
Fraser D, Duncan IJ, Edwards SA, Grandin T, Gregory NG, Guyonnet V, Hemsworth PH, Huertas SM, Huzzey JM, Mellor DJ, Mench JA, Spinka M and Whay HR 2013. General principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application. The Veterinary Journal 198, 1927.
Grandin T 2014. Livestock handling and transport: theories and applications, 4th edition. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
Haley DB, Bailey DW and Stookey JM 2005. The effects of weaning beef calves in two stages on their behavior and growth rate. Journal of Animal Science 83, 22052214.
Hill EE, Zack E, Battaglini C, Viru M, Viru A and Hackney AC 2008. Exercise and circulating cortisol levels; the intensity threshold effect. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 31, 587591.
Hurnik H 1991. Recommended code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals – beef cattle. Agriculture Canada Publication 1870/E, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Huzzey JM, Nydam DV, Grant RJ and Overton TR 2012. The effects of overstocking Holstein dairy cattle during the dry period on cortisol secretion and energy metabolism. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 44214433.
Knight CW, Bailey DW, Faulkner D and Schafer DW 2015. Intake and grazing activity of mature range cows on Arizona rangelands. Proceedings, Western Section, American Society of Animal Science 66, 222224.
Lacetera N, Bernabucci U, Scalia D, Barisico L, Morera P and Nardone A 2006. Heat stress elicits different responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brown Swiss and Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 46064612.
Lamb RC, Barker BO, Anderson MJ and Walters JL 1979. Effects of forced exercise on two-year-old Holstein heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 62, 17911797.
Liu J, Ye G, Zhou Y, Liu Y, Zhao L, Liu Y, Chen X, Huang D, Liao SF and Huang K 2014. Feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture improves performance, energy status, and heat shock protein gene expression of lactating Holstein cows under heat stress. Journal of Animal Science 92, 24942502.
Mahmoud AI, Thompson FN, Peck DD, Mizinga KM, Leshin LS, Rund LA, Stuedemann JA and Kiser TE 1989. Difference in luteinizing hormone response to an opioid antagonist in beef heifers and cows. Biology of Reproduction 41, 431437.
Marques RS, Cooke RF, Rodrigues MC, Cappellozza BI, Larson CK, Moriel P and Bohnert DW 2016. Effects of organic or inorganic Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring. Journal of Animal Science 94, 12151226.
Milne KJ and Noble EG 2002. Exercise-induced elevation of HSP70 is intensity dependent. Journal of Applied Physiology 93, 561568.
Moya D, He ML, Jin L, Wang Y, Penner GB, Schwartzkopf-Genswein KS and McAllister TA 2015. Effect of grain type and processing index on growth performance, carcass quality, feeding behavior, and stress response of feedlot steers. Journal of Animal Science 93, 30913100.
Moya D, Schwatzkopf-Genswein KS and Veira DM 2013. Standarization of a non-invasive methodology to measure cortisol in hair of beef cattle. Livestock Science 158, 138144.
Mulliniks JT, Hawkins DW, Kane KK, Cox SH, Torrell LA, Scholljegerdes EJ and Petersen MK 2013. Metabolizable protein supply while grazing dormant winter forage during heifer development alters pregnancy and subsequent in-herd retention rate. Journal of Animal Science 91, 14091416.
Naito H, Powers SK, Demirel JA and Aoki J 2001. Exercise training increases heat shock protein in skeletal muscles of old rats. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33, 729734.
Noble EG, Milne KJ and Melling CWJ 2008. Heat shock proteins and exercise: a primer. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 33, 10501065.
National Research Council (NRC) 2000. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, 7th revised edition. National Academic Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Olson KC, Jaeger JR and Brethour JR 1992. Growth and reproductive performance of heifers overwintered in range or drylot environments. Journal of Production Agriculture 5, 7276.
Patterson DJ, Perry RC, Kiracofe GH, Bellows RA, Staigmiller RB and Corah LR 1992. Management considerations in heifer development and puberty. Journal of Animal Science 70, 40184035.
Perry GA, Larimore EL, Perry BL and Walker JA 2015. Grazing behavior of drylot developed beef heifers and the influence of post-AI supplementation on AI pregnancy success. Professional Animal Scientist 31, 264269.
Petersen MK, Muscha JM, Roberts AJ and Waterman RC 2014. Can method of weaning and subsequent development impact heifer fitness. Proceedings, Western Section, American Society of Animal Science 65, 116119.
Reis MM, Cooke RF, Cappellozza BI, Marques RS, Guarnieri Filho TA, Rodrigues MC, Bradley JS, Mueller CJ, Keisler DH, Johnson SE and Bohnert DW 2015. Creep-feeding to stimulate metabolic imprinting in nursing beef heifers: Impacts on heifer growth, reproductive, and physiological parameters. Animal 9, 15001508.
Rodrigues MC, Cooke RF, Marques RS, Arispe SA, Keisler DH and Bohnert DW 2015. Effects of oral meloxicam administration to beef cattle receiving lipopolysaccharide administration or vaccination against respiratory pathogens. Journal of Animal Science 93, 50185027.
Schillo KK, Hall JB and Hileman SM 1992. Effects of nutrition and season on the onset of puberty in the beef heifer. Journal of Animal Science 70, 39944005.
Thornton PK 2010. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365, 28532867.
Vandesompele J, de Preter K, Pattyn F, Poppe B, Van Roy N, de Paepe A and Speleman F 2002. Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biology 3, research0034-1.
Welch WJ 1992. Mammalian stress response: cell physiology, structure/function of stress proteins, and implications for medicine and disease. Physiological Reviews 72, 10631081.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

animal
  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 34 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 211 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 19th May 2017 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.