This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
H Adachi , Y Takemoto , T Bungo , T Ohkubo 2008. Chicken leptin receptor is functional in activating JAK-STAT pathway in vitro. Journal of Endocrinology 197, 335–342.
RS Ahima , JS Flier 2000. Leptin. Annual Review of Physiology 62, 413–437.
RS Ahima , J Dushay , SN Flier , D Prabakaran , JS Flier 1997. Leptin accelerates the onset of puberty in normal female mice. Journal of Clinical Investigations 99, 391–395.
KM Ajuwon , JL Kuske , DB Anderson , DL Hancock , KL Houseknecht , O Adeola , ME Spurlock 2003. Chronic leptin administration increases serum NEFA in the pig and differentially regulates PPAR expression in adipose tissue. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 14, 576–583.
SEM Almeida , LBS Santos , DT Passos , AO Corbellini , BMT Lopes , C Kirst , G Terra , JP Neves , PBD Goncalves , JCF Moraes , TDA Weimer 2008. Genetic polymorphisms at the leptin receptor gene in three beef cattle breeds. Genetics and Molecular Biology 31, 680–685.
M Altmann , E von Borell 2007. Leptin as an indicator for carcass composition in farm animals. Animal Science Journal 78, 449–459.
M Altmann , H Sauerwein , E von Borell 2005. Relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and carcass composition in fattening mutton: a comparison with ultrasound results. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 89, 326–330.
M Altmann , H Sauerwein , E von Borell 2006. Plasma leptin in growing lambs as a potential predictor for carcass composition and daily gain. Meat Science 74, 600–604.
AFT Amarante , PA Bricarello , RA Rocha , SM Gennari 2004. Resistance of Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France sheep to naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode infections. Veterinary Parasitology 120, 91–106.
M Amills , D Villalba , M Tor , A Mercade , D Gallardo , B Cabrera , N Jimenez , JL Noguera , A Sanchez , J Estany 2008. Plasma leptin levels in pigs with different leptin and leptin receptor genotypes. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 125, 228–233.
M Amstalden , MR Garcia , SW Williams , RL Stanko , SE Nizielski , CD Morrison , DH Keisler , GL Williams 2000. Leptin gene expression, circulating leptin, and luteinizing hormone pulsatility are acutely responsive to short-term fasting in pre-pubertal heifers: relationships to circulating insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1. Biology of Reproduction 63, 127–133.
S Anagnostoulis , AJ Karayiannakis , M Lambropoulou , A Efthimiadou , A Polychronidis , C Simopoulos 2008. Human leptin induces angiogenesis in vivo. Cytokine 42, 353–357.
N Aoki , M Kawamura , T Matsuda 1999. Lactation-dependent down regulation of leptin production in mouse mammary gland. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1427, 298–306.
CJ Ashworth , N Hoggard , L Thomas , JG Mercer , JM Wallace , RG Lea 2000. Placental leptin. Reviews of Reproduction 5, 18–24.
PA Asiamah , DG Betchel , C Waldner , FC Buchanan 2009. Effects of leptin Arg25Cys on peripheral mononuclear cell counts and antibody response to vaccination in beef cattle. Animal Genetics 40, 783–787.
L Attig , J Djiane , A Gertler , O Rampin , T Larcher , S Boukthir , PM Anton , JY Madec , I Gourdou , L Abdennebi-Najar 2008. Study of hypothalamic leptin receptor expression in low-birth-weight piglets and effects of leptin supplementation on neonatal growth and development. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism 295, E1117–E1125.
M Bagnasco , PS Kalra , SP Kalra 2002. Plasma leptin levels are pulsatile in adult rats: effects of gonadectomy. Neuroendocrinology 75, 257–263.
CA Baile , MA Della-Ferra , RJ Martin 2000. Regulation of body fat mass and metabolism by leptin. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 20, 105–127.
G Banos , JA Woolliams , BW Woodward , AB Forbes , MP Coffey 2008. Impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in leptin, leptin receptor, growth hormone receptor, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene loci on milk production, feed, and body energy traits of UK dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 3190–3200.
CR Barb , JB Barrett , RR Kraeling , GB Rampacek 2001a. Serum leptin concentrations, luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion during feed and metabolic fuel restriction in the prepubertal gilt. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 20, 47–63.
CR Barb , GJ Hausman , K Czaja 2005. Leptin: a metabolic signal affecting central regulation of reproduction in the pig. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29, 186–192.
CR Barb , GJ Hausman , KL Houseknecht 2001b. Biology of leptin in the pig. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21, 297–317.
CR Barb , GJ Hausman , TG Ramsay 2006. Leptin in farm animals. In Endocrine update series (ed. DV Castracane and MC Henson), pp. 263–308. Springer, New York, NY, USA.
O Bellmann , J Wegner , F Teuscher , F Schneider , K Ender 2004. Muscle characteristics and corresponding hormone concentrations in different types of cattle. Livestock Production Science 85, 45–57.
EP Berg , EL McFadin , KR Maddock , RN Goodwin , TJ Baas , DH Keisler 2003. Serum concentrations of leptin in six genetic lines of swine and relationship with growth and carcass characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 81, 167–171.
JK Bertrand , RD Green , WO Herring , DW Moser 2001. Genetic evaluation for beef carcass traits. Journal of Animal Science 79, E190–E200.
C Bjørbæk , S Uotani , B da Silva , JS Flier 1997. Divergent signaling capacities of the long and short isoforms of the leptin receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 32686–32695.
D Blache , RL Tellam , LM Chagas , MA Blackberry , PE Vercoe , GB Martin 2000. Level of nutrition affects leptin concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 165, 625–637.
SS Block , WR Butler , RA Ehrhardt , AW Bell , ME Van Amburgh , YR Boisclair 2001. Decreased concentration of plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows is caused by negative energy balance. Journal of Endocrinology 171, 339–348.
SS Block , JM Smith , RA Ehrhardt , MC Diaz , RP Rhoads , ME Van Amburgh , YR Boisclair 2003. Nutritional and developmental regulation of plasma leptin in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 3206–3214.
EAM Bokkers , P Koene 2003. Eating behaviour, and preprandial and postprandial correlations in male broiler and layer chickens. British Poultry Science 44, 538–544.
M Bonnet , Y Faulconnier , C Leroux , C Jurie , I Cassar-Malej , D Bauchart , P Boulesteix , D Pethick , J-F Hocquette , Y Chilliard 2007. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and leptin are related to marbling differences among Limousin and Angus or Japanese Black x Angus steers. Journal of Animal Science 85, 2882–2894.
M Bonnet , I Gourdou , C Leroux , Y Chilliard , J Djiane 2002. Leptin expression in the ovine mammary gland: putative sequential involvement of adipose, epithelial, and myoepithelial cells during pregnancy and lactation. Journal of Animal Science 80, 723–728.
P Borghetti , R Saleri , E Mocchegiani , A Corradi , P Martelli 2009. Infection, immunity and the neuroendocrine response. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 130, 141–162.
Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium2009. The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution. Science 324, 522–528.
MM Brandt , DH Keisler , DL Meyer , TB Schmidt , EP Berg 2007. Serum hormone concentrations relative to carcass composition of a random allotment of commercial – fed beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 85, 267–275.
V Bruggeman , OM Onagbesan , E Decuypere 2000. Body weight, fat content, liver weight and plasma leptin concentrations in broiler breeder females reared under ad libitum feeding, restricted feeding or combinations of both until age of first egg. British Poultry Science 41 (suppl. 1), 57–59.
FC Buchanan , CJ Fitzsimmons , AG van Kessel , TD Thue , DC Inkelman-Sim , SM Schmutz 2002. Association of a missense mutation in the bovine leptin gene with carcass fat content and leptin mRNA levels. Genetics Selection Evolution 34, 105–116.
FC Buchanan , AG van Kessel , YR Boisclair , HC Block , JJ McKinnon 2007. The leptin arg25cys affects performance, carcass traits and serum leptin concentrations in beef cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 87, 153–156.
FC Buchanan , AG van Kessel , C Waldner , DA Christensen , B Laarveld , SM Schmultz 2003. An association between a leptin single nucleotide polymorphism and milk and protein yield. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 3164–3166.
C Buettner , A Pocai , ED Muse , AM Etgen , MG Myers Jr, L Rossetti 2006. Critical role of STAT3 in leptin’s metabolic actions. Cell Metabolism 4, 49–60.
T Bungo , M Shimojo , Y Masuda , T Tachibanab , SJ Tanaka , K Sugahara , M Furuse 1999. Intracerebroventricular administration of mouse leptin does not reduce food intake in the chicken. Brain Research 817, 196–198.
DA Burt 2004. The chicken genome and the developmental biologist. Mechanisms of Development 121, 1129–1135.
WR Butler 2005. Inhibition of ovulation in the postpartum cow and the lactating sow. Livestock Production Science 98, 5–12.
JL Cameron , C Nosbisch 1991. Suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion during short-term food restriction in the adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Endocrinology 128, 1532–1540.
ND Cameron , JC Penman , E McCullough 2000. Serum leptin concentration in pigs selected for high or low daily food intake. Genetics Research 75, 209–213.
AL Campfield , FJ Smith , Y Guisez , R Devos , P Burn 1995. Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks. Science 269, 546–549.
J Caro , J Kolaczynski , M Nyce , J Ohannesian , I Opentanova , W Goldman , R Lynn , P Zhang , M Sinha , R Considine 1996. Decreased cerebrospinal-fluid/serum leptin ratio in obesity: a possible mechanism for leptin resistance. Lancet 348, 159–161.
S Cassy , M Picard , S Crochet , M Derouet , DH Keisler , M Taouis 2004. Peripheral leptin effect on food intake in young chickens is influenced by age and strain. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 27, 51–61.
RC Chebel , F Susca , JEP Santos 2008. Leptin genotype is associated with lactation performance and health of Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 2893–2900.
FF Chehab , ME Lim , R Lu 1996. Correction of the sterility defect in homozygous obese female mice by treatment with the human recombinant leptin. Nature Genetics 12, 318–320.
FF Chehab , K Mounzih , R Lu , ME Lim 1997. Early onset of reproductive function in normal female mice treated with leptin. Science 275, 88–90.
PK Chelikani , DJ Ambrose , DH Keisler , JJ Kennelly 2009. Effects of dietary energy and protein density on plasma concentrations of leptin and metabolic hormones in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 1430–1441.
PK Chelikani , DR Glimm , JJ Kennelly 2003. Tissue distribution of leptin and leptin receptor mRNA in the bovine. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 2369–2372.
G Chen , K Koyama , X Yuan , Y Lee , YT Zhou , R O’Doherty , CB Newgard , RH Unger 1996. Disappearance of body fat in normal rats induced by adenovirus-mediated leptin gene therapy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 93, 14795–14799.
Y Chen , ML Heiman 2000. Chronic leptin administration promotes lipid utilization until fat mass is greatly reduced and preserves lean mass of normal female rats. Regulatory Peptides 92, 113–119.
Y Chilliard , C Delavaud , M Bonnet 2005. Leptin expression in ruminants: nutritional and physiological regulations in relation with energy metabolism. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29, 3–22.
S Cinti , R De Matteis , C Picó , E Ceresi , A Obrador , C Maffeis , J Oliver , A Palou 2000. Secretory granules of endocrine and chief cells of human stomach mucosa contain leptin. International Journal of Obesity 24, 789–793.
S Cinti , RC Frederich , MC Zingaretti , R De Matteis , JS Flier , BB Lowell 1997. Immunohistochemical localization of leptin and uncoupling protein in white and brown adipose tissue. Endocrinology 138, 797–804.
IG Colditz 2002. Effects of the immune system on metabolism: implications for production and disease resistance in livestock. Livestock Production Science 75, 257–268.
DL Coleman 1973. Effects of parabiosis of obese with diabetes and normal mice. Diabetologia 9, 294–298.
R Considine , M Sinha , ML Heiman , A Kriauciunas , TW Stephens , MR Nyce , JP Ohannesian , CC Marco , LJ McKee , TL Bauer , JF Caro 1996. Serum immunoreactive leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 292–295.
RL Coop , PH Holmes 1996. Nutrition and parasite infection. International Journal for Parasitology 26, 951–962.
PM Corva , GV Fernández Macedo , LA Soria , J Papaleo Mazzucco , M Motter , EL Villarreal , A Schor , CA Mezzadra , LM Melucci , MC Miquel 2009. Effect of leptin gene polymorphisms on growth, slaughter and meat quality traits of grazing Brangus steers. Genetics and Molecular Research 8, 105–116.
MJ Cunningham , DK Clifton , RA Steiner 1999. Leptin’s actions on the reproductive axis: perspectives and mechanisms. Biology of Reproduction 60, 216–222.
HC Dai , LQ Long , XW Zhang , WM Zhang , XX Wu 2007. Cloning and expression of the duck leptin gene and the effect of leptin on food intake and fatty deposition in mice. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 20, 850–855.
M Daix , C Pirotte , JL Bister , F Wergifosse , C Cuvelier , JF Cabaraux , N Kirschvink , L Istasse , R Paquay 2008. Relationship between leptin content, metabolic hormones and fat deposition in three beef cattle breeds. Veterinary Journal 177, 273–278.
M D’Andrea , F Pilla , E Giuffra , D Waddington , AL Archibald 2008. Structural analysis and haplotype diversity in swine LEP and MC4R genes. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 125, 130–136.
JA Daniel , BK Whitlock , JA Baker , B Steele , CD Morrison , DH Keisler , JL Sartin 2002. Effect of body fat mass and nutritional status on 24-hour leptin profiles in ewes. Journal of Animal Science 80, 1083–1089.
C Delavaud , F Bocquier , Y Chilliard , DH Keisler , A Gertler , G Kann 2000. Plasma leptin determination in ruminants: effect of nutritional status and body fatness on plasma leptin concentration assessed by a specific RIA in sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 165, 519–526.
C Delavaud , A Ferlay , Y Faulconnier , F Bocquier , G Kann , Y Chilliard 2002. Plasma leptin concentration in adult cattle: effects of breed, adiposity, feeding level, and meal intake. Journal of Animal Science 80, 1317–1328.
N De Pedro , R Martinez-Alvarez , MJ Delgado 2006. Acute and chronic leptin reduces food intake and body weight in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of Endocrinology 188, 513–520.
MJ De Souza , DA Metzger 1991. Reproductive dysfunction in amenorrheic athletes and anorexic patients: a review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 23, 995–1007.
EA De Vuyst , ML Bauer , FC Cheng , J Mitchell , D Larson 2008. The impact of a leptin gene SNP on beef calf weaning weights. Animal Genetics 39, 284–286.
FB Diamond Jr, DC Eichler , G Duckett , EV Jorgensen , D Shulman , AW Root 1997. Demonstration of a leptin binding factor in human serum. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 233, 818–822.
L Doepel , H Lapierre , JJ Kennelly 2002. Peripartum performance and metabolism of dairy cows in response to prepartum energy and protein intake. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 2315–2334.
S Dridi , J Buyse , E Decuypere , M Taouis 2005a. Potential role of leptin in increase of fatty acid synthase gene expression in chicken liver. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29, 646–660.
S Dridi , Q Swennen , E Decuypere , J Buyse 2005b. Mode of leptin action in chicken hypothalamus. Brain Research 1047, 214–223.
FR Dunshea , DN D’Souza , DW Pethick , GS Harper , RD Warner 2005. Effects of dietary factors and other metabolic modifiers on quality and nutritional value of meat. Meat Science 71, 8–38.
CJ Dyer , JM Simmons , RL Matteri , DH Keisler 1997. cDNA cloning and tissue-specific gene expression of ovine leptin, NPY-Y1 receptor and NPY-Y2 receptor. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 14, 295–303.
RA Ehrhardt , RM Slepetsis , J Siegal-Willott , ME Van Amburgh , AW Bell , YR Boisclair 2000. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay to measure physiological changes of circulating leptin in cattle and sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 166, 519–528.
RA Ehrhardt , RM Slepetsis , AW Bell , YR Boisclair 2001. Maternal leptin is elevated during pregnancy in sheep. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21, 85–96.
J Fabian , LI Chiba , DL Kuhlers , LT Frobish , K Nadarjah , W McElhenney 2003. Growth performance, dry matter and nitrogen digestibilities, serum profile and carcass and meat quality of pigs with distinct genotypes. Journal of Animal Science 81, 1142–1149.
R Faggioni , KR Feingold , C Grunfeld 2001. Leptin regulation of the immune response and the immunodeficiency of malnutrition. FASEB Journal 15, 2565–2571.
IS Farooqi , S Jebb , G Langmack , C Cheetham , A Prentice , I Hughes , M McCamish , S O’Rahilly 1999. Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine 341, 879–884.
H Fei , HJ Okano , C Li , G-H Lee , C Zhao , R Darnell , JM Friedman 1997. Anatomic localization of alternatively spliced leptin receptors (Ob-R) in mouse brain and other tissues. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94, 7001–7005.
Y Feuermann , SJ Mabjeesh , L Niv-Spector , D Levin , A Shamay 2006. Prolactin affects leptin action in the bovine mammary gland via the mammary fat pad. Journal of Endocrinology 191, 407–413.
CJ Fitzsimmons , SM Schmutz , RD Bergen , JJ McKinnon 1998. A potential association between the BM 1500 microsatellite and fat deposition in beef cattle. Mammalian Genome 9, 432–434.
AB Forbes , M Warren , M Upjohn , B Jackson , J Jones , J Charlier , MT Fox 2009. Associations between blood gastrin, ghrelin, leptin, pepsinogen and Ostertagia ostertagi antibody concentrations and voluntary feed intake in calves exposed to a trickle infection with O. ostertagi. Veterinary Parasitology 162, 295–305.
RC Frederich , A Hamann , S Anderson , B Lollmann , BB Lowell , JS Flier 1995. Leptin levels reflect body lipid content in mice – evidence for diet-induced resistance to leptin action. Nature Medicine 1, 1311–1314.
JM Friedman , JL Halaas 1998. Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 395, 763–770.
MT Friedman-Einat , G Boswell , G Horev , IC Girishvarma , RT Dunn Talbot , PJ Sharp 1999. The chicken leptin gene: has it been cloned? General and Comparative Endocrinology 115, 354–363.
NC Friggens 2003. Body lipid reserves and the reproductive cycle: towards a better understanding. Livestock Production Science 83, 219–236.
MR Garcia , M Amstalden , SW Williams , RL Stanko , CD Morrison , DH Keisler , SE Nizielski , GL Williams 2002. Serum leptin and its adipose gene expression during pubertal development, the estrous cycle, and different seasons in cattle. Journal of Animal Science 80, 2158–2167.
D Gardan , F Gondret , I Louveau 2006. Lipid metabolism and secretory function of porcine intramuscular adipocytes compared with subcutaneous and perirenal adipocytes. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism 291, E372–E380.
PC Garnsworthy , AA Fouladi-Nashta , GE Mann , KD Sinclair , R Webb 2009. Effect of dietary-induced changes in plasma insulin concentrations during the early post partum period on pregnancy rate in dairy cows. Reproduction 137, 759–768.
TW Geary , EL McFadin , MD MacNeil , EE Grings , RE Short , RN Funston , DH Keisler 2003. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 81, 1–8.
A Gertler , J Simmons , DH Keisler 1998. Large-scale preparation of biologically active recombinant ovine obese protein (leptin). FEBS Letters 422, 137–140.
JI Gill , SC Bishop , C McCorquodale , JL Williams , P Wiener 2009. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle. Genetics Selection Evolution 41, 36–47.
PL Golden , TJ Maccagnan , WM Pardridge 1997. Human blood-brain barrier leptin receptor binding and endocytosis in isolated human brain microvessels. Journal of Clinical Investigations 99, 14–18.
MA Gorocica-Buenfil , FL Fluharty , T Bohn , SJ Schwartz , SC Loerch 2007. Effect of low vitamin A diets with high-moisture or dry corn on marbling and adipose tissue fatty acid composition of beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 85, 3355–3366.
MA Gorocica-Buenfil , FL Fluharty , SC Loerch 2008. Effect of vitamin A restriction on carcass characteristics and immune status of beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 86, 1609–1616.
GG Gosman , HI Katcher , RS Legro 2006. Obesity and the role of gut and adipose hormones in female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 12, 585–601.
P Grasso , MC Leinung , SP Ingher , DW Lee 1997. In vivo effects of leptin-related synthetic peptides on body weight and food intake in female ob/ob mice: localization of leptin activity to domains between amino acid residues 106–140. Endocrinology 138, 1413–1418.
AW Greer , YR Boisclair , M Stankiewicz , RW McAnulty , NP Jay , AR Sykes 2009. Leptin concentrations and the immune-mediated reduction of feed intake in sheep infected with the nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. British Journal of Nutrition 102, 954–957.
C Guilherme , A Bianchini , PE Martinez , RB Robaldo , EP Colares 2004. Serum leptin concentration during the terrestrial phase of the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonine (Carnivora: Phocidae). General and Comparative Endocrinology 139, 137–142.
S Guilmeau , M Buyse , A Bado 2004. Gastric leptin: a new manager of gastro-intestinal function. Current Opinion in Pharmacology 4, 561–566.
YK Guo , H Chen , XY Lan , B Zhang , CY Pan , LZ Zhang , CF Zhang , M Zhao 2008. Novel SNPs of the bovine LEPR gene and their associations with growth traits. Biochemical Genetics 46, 828–834.
JL Halaas , KS Gajiwala , M Maffei , SL Cohen , BT Chait , D Rabinowitz , RL Lallone , SK Burley , JM Friedman 1995. Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene. Science 269, 543–546.
RBS Harris 2000. Leptin – much more than a satiety signal. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 20, 45–75.
GJ Hausman , MV Dodson , K Ajuwon , M Azain , KM Barnes , LL Guan , Z Jiang , SP Poulos , RD Sainz , S Smith , M Spurlock , J Novakofski , ME Fernyhough , WG Bergen 2009. The biology and regulation of preadipocytes and adipocytes in meat animals. Journal of Animal Science 87, 1218–1246.
BJ Hayes , PJ Bowman , AJ Chamberlain , ME Goddard 2009. Invited review: genomic selection in dairy cattle: progress and challenges. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 433–443.
G Hen , S Yosefi , A Ronin , P Einat , CI Rosenblum , RJ Denver , M Friedman-Einat 2008. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor. Journal of Endocrinology 197, 325–333.
BA Henry , JW Goding , WS Alexander , AJ Tilbrook , BJ Canny , FR Dunshea , A Rao , A Mansell , IJ Clarke 1999. Central administration of leptin to ovariectomised ewes inhibits food intake without affecting the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland: evidence for a dissociation of effects on appetite and neuroendocrine function. Endocrinology 140, 1175–1182.
BA Henry , JW Goding , AJ Tilbrook , FR Dunshea , IJ Clarke 2001. Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin elevates the secretion of luteinising hormone without affecting food intake in long-term food-restricted sheep, but increases growth hormone irrespective of bodyweight. Journal of Endocrinology 168, 66–77.
MC Henson , VD Castracane 2006. Leptin in pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction 63, 1219–1228.
Y Higashiyama , H Abe , M Hayashi , K Hodate 2003. The comparison of plasma level and mRNA expression of leptin from Japanese Black steers and Holstein steers. Livestock Production Science 81, 247–255.
SM Hileman , J Tornøe , JS Flier , C Bjørbæk 2000. Transcellular transport of leptin by the short leptin receptor isoform ObRa in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Endocrinology 141, 1955–1961.
RA Hill , S Margetic , GG Pegg , C Gazzola 1998. Leptin: its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 22, 765–770.
J-F Hocquette , F Gondret , E Baeza , F Medale , C Jurie , DW Pethick 2010. Intramuscular fat content in meat-producing animals: development, genetic and nutritional control, and identification of putative markers. Animal 4, 303–319.
J-F Hocquette , S Lehnert , W Barendse , I Cassar-Malek , B Picard 2007. Recent advances in cattle functional genomics and their application to beef quality. Animal 1, 159–173.
G Horev , P Einat , T Aharoni , Y Eshdat , M Friedman-Einat 2000. Molecular cloning and properties of the chicken leptin receptor (CLEPR) gene. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 162, 95–106.
KL Hossner 1998. Cellular, molecular and physiological aspects of leptin: potential application in animal production. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 78, 463–472.
KL Houseknecht , CP Portocarrero 1998. Leptin and its receptors: regulators of whole-body energy homeostasis. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 15, 457–475.
KL Houseknecht , CA Baile , RL Matteri , ME Spurlock 1998. The biology of leptin: a review. Journal of Animal Science 76, 1405–1420.
KL Houseknecht , CS Mantzoros , R Kuliawat , E Hadro , JS Flier , BB Kahn 1996. Evidence for leptin binding to proteins in serum of rodents and humans: modulation with obesity. Diabetes 45, 1638–1643.
KL Houseknecht , MK McGuire , CP Portocarrero , MA McGuire , K Beerman 1997. Leptin is present in human milk and is related to maternal plasma leptin concentration and adiposity. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 240, 742–747.
JK Howard , GM Lord , G Matarese , S Vendetti , MA Ghatei , MA Ritter , RI Lechler , SR Bloom 1999. Leptin protects mice from starvation-induced lymphoid atrophy and increases thymic cellularity in ob/ob mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 104, 1051–1059.
F Hube , U Lietz , M Igel , PB Jensen , H Tornqvist , HG Joost , H Hauner 1996. Difference in leptin mRNA levels between omental and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from obese humans. Hormones and Metabolic Research 28, 690–693.
E Huff-Lonergan , TJ Baas , M Malek , JC Dekkers , K Prusa , MF Rothschild 2002. Correlations among selected pork quality traits. Journal of Animal Science 80, 617–627.
MO Huising , EJW Geven , CP Kruiswijk , SB Nabuurs , EH Stolte , FAT Spanings , BML Verburg-van Kemenade , G Flik 2006. Increased leptin expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after food intake but not after fasting or feeding to satiation. Endocrinology 147, 5786–5797.
KL Ingvartsen , YR Boisclair 2001. Leptin and the regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis and immunity with special focus on periparturient ruminants. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21, 215–250.
International Chicken Genome Sequencing Consortium2004. Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution. Nature 432, 695–716.
International Chicken Polymorphism Map Consortium2004. A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Nature 432, 717–722.
J Iqbal , S Pompolo , RV Considine , IJ Clarke 2000. Localization of leptin receptor-like immunoreactivity in the corticotropes, somatotropes and gonadotropes in the ovine anterior pituitary. Endocrinology 141, 1515–1520.
S Ishii , T Shibasaki , T Murakami , K Shima , I Wakabayashi 2000. Response of leptin mRNA to 24-h food deprivation and refeeding is influenced by age in rats. Regulatory Peptides 92, 45–50.
S Ji , GM Willis , RR Scott , ME Spurlock 1998. Partial cloning and expression of the bovine leptin gene. Animal Biotechnology 9, 1–14.
Z Jiang , JP Gibson 1999. Genetic polymorphisms in the leptin gene and their association with fatness in four pig breeds. Mammalian Genome 10, 190–193.
Z Jiang , SS Pappu , MF Rothschild 2007. Hitting the jackpot twice: identifying and patenting gene tests related to muscle lipid accumulation for meat quality in animals and type 2 diabetes/obesity in humans. Recent Patents on DNA & Gene Sequences 1, 100–111.
RM Johnson , TM Johnson , RL Londraville 2000. Evidence for leptin expression in fishes. Journal of Experimental Zoology 286, 718–724.
H Kadokawa , GB Martin 2006. A new perspective on management of reproduction in dairy cows: the need for detailed metabolic information, an improved selection index and extended lactation. Journal of Reproduction and Development 52, 161–168.
H Kadokawa , D Blache , Y Yamada , GB Martin 2000. Relationships between changes in plasma concentrations of leptin before and after parturition and the timing of first post-partum ovulation in high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 12, 405–411.
H Kadokawa , D Blache , GB Martin 2006. Plasma leptin concentrations correlate with luteinising hormone secretion in early postpartum Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 3020–3027.
H Kawachi , SH Yang , A Hamano , T Matsui , SB Smith , H Yano 2007. Molecular cloning and expression of bovine (Bos taurus) leptin receptor isoform mRNAs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 148, 167–173.
YH Kawakita , H Abe , AK Hodate , A Iguchi , M Kobayashi , T Mori , K Kasai , Y Tanai , Y Kanbe , H Mashayama , T Asada , T Miyashige 2001. The relation between plasma leptin concentrations and carcass lipid contents in Japanese Black steers. Livestock Production Science 73, 25–34.
AK Kelly , M McGee , DH Crews Jr, AG Fahey , AR Wylie , DA Kenny 2010. Effect of divergence in residual feed intake on feeding behavior, blood metabolic variables and body composition traits in growing beef heifers. Journal of Animal Science 88, 109–123.
GC Kennedy 1953. The role of depot fat in the hypothalamic control of food intake in the rat. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 140, 578–592.
YM Kennes , BD Murphy , F Pothier , MF Palin 2001. Characterization of swine leptin (LEP) polymorphisms and their association with production traits. Animal Genetics 32, 215–218.
EE Kershaw , JS Flier 2004. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89, 2548–2556.
JP Kile , BM Alexander , GE Moss , DM Hallford , TM Nett 1991. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone overrides the negative effect of reduced dietary energy on gonadotropin synthesis and secretion in ewes. Endocrinology 128, 843–849.
Z Kochan , J Karbowska , W Meissner 2006. Leptin is synthesized in the liver and adipose tissue of the dunlin (Calidris alpina). General and Comparative Endocrinology 148, 336–339.
T Komatsu , F Itoh , S Kushbiki , K Hodate 2005. Changes in gene expression of glucose transporters in lactating and non-lactating cows. Journal of Animal Science 83, 557–564.
HS Kong , JD Oh , SG Lee , YS Hong , WI Song , SJ Lee , HC Kim , BH Yoo , HK Lee , GJ Jeon 2006. Association of polymorphisms in bovine leptin gene with ultrasound measurements for improving in Korean cattle. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 19, 1691–1695.
K Konigsson , G Savoini , N Govoni , G Invernizzi , A Prandi , H Kindahl , MC Veronesi 2008. Energy balance, leptin, NEFA and IGF-1 plasma concentrations and resumption of post partum ovarian activity in Swedish Red and White breed cows. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 50: record no. 3.
PJ Kononoff , HM Deobald , EL Stewart , AD Laycock , FLS Marquess 2005. The effect of a leptin single nucleotide polymorphism on quality grade, yield grade, and carcass weight of beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 83, 927–932.
LA Kuehn , DJ Nonneman , JM Klindt , TH Wise 2009. Genetic relationships of body composition, serum leptin, and age at puberty in gilts. Journal of Animal Science 87, 477–483.
M Kulcsár , S Jánosi , T Lehtolainen , L Kátai , C Delavaud , O Balogh , Y Chilliard , S Pyörälä , P Rudas , G Huszenicza 2005. Feeding-unrelated factors influencing the plasma leptin level in ruminants. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29, 214–226.
H Kulig , M Kmieć 2009. Association between leptin gene polymorphisms and growth traits in Limousin cattle. Russian Journal of Genetics 45, 738–741.
B Kumar , SM Francis , JM Suttie , MP Thompson 1998. Expression of obese mRNA in genetically lean and fat selection lines of sheep. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 120, 543–548.
AY Kuo , MA Cline , E Werner , PB Siegel , DM Denbow 2005. Leptin effects on food and water intake in lines of chickens selected for high or low body weight. Physiology and Behaviour 84, 459–464.
R Lagonigro , P Wiener , F Pilla , JA Woolliams , JL Williams 2003. A new mutation in the coding region of the bovine leptin gene associated with feed intake. Animal Genetics 34, 371–374.
K Laud , I Gourdou , L Belair , DH Keisler , J Djiane 1999. Detection and regulation of leptin receptor mRNA in ovine mammary epithelial cells during pregnancy and lactation. FEBS Letters 463, 194–198.
J Licinio , AB Negrao , C Mantzoros , V Kaklamani , ML Wong , PB Bongiorno , PP Negro , A Mulla , JD Veldhuis , L Cearnal , JS Flier , PW Gold 1998. Sex differences in circulating human leptin pulse amplitude: clinical implications. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83, 4140–4147.
SC Liefers , MFW Te Pas , RF Veerkamp , T Van Der Lende 2002a. Associations between leptin gene polymorphisms and production, live weight, energy balance, feed intake and fertility in Holstein heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 1633–1638.
SC Liefers , RF Veerkamp , MFW Te Pas , Y Chilliard , T Van Der Lende 2005. Genetics and physiology of leptin in periparturient dairy cows. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29, 227–238.
SC Liefers , RF Veerkamp , MFW Te Pas , C Delavaud , Y Chilliard , T Van Der Lende 2002b. A missense mutation in the bovine leptin receptor gene is associated with leptin concentrations during late pregnancy. Animal Genetics 35, 138–141.
SC Liefers , RF Veerkamp , MFW Te Pas , C Delavaud , Y Chilliard , T Van Der Lende 2003. Leptin concentrations in relation to energy balance, milk yield, live weight and estrus in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 799–807.
J Lin , CR Barb , RL Matteri , RR Kraeling , X Chen , RJ Meinersmann , GB Rampacek 2000. Long form leptin receptor mRNA expression in the brain, pituitary, and other tissues in the pig. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 19, 53–61.
JC Litten , A Mostyn , J Laws , AM Corson , ME Symonds , L Clark 2008. Effect of acute administration of recombinant human leptin during the neonatal period on body temperature and endocrine profile of the piglet. Neonatology 93, 171–177.
SM Liu , NR Adams , JB Briegel , TL Smith , GB Martin 2007a. Effect of genetic resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin in merino sheep. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47, 905–911.
XJ Liu , IC Dunn , PJ Sharp , T Boswell 2007b. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of a short form chicken leptin receptor mRNA. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 32, 155–166.
MC Loiselle , C Ster , BG Talbot , X Zhao , GF Wagner , YR Boisclair , P Lacasse 2009. Impact of postpartum milking frequency on the immune system and the blood metabolite concentration of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 1900–1912.
EL McFadin , DH Keisler , TB Schmidt , CL Lorenzen , EP Berg 2003. Correlations between serum concentrations of leptin and beef carcass composition and quality. Journal of Muscle Foods 14, 81–87.
MN Maciel , DA Zieba , M Amstalden , DH Keisler , JP Neves , GL Williams 2004. Chronic administration of recombinant ovine leptin in growing beef heifers: effects on secretion of LH, metabolic hormones and timing of puberty. Journal of Animal Science 82, 2930–2936.
Z Madeja , T Adamowicz , A Chmurzynska , T Jankowski , J Melonek , M Switonski , T Strabel 2009a. Effect of leptin gene polymorphisms on breeding value for milk production traits. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 3925–3927.
ZE Madeja , E Warzych , J Peippo , D Lechniak , M Switonski 2009b. Gene expression and protein distribution of leptin and its receptor in bovine oocytes and preattachment embryos produced in vitro. Animal 3, 568–578.
M Maffei , J Halaas , E Ravussin , RE Pratley , GH Lee , Y Zhang , H Fei , S Kim , R Lallone , S Ranganathan , PS Kern , JM Friedman 1995. Leptin levels in human and rodent: measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects. Nature Medicine 1, 1155–1161.
NM Malik , ND Carter , JF Murray , RJ Scaramuzzi , CA Wilson , MJ Stock 2001. Leptin requirement for conception, implantation, and gestation in the mouse. Endocrinology 142, 5198–5202.
GE Mann , SJ Mann , D Blache , R Webb 2005. Metabolic variables and plasma leptin concentrations in dairy cows exhibiting reproductive cycle abnormalities identified through milk progesterone monitoring during the post partum period. Animal Reproduction Science 88, 191–202.
S Margetic , C Gazzola , GG Pegg , RA Hill 2002a. Leptin: a review of its peripheral actions and interactions. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 26, 1407–1433.
S Margetic , C Gazzola , GG Pegg , RA Hill 2002b. Characterisation of leptin binding in bovine kidney membranes. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 23, 411–424.
MJ Meyer , AV Capuco , DA Ross , LM Lintault , ME Van Amburgh 2006. Developmental and nutritional regulation of the prepubertal bovine mammary gland. ll. Epithelial cell proliferation, parenchymal accretion rate and allometric growth. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 4298–4304.
JL Miner 2004. The adipocyte as an endocrine cell. Journal of Animal Science 82, 935–941.
J Mitchell , EA DeVuyst , ML Bauer , DL Larson 2009. Cow-calf profitability and leptin genotyping. Agricultural Economics 40, 113–118.
CT Montague , JB Prins , L Sanders , J Zhang , CP Sewter , J Digby , CD Byrne , S O’Rahilly 1998. Depot-related gene expression in human subcutaneous and omental adipocytes. Diabetes 47, 1384–1391.
A Morise , I Louveau , I Le Huërou-Luron 2008. Growth and development of adipose tissue and gut and related endocrine status during early growth in the pig: impact of low birth weight. Animal 2, 73–83.
CD Morrison , JA Daniel , BJ Holmberg , J Djiane , N Raver , A Gertler , DH Keisler 2001. Central infusion of leptin into well-fed and undernourished ewe lambs: effects on feed intake and serum concentrations of growth hormone and luteinizing hormone. Journal of Endocrinology 168, 317–324.
K Mounzih , J Qiu , A Ewart-Toland , FF Chehab 1998. Leptin is not necessary for gestation and parturition but regulates maternal nutrition via a leptin resistance state. Endocrinology 139, 5259–5262.
C Muñoz , AF Carson , MA McCoy , LER Dawson , ARG Wylie , AW Gordon 2009a. Effects of plane of nutrition of ewes in early and mid-pregnancy on performance of the offspring: female reproduction and male carcass characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 87, 3647–3655.
G Muñoz , E Alves , A Fernández , C Óvilo , C Barragán , J Estellé , R Quintanilla , JM Folch , L Silió , MC Rodríguez , AI Fernández 2009b. QTL detection on porcine chromosome 12 for fatty-acid composition and association analyses of the fatty acid synthase, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha genes. Animal Genetics 38, 639–646.
K Ninov , MC Ledur , HJ Alves , M Fernandes do Rosário , K Nones , LL Coutinho 2008. Investigation of leptin gene in broiler and layer chicken lines. Scientia Agricola 65, 214–219.
JD Nkrumah , DH Keisler , DH Crews Jr, JA Basarab , Z Wang , C Li , MA Price , EK Okine , SS Moore 2007. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of serum leptin concentration with performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 85, 2147–2155.
JD Nkrumah , C Li , J Yu , C Hansen , DH Keisler , SS Moore 2005. Polymorphisms in the bovine leptin promoter associated with serum leptin concentration, growth, feed intake, feeding behavior, and measures of carcass merit. Journal of Animal Science 83, 20–28.
S Nonaka , T Hashizume , T Yamashita 2006. Effects of leptin and leptin peptide amide on the release of luteinising hormone, growth hormone and prolactin from cultured porcine anterior pituitary cells. Animal Science Journal 77, 47–52.
JV Norgaard , MO Nielsen , PK Theil , MT Sorensen , S Safayi , K Sejrsen 2008. Development of mammary glands of fat sheep submitted to restricted feeding during late pregnancy. Small Ruminant Research 76, 155–165.
H Ogasawara , S Ohwada , Y Nagai , Y Taketa , M Matsuzaki , S Tanaka , K Watanabe , H Aso , T Yamaguchi 2008. Localisation of leptin and leptin receptor in the bovine adenohypophysis. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 35, 8–15.
T Ohkubo , M Nishio , M Tsurudome , M Ito , Y Ito 2007. Existence of leptin receptor protein in chicken tissues: isolation of a monoclonal antibody against chicken leptin receptor. General and Comparative Endocrinology 151, 269–273.
G Oikonomou , K Angelopoulou , G Arsenos , D Zygoyiannis , G Banos 2009. The effects of polymorphisms in the DGAT1, leptin and growth hormone receptor gene loci on body energy, blood metabolic and reproductive traits of Holstein cows. Animal Genetics 40, 10–17.
A Oka , Y Maruo , T Miki , T Yamasaki , T Saito 1998. Influence of vitamin A on the quality of beef from the Tajima strain of Japanese Black cattle. Meat Science 48, 159–167.
RM Ortiz , DS Houser , CE Wade , CL Ortiz 2003. Hormonal changes associated with the transition between nursing and natural fasting in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). General and Comparative Endocrinology 130, 78–83.
C Ovilo , A Fernandez , JL Noguera , C Barragan , R Leton , C Rodriguez , A Mercade , E Alves , JM Folch , L Varona , M Toro 2005. Fine mapping of porcine chromosome 6 QTL and LEPR effects on body composition in multiple generations of an Iberian by Landrace intercross. Genetics Research 85, 57–67.
HE Paczoska-Eliasiewicz , A Gertler , M Proszkowiec , J Proudman , A Hrabia , A Sechman , M Mika , T Jacek , S Cassy , N Raver , J Rzasa 2003. Attenuation by leptin of the effects of fasting on ovarian function in hens (Gallus domesticus). Reproduction 126, 739–751.
HE Paczoska-Eliasiewicz , M Proszkowiec-Weglarz , J Proudman , T Jacek , M Mika , A Sechman , J Rzasa , A Gertler 2006. Exogenous leptin advances puberty in domestic hen. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 31, 211–226.
W Pan , H Hsuchou , T Hong , A Kastin 2008. Developmental changes of leptin receptors in cerebral microvessels: unexpected relation to leptin transport. Endocrinology 149, 877–885.
L Pannier , T Sweeney , RM Hamill , F Ipek , PC Stapleton , AM Mullen 2009. Lack of an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine leptin gene and intramuscular fat in Bos taurus cattle. Meat Science 81, 731–737.
O Peixoto J de , SEF Guimarães , PS Lopes , MAM Soares , AV Pires , MVG Barbosa , A Torres R de , A e Silva M de 2006. Associations of leptin gene polymorphisms with production traits in pigs. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 123, 378–383.
MA Pelleymounter , MJ Cullen , MB Baker , R Hecht , D Winters , T Boone , F Collins 1995. Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice. Science 269, 540–543.
L Pinotti , F Rosi 2006. Leptin in bovine colostrum and milk. Hormone and Metabolism Research 38, 89–93.
V Rago , S Aquila , C Guido , A Carpino 2009. Leptin and its receptor are expressed in the testis and in the epididymis of young and adult pigs. The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 292, 736–745.
TG Ramsay , MP Richards 2005. Leptin and leptin receptor expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in response to in vivo porcine somatotropin treatment. Journal of Animal Science 83, 2501–2508.
TG Ramsay , X Yan , C Morrison 1998. The obesity gene in swine: sequence and expression of porcine leptin. Journal of Animal Science 76, 484–490.
TG Ramsay , MJ Stoll , TJ Caperna 2010. Adipokine gene transcription level in adipose tissue of runt piglets. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 155, 97–105.
M Reist , D Erdin , D von Euw , K Tschuemperlin , H Leuenberger , Y Chilliard , HM Hammon , C Morel , C Philipona , Y Zbinden , N Kuenzi , JW Blum 2002. Estimation of energy balance at the individual and herd level using blood and milk traits in high-yielding dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 3314–3327.
MQ Ren , J Wegner , O Bellmann , GA Brockmann , F Schneider , F Teuscher , K Ender 2002. Comparing mRNA levels of genes encoding leptin, leptin receptor, and lipoprotein lipase between dairy and beef cattle. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 23, 371–381.
MP Richards 2003. Genetic regulation of feed intake and energy balance in poultry. Poultry Science 82, 907–916.
MP Richards , SM Poch 2003. Molecular cloning and expression of the turkey leptin receptor gene. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 136, 833–846.
MP Richards , TJ Caperna , TH Elsasser , MC Ashwell , JP McMurtry 2000. Design and application of a polyclonal peptide antiserum for the universal detection of leptin protein. Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods 45, 147–156.
C Robert , MF Palin , N Coulombe , C Roberge , FG Silversides , BF Benkel , RM McKay , G Pelletier 1998. Backfat thickness in pigs is positively associated with leptin mRNA levels. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 78, 473–482.
FL Rock , SW Altmann , M van Heek , RA Kastelein , JF Bazan 1996. The leptin haemopoietic cytokine fold is stabilized by an intrachain disulfide bond. Hormones and Metabolic Research 28, 649–652.
M Rosenbaum , A Pietrobelli , JR Vasselli , SB Heymsfield , RL Leibel 2001. Sexual dimorphism in circulating leptin concentrations is not accounted for by differences in adipose tissue distribution. International Journal of Obesity 25, 1365–1371.
T Ruf , G Heldmaier 1992. Reduced locomotor activity following daily torpor in the Djungarian hamsters: recovery from hypothermia? Naturwissenschaften 79, 574–575.
MF Saad , S Damani , RL Gingerich , MG Riad-Gabriel , A Khan , R Boyadjian , SD Jinagouda , K El-Tawil , RK Rude , V Kamdar 1997. Sexual dimorphism in plasma leptin concentration. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82, 579–584.
FB Sandberg , GC Emmans , I Kyriazakis 2006. A model for predicting feed intake of growing animals during exposure to pathogens. Journal of Animal Science 84, 1552–1566.
S Sasaki , AC Clutter , D Pomp 1996. Assignment of the porcine obese (leptin) gene to chromosome 18 by linkage analysis of a new PCR-based polymorphism. Mammalian Genome 7, 471–472.
K Sato , M Nishida , Y Akiba 2003. Nutritional modulation of leptin receptor messenger RNA in broiler chickens. Journal of Poultry Science 40, 13–20.
LR Schaeffer 2006. Strategy for applying genome-wide selection in dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 123, 218–223.
FS Schenkel , SP Miller , X Ye , SS Moore , JD Nkrumah , C Li , J Yu , IB Mandell , JW Wilton , JL Williams 2005. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits of beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 83, 2009–2020.
TZ Shan , YZ Wang , J Guo , X Chu , JX Liu , ZR Xu 2008. The body weight-related differences of leptin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 21, 161–166.
ZD Shi , XB Shao , N Chen , YC Yu , YZ Bi , SD Liang , JB Williams , M Taouis 2006. Effects of immunisation against leptin on feed intake, weight gain, fat deposition and laying performance in chickens. British Poultry Science 47, 88–94.
H Shimizu , Y Shimomura , Y Nakanishi , T Futawateri , K Ohtani , N Sato , M Mori 1997. Estrogen increases in vivo leptin production in rats and human subjects. Journal of Endocrinology 154, 285–292.
SC Shin , ER Chung 2007. Association of SNP marker in the leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits in korean cattle. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 20, 1–6.
LFP Silva , BE Etchebarne , MSW Nielsen , JS Liesman , M Kiupel , MJ VandeHaar 2008. Intramammary infusion of leptin decreases proliferation of mammary epithelial cells in prepubertal heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 3034–3044.
LFP Silva , MJ VandeHaar , MSW Nielsen , GW Smith 2002. Evidence for a local effect of leptin in bovine mammary gland. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 3277–3286.
LF Silva , JS Liesman , BE Etchebarne , MS Nielsen , MJ Vandehaar 2005. Short communication: intramammary infusion of IGF-I increases bromodeoxyuridine labeling in mammary epithelial cells of prepubertal heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 2771–2773.
A Sirotkin , J Rafay , J Kotwica 2009. Leptin controls rabbit ovarian function in vivo and in vitro: possible interrelationships with ghrelin. Theriogenology 72, 765–772.
JL Smith , LG Sheffield 2002. Production and regulation of leptin in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 22, 145–154.
SM Smith-Kirwin , DM O’Connor , J Johnston , E De Lancey , SG Hassink , VL Funanage 1998. Leptin expression in human mammary epithelial cells and breast milk. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83, 1810–1813.
R Solberg , V Aas , GH Thoresen , ET Kase , CA Drevon , AC Rustan , JE Reseland 2005. Leptin expression in human primary skeletal muscle cells is reduced during differentiation. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 96, 89–96.
M Stachowiak , M Mackowski , Z Madeja , M Szydlowski , A Buszka , P Kaczmarek , B Rubis , P Mackowiak , KW Nowak , M Switonski 2007. Polymorphism of the porcine leptin gene promoter and analysis of its association with gene expression and fatness traits. Biochemical Genetics 45, 245–253.
RT Stone , E Casas , TPL Smith , JW Keele , G Harhay , GL Bennett , M Koohmaraie , TL Wheeler , SD Shackelford , WM Snelling 2005. Identification of genetic markers for fat deposition and meat tenderness on bovine chromosome 5: development of a low-density single nucleotide polymorphism map. Journal of Animal Science 83, 2280–2288.
RT Stone , SM Kappes , CW Beattie 1996. The bovine homolog of the obese gene maps to chromosome 4. Mammalian Genome 7, 399–400.
AL Strat , TA Kokta , MV Dodson , A Gertler , Z Wu , RA Hill 2005. Early signaling interactions between the insulin and leptin pathways in bovine myogenic cells. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1744, 164–175.
A Summer , R Saleri , M Malacarne , S Bussolati , V Beretti , A Sabbioni , P Superchi 2009. Leptin in sow: influence on the resumption of cycle activity after weaning and on the piglet gain. Livestock Science 124, 107–111.
K Suzuki , K Inomata , K Katoh , H Kadowaki , T Shibata 2009. Genetic correlations among carcass cross-sectional fat area ratios, production traits, intramuscular fat, and serum leptin concentration in Duroc pigs. Journal of Animal Science 87, 2209–2215.
M Taouis , JW Chen , C Davidaud , J Dupont , M Derouet , J Simon 1998. Cloning the chicken leptin gene. Gene 208, 239–242.
LA Tartaglia 1997. The leptin receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272, 6093–6096.
LA Tartaglia , M Dembski , X Weng , N Deng , J Culpepper , R Devos , GJ Richards , LA Campfield , FT Clark , J Deeds , C Muir , S Sanker , A Moriarty , KJ Moore , JS Smutko , GG Mays , EA Woolf , CA Monroe , RI Tepper 1995. Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R. Cell 83, 1263–1271.
L Thomas , JM Wallace , RP Aitken , JG Mercer , P Trayhurn , N Hoggard 2001. Circulating leptin during ovine pregnancy in relation to maternal nutrition, body composition and pregnancy outcome. Journal of Endocrinology 169, 465–476.
SR Thorn , MJ Meyer , ME Van Amburgh , YR Boisclair 2007. Effect of estrogen on leptin and expression of leptin receptor transcripts in prepubertal dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 3742–3750.
SR Thorn , S Purup , WS Cohick , M Vestergaard , K Sejrsen , YR Boisclair 2006. Leptin does not act directly on mammary epithelial cells in prepubertal dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 1467–1477.
T Tokuda , S Kono , T Fujihara 2001. The relationships between leptin and vitamin A levels in plasma of fattening cattle supplemented with vitamin A. Animal Science 73, 433–441.
T Tokuda , T Matsui , H Yano 2000. Effects of light and food on plasma leptin concentrations in ewes. Animal Science 71, 235–242.
RJ Treacher , IM Reid , CJ Roberts 1986. Effect of body condition at calving on the health and performance of dairy cows. Animal Production 43, 1–6.
S Uotani , C Bjørbaek , J Tornøe , JS Flier 1999. Functional properties of leptin receptor isoforms: internalization and degradation of leptin and ligand-induced receptor downregulation. Diabetes 48, 279–286.
J Valderrabano , C Gomez-Rincon , J Uriarte 2006. Effect of nutritional status and fat reserves on the periparturient immune response to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology 141, 122–131.
T Van der Lende , MFW Te Pas , RF Veerkamp , SC Liefers 2005. Leptin gene polymorphisms and their phenotypic associations. Vitamins and Hormones 71, 373–404.
MH Vickers , PD Gluckman , AH Coveny , PL Hofman , WS Cutfield , A Gertler , BH Breier , M Harris 2005. Neonatal leptin treatment reverses developmental programming. Endocrinology 146, 4211–4216.
D Villalba , M Tor , O Vidal , L Bosch , J Reixach , M Amills , A Sanchez , J Estany 2009. An age-dependent association between a leptin C3469T SNP and intramuscular fat content in pigs. Livestock Science 121, 335–338.
AL Vincent , L Wang , MF Rothschild 1997. Rapid communication: a restriction fragment length polymorphism in the porcine leptin receptor (LEPR) gene. Journal of Animal Science 75, 2287.
M Wabitsch , WF Blum , R Muche , M Braun , F Hube , W Rascher , E Heinze , W Teller , H Hauner 1997. Contribution of androgens to the gender difference in leptin production in obese children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Investigation 100, 808–813.
Y Wang , H Li , YD Zhang , Z-L Gu , ZH Li , Q-G Wang 2006. Analysis on association of a SNP in the chicken OBR gene with growth and body composition traits. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 19, 1706–1710.
J Wegner , P Huff , CP Xie , F Schneider , F Teuscher , PS Mir , Z Mir , EC Kazala , RJ Weselake , K Ender 2001. Relationship of plasma leptin concentration to intramuscular fat content in beef from crossbred Wagyu cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 81, 451–457.
CS Whisnant , RJ Harrell 2002. Effect of short-term feed restriction and refeeding on serum concentrations of leptin, luteinizing hormone and insulin in ovariectomized gilts. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 22, 73–80.
NC Whitley , DJ O’Brien , RW Quinn , DH Keisler , EL Walker , MA Brown 2009. Milk leptin in sows and blood leptin and growth of their offspring. Journal of Animal Science 87, 1659–1663.
GL Williams , M Amstalden , MR Garcia , RL Stanko , SE Nizielski , CD Morrison , DH Kiesler 2002. Leptin and its role in the central regulation of reproduction in cattle. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 23, 339–349.
A Wójcik-Gładysz , M Wańkowska , T Misztal , K Romanowicz , J Polkowska 2009. Effect of intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin on the secretory activity of the GnRH/LH axis in fasted prepubertal lambs. Animal Reproduction Science 114, 370–383.
J Wolinski , M Biernat , P Guilloteau , BR Westrom , R Zabielski 2003. Exogenous leptin controls the development of the small intestine in neonatal piglets. Journal of Endocrinology 177, 215–222.
ARG Wylie , SM Woods , AF Carson , MA McCoy 2008. Periprandial changes in metabolite and metabolic hormone concentrations in high genetic merit dairy heifers and their relationship to energy balance in early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 577–586.
M Yacobovitz , G Solomon , EE Gusakovsky , B Levavi-Sivan , A Gertler 2008. Purification and characterization of recombinant pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) leptin. General and Comparative Endocrinology 156, 83–90.
T Yamada , S-I Kawakami , N Nakanishi 2003. The relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and the distribution of body fat in crossbred steers. Animal Science Journal 74, 95–100.
T Yan , CS Mayne , TWJ Keady , RE Agnew 2006. Effects of dairy cow genotype with two planes of nutrition on energy partitioning between milk and body tissue. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 1031–1042.
SH Yang , H Kawachi , MA Khan , SY Lee , HS Kim , K Ha Jong , WS Lee , HJ Lee , KS Ki , SB Kim , S Sakaguchi , S Maruyama , H Yano 2008. Development of bovine specific leptin radioimmunoassay and relationship of plasma leptin with vitamin A and age of Wagyu. Asian – Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 21, 1286–1295.
S Yonekura , A Oka , M Noda , N Uozumi , T Yonezawa , K Katoh , Y Obara 2002. Relationship between serum leptin concentrations and the marbling scores in Japanese Black cattle. Animal Science Journal 73, 51–57.
WH Yu , M Kimura , A Walczewska , S Karanth , SM McCann 1997. Role of leptin in hypothalamic-pituitary function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, 1023–1028.
T Yu , G Luo , L Zhang , J Wu , H Zhang , G Yang 2008. Leptin promotes proliferation and inhibits differentiation in porcine skeletal myoblasts. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 72, 13–21.
K Zaralis , BJ Tolkamp , JGM Houdijk , ARG Wylie , I Kyriazakis 2008. Changes in food intake and circulating leptin due to gastrointestinal parasitism in lambs of two breeds. Journal of Animal Science 86, 1891–1903.
K Zaralis , BJ Tolkamp , JGM Houdijk , ARG Wylie , I Kyriazakis 2009. Consequences of protein supplementation on anorexia, expression of immunity and plasma leptin concentrations in parasitised ewes of two breeds. British Journal of Nutrition 101, 499–509.
M Zembayashi , K Nishimura , DK Lunt , SB Smith 1995. Effect of breed type and sex on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular lipids of finishing steers and heifers. Journal of Animal Science 73, 3322–3325.
Y Zhang , MB Basinski , JM Beals , SL Briggs , LM Churgay , DK Clawson , RD DiMarchi , TC Furman , JE Hale , HM Hsiung , BE Schoner , DP Smith , XY Zhang , J-P Wery , RW Schweitz 1997. Crystal structure of the obese protein leptin-E100. Nature 387, 206–209.
S Zhang , D Blache , MA Blackberry , GB Martin 2005. Body reserves affect the reproductive endocrine responses to an acute change in nutrition in mature male sheep. Animal Reproduction Science 88, 257–269.
Y Zhang , R Proenca , M Maffei , M Barone , L Leopold , JM Friedman 1994. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 372, 425–432.
FQ Zhao , AF Keating 2007. Expression and regulation of glucose transporters in the bovine mammary gland. Journal of Dairy Science 90, E76–E86.
H Zhou , JGH Hickford , H Gong 2009. Identification of allelic polymorphism in the ovine leptin gene. Molecular Biotechnology 41, 22–25.
DA Zieba , M Amstalden , GL Williams 2005. Regulatory roles of leptin in reproduction and metabolism: a comparative review. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29, 166–185.