Skip to main content

Selected hormonal and neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating feed intake in sheep

  • J. L. Sartin (a1), J. A. Daniel (a2), B. K. Whitlock (a3) and R. R. Wilborn (a4)

Appetite control is a major issue in normal growth and in suboptimal growth performance settings. A number of hormones, in particular leptin, activate or inhibit orexigenic or anorexigenic neurotransmitters within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where feed intake regulation is integrated. Examples of appetite regulatory neurotransmitters are the stimulatory neurotransmitters neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone and the inhibitory neurotransmitter, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Examination of messenger RNA (using in situ hybridization and real-time PCR) and proteins (using immunohistochemistry) for these neurotransmitters in ruminants has indicated that physiological regulation occurs in response to fasting for several of these critical genes and proteins, especially AgRP and NPY. Moreover, intracerebroventricular injection of each of the four stimulatory neurotransmitters can increase feed intake in sheep and may also regulate either growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, cortisol or other hormones. In contrast, both leptin and MSH are inhibitory to feed intake in ruminants. Interestingly, the natural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonist, AgRP, as well as NPY can prevent the inhibition of feed intake after injection of endotoxin (to model disease suppression of appetite). Thus, knowledge of the mechanisms regulating feed intake in the hypothalamus may lead to mechanisms to increase feed intake in normal growing animals and prevent the wasting effects of severe disease in animals.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Selected hormonal and neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating feed intake in sheep
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Selected hormonal and neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating feed intake in sheep
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Selected hormonal and neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating feed intake in sheep
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Hide All
Adam, CL, Findlay, PA, Miller, DW 2006. Blood-brain leptin transport and appetite and reproductive neuroendocrine responses to intracerebroventricular leptin injection in sheep: influence of photoperiod. Endocrinology 147, 45894598.
Adam, CL, Archer, ZA, Findlay, PA, Thomas, L, Marie, M 2002. Hypothalamic gene expression in sheep for cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript, pro-opiomelanocortin, neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide and leptin receptor and responses to negative energy balance. Neuroendocrinology 75, 250256.
Altmann, M, Sauerwein, H, Borell, E 2005. Relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and carcass composition in fattening mutton: a comparison with ultrasound results. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berlin) 89, 326330.
Anukulkitch, C, Rao, A, Dunchea, FR, Clarke, IJ 2009. A test of the lipostat theory in a seasonal (ovine) model under natural conditions reveals a close relationship between adiposity and melanin concentrating hormone expression. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 36, 138151.
Anukulkitch, C, Rao, A, Periera, A, McEwan, J, Clarke, IJ 2010. Expression of genes for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus of genetically selected lean and fat sheep. Neuroendocrinology 91, 223238. (doi: 10.1159/000262283).
Archer, ZA, Rhind, SM, Findlay, PA, Kyle, CE, Thomas, L, Marie, M, Adam, CL 2002a. Contrasting effects of different levels of food intake and adiposity on LH secretion and hypothalamic gene expression in sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 175, 383393.
Archer, ZA, Findlay, PA, Rhind, SM, Mercer, JG, Adam, CL 2002b. Orexin gene expression and regulation by photoperiod in the sheep hypothalamus. Regulatory Peptides 104, 4145.
Archer, ZA, Findlay, PA, McMillen, SR, Rhind, SM, Adam, CL 2004. Effects of nutritional status and gonadal steroids on expression of appetite-regulatory genes in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 182, 409419.
Archer, ZA, Rhind, SM, Findlay, PA, Kyle, CE, Barber, MC, Adam, CL 2005. Hypothalamic responses to peripheral glucose infusion in food-restricted sheep are influenced by photoperiod. Journal of Endocrinology 184, 515525.
Backholer, K, Smith, J, Clarke, IJ 2009. Melanocortins may stimulate reproduction by activating orexin neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and kisspeptin neurons in the preoptic area of the ewe. Endocrinology 150, 54885497.
Chaillou, E, Tillet, Y 2005. Nutrition and hypothalamic neuropeptides in sheep: histochemical studies. Histology and Histopathology 20, 12091225.
Chaillou, E, Baumont, R, Tramu, G, Tillet, Y 2000. Effect of feeding on Fos protein expression in sheep hypothalamus with special reference to the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei: an immunohistochemical study. European Journal of Neuroscience 12, 45154524.
Chaillou, E, Baumont, R, Chilliard, Y, Tillet, Y 2002. Several subpopulations of neuropeptide Y-containing neurons exist in the infundibular nucleus of sheep: an immunohistochemical study of animals on different diets. Journal of Comparative Neurology 444, 129143.
Chaillou, E, Baumont, R, Fellman, D, Tramu, G, Tillet, Y 2003. Sensitivity of galanin- and melanin concentrating hormone-containing neurons to nutritional status: an immunohistochemical study in the ovariectomized ewe. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 15, 459467.
Chilliard, Y, Delavaud, C, Bonnet, M 2005. Leptin expression in ruminants: nutritional and physiological regulation in relation with energy metabolism. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29, 322.
Clarke, IJ 2008. Models of ‘obesity’ in large animals and birds. Frontiers of Hormone Research (Karger, Basel) 36, 107117.
Clarke, IJ, Backholer, K, Tilbrook, AJ 2005. Y2 receptor-selective agonist delays the estrogen-induced luteinizing hormone surge in ovariectomized ewes, but Y1-receptor-selective agonist stimulates voluntary food intake. Endocrinology 146, 769775.
Clarke, IJ, Scott, CJ, Rao, A, Pompolo, S, Baker-Gibb, ML 2000. Seasonal changes in the expression of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA in the arcuate nucleus of the ovariectomized ewe: relationship to the seasonal appetite and breeding cycles. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 12, 11051111.
Clarke, IJ, Tilbrook, AJ, Turner, AI, Doughton, BW, Goding, JW 2001. Sex, fat and the tilt of the earth: effects of sex and season on the feeding response to centrally administered leptin in sheep. Endocrinology 142, 27252728.
Clarke, IJ, Rao, A, Chilliard, Y, Delavaud, C, Lincoln, GA 2003. Photoperiod effects on gene expression for hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides and food intake in the ram. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 284, R101R115.
Daniel, JA, Whitlock, BK, Baker, JA, Steele, BP, Morrison, CD, Keisler, DH, Sartin, JL 2002. Effect of body fat mass and nutritional status n 24-hour leptin profiles in ewes. Journal of Animal Science 80, 10831089.
Daniel, JA, Elsasser, TH, Morrison, CD, Keisler, DH, Whitlock, BK, Steele, BP, Pugh, D, Sartin, JL 2003. Leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and CD14 in ovine adipose tissue and changes in circulating TNF in lean and fat sheep. Journal of Animal Science 81, 25902599.
Delavaud, C, Bocquier, F, Baumont, R, Chaillou, E, Ban-Tokuda, T, Chilliard, Y 2007. Body fat content and feeding level interact strongly in the short- and medium-term regulation of plasma leptin during underfeeding and re-feeding in adult sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 98, 106115.
Dobbins, A, Lubbers, LS, Jackson, GL, Kuehl, DE, Hileman, SM 2004. Neuropeptide Y gene expression in male sheep: influence of photoperiod and testosterone. Neuroendocrinology 79, 8289.
Dyer, CJ, Simmons, JM, Matteri, RL, Keisler, DH 1997. cDNA cloning and tissue- specific gene expression of ovine leptin, NPY-Y1 receptor, and NPY-Y2 receptor. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 14, 295303.
Ehrhardt, RA, Greenwood, PL, Bell, AW, Boisclair, YR 2003. Plasma leptin is regulated predominantly by nutrition in preruminant lambs. Journal of Nutrition 133, 41964201.
El-Haddad, MA, Ismail, Y, Guerra, C, Day, L, Ross, MG 2003. Neuropeptide Y administration into cerebral ventricles stimulates sucrose ingestion in the near-trem ovine fetus. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 189, 949952.
Ellacott, KL, Cone, RD 2004. The central melanocortin system and the integration of short- and long-term regulators of energy homeostasis. Recent Progress in Hormone Research 59, 395408.
Greer, AW, Boisclair, YR, Stankiewicz, M, McAnulty, RW, Jay, NP, Sykes, AR 2009. Leptin concentrations and the immune-mediated reduction of feed intake in sheep infected with nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. British Journal of Nutrition 102, 954957.
Henry, BA, Rao, A, Ikenasio, BA, Mountjoy, KG, Tilbrook, AJ, Clarke, IJ 2001a. Differential expression of cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript and agouti related-protein in chronically food-restricted sheep. Brain Research 918, 4050.
Henry, BA, Goding, JW, Tilbrook, AJ, Dunshea, FR, Clarke, IJ 2001b. Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin elevates the secretion of luteinising hormone without affecting food intake in long-term food-restricted sheep, but increases growth hormone irrespective of bodyweight. Journal of Endocrinology 168, 6777.
Henry, BA, Tilbrook, AJ, Dunshea, FR, Rao, A, Blache, D, Martin, GB, Clarke, IJ 2000. Long-term alterations in adiposity affect the expression of melanin-concentrating hormone and enkephalin but not proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized ewes. Endocrinology 141, 15061514.
Henry, BA, Goding, JW, Alexander, WS, Tilbrook, AJ, Canny, BJ, Dunshea, FR, Rao, A, Mansell, A, Clarke, IJ 1999. Central administration of leptin to ovariectomized ewes inhibits food intake without affecting the secretion f hormones from the pituitary gland: evidence for a dissociation of effects on appetite and neuroendocrine function. Endocrinology 140, 11751182.
Hileman, SM, Kuehl, DE, Jackson, GL 1998. Photoperiod affects the ability of testosterone to alter proopiomelanocortin mRNA, but not luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone mRNA, levels in male sheep. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 10, 587592.
Iqbal, J, Manley, TR, Ciofi, P, Clarke, IJ 2005. Reduction in adiposity affects the extent of afferent projections to growth hormone releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons and the degree of colocalization of neuropeptides in growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin cells in the ovine hypothalamus. Endocrinology 146, 47764785.
Iqbal, J, Henry, BA, Pompolo, S, Rao, A, Clarke, IJ 2003. Long-term alterations in bodyweight and food restriction does not affect gene expression of either preproorexin or prodynorphin in the sheep. Neuroscience 118, 217226.
Iqbal, J, Pompolo, S, Dumont, LM, Wu, CS, Mountjoy, KG, Henry, BA, Clarke, IJ 2001a. Long-term alterations in body weight do not affect the expression of melanocortin receptor-3 and -4 mRNA in the ovine hypothalamus. Neuroscience 105, 931940.
Iqbal, J, Pompolo, S, Murakami, T, Grouzmann, E, Sakurai, T, Meister, B, Clarke, IJ 2001b. Immunohistochemical characterization of localization of long-form leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in neurochemically defined cells in the ovine hypothalamus. Brain Research 920, 5564.
Iqbal, J, Pompolo, S, Sakurai, T, Clarke, IJ 2001c. Evidence that orexin-containing neurons provide direct input to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the ovine hypothalamus. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 13, 10331041.
Kumar, B, Francis, SM, Suttie, JM, Thompson, MP 1998. Expression of obese mRNA in genetically lean and fat selection lines of sheep. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part B, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 120, 543548.
Kurose, Y, Iqbal, J, Rao, A, Murata, Y, Hasegawa, Y, Terashima, Y, Kojima, M, Kangawa, K, Clarke, IJ 2005. Changes in expression of the genes for the leptin receptor and the growth hormone-releasing peptide/ghrelin receptor in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus with long-term manipulation of adiposity by dietary means. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 17, 331340.
Lincoln, GA, Rhind, SM, Pompolo, S, Clarke, IJ 2001. Hypothalamic control of photoperiod-induced cycles in food intake, body weight, and metabolic hormones in rams. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 281, R76R90.
Marie, M, Findlay, PA, Thomas, L, Adam, CL 2001. Daily patterns of plasma leptin in sheep: effects of photoperiod and food intake. Journal of Endocrinology 170, 277286.
McMahon, CD, Buxton, DF, Elsasser, TH, Gunter, DR, Sanders, LG, Steele, BP, Sartin, JL 1999. Neuropepide Y restores appetite and alters concentrations of GH after central administration to endotoxic sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 161, 333339.
McMillen, IC, Edwards, LJ, Duffiels, J, Mülhaüsler, BS 2006. Regulation of leptin synthesis and secretion before birth: implications for early programming of adult obesity. Reproduction 131, 415427.
McShane, TM, May, T, Miner, JL, Keisler, DH 1992. Central actions of neuropeptide-Y may provide a neuromodulatory link between nutrition and reproduction. Biology of Reproduction 46, 11511157.
McShane, TM, Petersen, SL, McCrone, S, Keisler, DH 1993. Influence of food restriction on neuropeptide-Y, proopiomelanocortin, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone gene expression in sheep hypothalami. Biology of Reproduction 49, 831839.
Miller, DW, Findlay, PA, Morrison, MA, Raver, N, Adam, CL 2002. Seasonal and dose-dependent effects of intracerebroventricular leptin on 1 h secretion and appetite in sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 175, 395404.
Miller, DW, Harrison, JL, Bennett, EJ, Findlay, PA, Adam, CL 2007. Nutritional influences on reproductive neuroendocrine output: insulin, leptin, and orexigenic neuropeptide signaling in the ovine hypothalamus. Endocrinology 148, 53135322.
Miner, JL, Della-Fera, MA, Paterson, JA 1990. Blockade of satiety factors by central injection of neuropeptide Y in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 68, 38053811.
Miner, JL, Della-Fera, MA, Paterson, JA, Baile, CA 1989. Lateral cerebroventricular injection of neuropeptide Y stimulates feeding in sheep. American Journal of Physiology 257, R383R387.
Morrison, CD, Wood, R, McFadin, EL, Whiley, NC, Keisler, DH 2002. Effect of intravenous infusion of recombinant ovine leptin on feed intake and serum concentrations of GH, LH, insulin, IGF-1, cortisol, and thyroxine in growing prepubertal ewe lambs. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 22, 103112.
Morrison, CD, Daniel, JA, Holmberg, BJ, Djiane, J, Raver, N, Gertler, A, Keisler, DH 2001. Central infusion of leptin into well-fed and undernourished ewe lambs: effects on feed intake and serum concentrations of growth hormone and luteinizing hormone. Journal of Endocrinology 168, 317324.
Morrison, CD, Daniel, JA, Hampton, JH, Buff, PR, McShane, TM, Thomas, MG, Keisler, DH 2003. Luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion in ewes infused intracerebroventricularly with neuropeptide Y. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 24, 6980.
Mülhaüsler, BS, Adam, CL, Findlay, PA, Duffield, JA, McMillen, IC 2006. Increased maternal nutrition alters development of the appetite regulating network in the brain. FASEB Journal 20, 12571259.
Mülhaüsler, BS, McMillen, IC, Rouzaud, G, Findlay, PA, Marrocco, EM, Rhind, SM, Adam, CL 2004. Appetite regulatory neuropeptides are expressed in the sheep hypothalamus before birth. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 16, 502507.
Mülhaüsler, BS, Adam, CL, Marrocco, EM, Findlay, PA, Roberts, CT, McFarlane, JR, Kauter, KG, McMillen, IC 2005. Impact of glucose infusion on the structural and functional characteristics of adipose tissue and on hypothalamic gene expression for appetite regulatory neuropeptides in the sheep fetus during late gestation. Journal of Physiology 565, 185195.
Parkes, DG 1996. Diuretic and natriuretic actions of melanin concentrating hormone in conscious sheep. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 8, 5763.
Pillon, D, Caraty, A, Fabian-Nys, C, Bruneau, G 2003. Early decrease of proopiomelanocortin but not neuropeptide Y mRNA expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the ewe, during the estradiol-induced preovulatory LH surge. General and Comparative Endocrinology 134, 264272.
Polkowska, J, Gladysz, A 2001. Effect of food manipulation on the neuropeptide Y neuronal system in the diencephalon of ewes. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 21, 149159.
Polkowska, J, Wańkowska, M, Wójcik-Gładysz, A 2006a. Expression of NPY-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus of the cycling ewe. Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 44, 1316.
Polkowska, J, Wójcik-Gładysz, A, Wańkowska, M 2006b. The effect of intracerebroventricular infusions of leptin on the immunoreactivity of neuropeptide Y and gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus of prepubertal sheep in conditions of short fasting. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 31, 130138.
Qi, Y, Iqbal, J, Oldfield, BJ, Clarke, IJ 2008. Neural connectivity in the medialbasal hypothalamus of the sheep brain. Neuroendocrinology 87, 91112.
Qi, Y, Henry, BA, Oldfield, BJ, Clarke, IJ 2010. The action of leptin on appetite-regulating cells in the ovine hypothalamus: demonstration of direct action in the absence of the arcuate nucleus. Endocrinology 151, 21062116.
Relling, AE, Pate, JL, Reynolds, CK, Loerch, SC 2010. Effect of feed restriction and supplemental dietary fat on gut peptide and hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNA concentrations in growing wethers. Journal of Animal Science 88, 737748.
Sartin, JL, Wagner, CG, Marks, DL, Daniels, J, McMahon, CD, Obese, FY, Partridge, C 2005. Appetite regulation in sheep: a potential site for therapeutic intervention in disease models. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29, 446455.
Sartin, JL, Marks, DL, McMahon, CD, Daniel, JA, Levasseur, P, Wagner, CG, Whitlock, BK 2008. Central role of the melanocortin-4 receptors in appetite regulation after endotoxin. Journal of Animal Science 86, 25572567.
Sartin, JL, Dyer, C, Matteri, R, Buxton, D, Buonomo, F, Shores, M, Baker, J, Osbourne, JA, Braden, T, Steele, B 2001. Effect of intracerebroventricular orexin-B on food intake in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 79, 15731577.
Schwartz, MW, Woods, SC, Porte, D, Seely, RJ, Baskin, DG 2000. Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature 404, 661671.
Soliman, M, Abdelhady, S, Fattou, I, Ishioka, K, Kitamura, H, Kimura, K, Saito, M 2001. No alteration in serum leptin levels during acute endotoxemia in sheep. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 63, 11431145.
Sorenson, A, Adam, CL, Findlay, PA, Marie, M, Thomas, L, Travers, MT, Vernon, RG 2002. Leptin secretion and hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor gene expression in sheep. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 282, R1227R1235.
Thomas, MG, Gazal, OS, Williams, GL, Stanko, RL, Keisler, DH 1999. Injection of neuropeptide Y into the third cerebroventricle differentially influences pituitary secretion of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone in ovariectomized cows. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 16, 159169.
Thomas, SA, Preston, JE, Wilson, MR, Farrell, CL, Segal, MB 2001. Leptin transport at the blood – cerebrospinal fluid barrier using the perfused sheep choroid plexus model. Brain Research 895, 283290.
Tillet, Y, Batailler, M, Fellman, D 1996. Distribution of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-like immunoreactivity in neurons of the diencephalon of sheep. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 12, 135145.
Valassi, E, Scacchi, M, Cavagnini, F 2008. Neuroendocrine control of food intake. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 18, 158168.
Wagner, CG, McMahon, CD, Marks, DL, Daniel, JA, Steele, B, Sartin, JL 2004. A role for agouti-related protein in appetite regulation in a species with continuous nutrient delivery. Neuroendocrinology 80, 210218.
Whitlock, BK, Daniel, JA, McMahon, CD, Buonomo, VC, Wagner, CG, Steele, B, Sartin, JL 2005. Intracerebroventricular melanin-concentrating hormone stimulates food intake in sheep. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 28, 224232.
Williams, LM, Adam, CL, Mercer, JG, Moar, KM, Slater, D, Hunter, L, Findlay, PA, Hoggard, N 1999. Leptin receptor and neuropeptide Y gene expression in the sheep. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 11, 165169.
Xu, R, Roh, SG, Gong, C, Hernandez, M, Ueta, Y, Chen, C 2003. Orexin-B augments voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) current via protein kinase C-mediated signaling pathway in ovine somatotropes. Neuroendocrinology 77, 141152.
Xu, R, Wang, Q, Yan, M, Hernandez, M, Gong, C, Boon, WC, Murata, Y, Ueta, Y, Chen, C 2002. Orexin-A augments voltage-gated Ca2+ currents and synergistically increases growth hormone (GH) secretion with GH-releasing hormone in primary cultured ovine somatotropes. Endocrinology 143, 46094619.
Yildiz, S, Blache, D, Celebi, F, Kaya, I, Saatci, M, Cenesiz, M, Guven, B 2003. Effects of short-term high carbohydrate or fat intakes on leptin, growth hormone and luteinizing hormone secretions in prepubertal fat-tailed Tuj lambs. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 38, 182186.
Zaralis, K, Tolkamp, BJ, Houdijk, JG, Wylie, AR, Kyriazakis, I 2008. Changes in food intake and circulating leptin due to gastrointestinal parasitism in lambs of two breeds. Journal of Animal Science 86, 18911903.
Zaralis, K, Tolkamp, BJ, Houdijk, JG, Wylie, AR, Kyriazakis, I 2009. Consequences of protein supplementation for anorexia, expression of immunity and plasma leptin concentrations in parasitized ewes of two breeds. British Journal of Nutrition 101, 499509.
Zhang, S, Blache, D, Veroe, PE, Adam, CL, Blackberry, MA, Findlay, PA, Eidne, KA, Martin, GB 2005. Expression of orexin receptors in the brain and peripheral tissues of the male sheep. Regulatory Peptides 124, 8187.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 1751-7311
  • EISSN: 1751-732X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 90 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 192 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.