Agricultural Research Council 1981. The nutrient requirements of pigs. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough, UK.
Arnal, MA, Mosoni, L, Boirie, Y, Houlier, ML, Morin, L, Verdier, E, Ritz, P, Antoine, JM, Prugnaud, J, Beaufrère, B and Patureau-Mirand, P 1999. Protein pulse feeding improves protein retention in elderly women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 1202-1208.
Arnal, MA, Mosoni, L, Boirie, Y, Houlier, ML, Morin, L, Verdier, E, Ritz, P, Antoine, JM, Prugnaud, J, Beaufrère, B and Patureau-Mirand, P 2000. Protein feeding pattern does not affect protein retention in young women. Journal of Nutrition 130, 1700-1704.
Arnal, MA, Mosoni, L, Dardevet, D, Ribeyre, MC, Bayle, G, Prugnaud, J and Patureau-Mirand, P 2002. Pulse protein feeding pattern restores stimulation of muscle protein synthesis during the feeding period in old rats. Journal of Nutrition 132, 1002-1008.
Bancroft, RW, Geiger, E and Hagerty, EB 1951. Nitrogen-sparing effect of carbohydrate related to time factor with hypophysectomized and diabetic rats. Endocrinology 49, 149-153.
Barja, I, Araya, H, Munoz, P, Vega, L, Arteaga, A and Tagle, MA 1972. Effect of spacing protein intake on nitrogen balance in normal children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, 506-511.
Barthel, A and Schmoll, D 2003. Novel concepts in insulin regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The American Journal of Physiology 285, E685-E692.
Bos, C, Metges, CC, Gaudichon, C, Petzke, KJ, Pueyo, ME, Morens, C, Everwand, J, Benamouzig, R and Tomé, D 2003. Postprandial kinetics of dietary amino acids are the main determinant of their metabolism after soy or milk protein ingestion in humans. The Journal of Nutrition 133, 1308-1315.
Brouwer, E 1965. Report of sub-committee on constants and factors. In Energy metabolism (ed. Blaxter, KL), pp. 441-443. Academic Press, London, UK.
Campbell, RG and Taverner, MR 1988. Genotype and sex effects on the relationship between energy intake and protein deposition in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 66, 676-686.
Charlet-Lery, G and Morel, MT 1977. Influence of diet on respiratory quotients and fat deposition in growing pigs. Annales de Biologie Animale, Biochimie, Biophysique 17, 897-904.
Cummings, JH and Englyst, HN 1995. Gastrointestinal effects of food carbohydrate. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 938S-945S.
Cuthbertson, DP and Munro, HN 1939. The relationship of carbohydrate metabolism to protein metabolism. I. The roles of dietary carbohydrate and of surfeit carbohydrate in protein metabolism. The Biochemical Journal 33, 128-142.
Cuthbertson, DP, McCutcheon, A and Munro, HN 1940. The relationship of carbohydrate metabolism to protein metabolism. 2. Note on the effect of separation in time of the protein and carbohydrate moieties of the diet of the adult and growing rat. The Biochemical Journal 34, 1002-1007.
Centraal Veevoeder Bureau 2000. Veevoedertabel. Lelystad, The Netherlands.
Eggert, RG, Brinegar, MJ and Anderson, CR 1953. Delayed protein supplementation of corn diets for growing swine. The Journal of Nutrition 50, 469-477.
Eits, RM, Kwakkel, RP, Verstegen, MWA, Stoutjesdijk, P and De Greef, KH 2002. Protein and lipid deposition rates in male broiler chickens: separate responses to amino acids and protein-free energy. Poultry Science 81, 472-480.
Englyst, KN, Vinoy, S, Englyst, HN and Lang, V 2003. Glycaemic index of cereal products explained by their content of rapidly and slowly available glucose. The British Journal of Nutrition 89, 329-340.
Fuller, MF, Weekes, TEC, Cadenhead, A and Bruce, JB 1977. The protein-sparing effect of carbohydrate 2. The role of insulin. The Journal of Nutrition 38, 489-496.
Geiger, E 1948. The importance of the time element in feeding of growing rats. Experiments with delayed supplementation of protein. Science 108, 42-43.
Geiger, E, Bancroft, RW and Hagerty, EB 1950. The nitrogen-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate in its relation to the time factor: experiments with repletion of protein-depleted adult rats. The Journal of Nutrition 42, 577-585.
Gerrits, WJJ, Tolman, GH, Schrama, JW, Tamminga, S, Bosch, MW and Verstegen, MWA 1996. Effect of protein and protein-free energy intake on protein and fat deposition rates in preruminant calves of 80 to 240 kg live weight. Journal of Animal Science 74, 2129-2139.
Heetkamp, MJW, Schrama, JW, de Jong, L, Swinkels, JW, Schouten, WG and Bosch, MW 1995. Energy metabolism in young pigs as affected by mixing. Journal of Animal Science 73, 3562-3569.
International Organization for Standardization 1997. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of nitrogen content and calculation of crude protein content. . ISO, Geneva.
International Organization for Standardization 1998a. Animal feeding stuffs, animal products, and faeces or urine. Determination of gross calorific value. . ISO, Geneva.
International Organization for Standardization 1998. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of moisture and other volatile matter content. . ISO, Geneva.
International Organization for Standardization 1999b. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of fat content. . ISO, Geneva.
International Organization for Standardization 2002. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of crude ash. . ISO, Geneva.
Kirchgessner, M and Müller, HL 1998. Dietary separation of protein and carbohydrate intake. In Energy metabolism in farm animals (ed. McCracken, KJ, Unsworth, EF and Wylie, ARG), pp. 135-138. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Larson, PS and Chaikoff, IL 1937. The influence of carbohydrate on nitrogen metabolism in the normal nutritional state. The Journal of Nutrition 13, 287-304.
Longenbach, JI and Heinrichs, AJ 1997. A review of the importance and physiological role of curd formation in the abomasum of young calves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 73, 85-97.
Mariotti, F, Huneau, JF, Mahé, S and Tomé, D 2000. Protein metabolism and the gut. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 3, 45-50.
Martins, FM, Sandberg, G, Ekman, L and Lindmark, L 1985. Metabolic response of simultaneous versus sequential intravenous administration of amino acids and energy substrates to rats. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 61-68.
McDonald, P, Edwards, RA, Greenhalgh, JFD and Morgan, CA 1995. Animal nutrition. Pearson Education Limited, Harlow, UK.
Metges, CC, El-Khoury, AE, Selvaraj, AB, Tsay, RH, Atkinson, A, Regan, MM, Bequette, BJ and Young, VR 2000. Kinetics of L-1-13C-Leucine when ingested with free amino acids, unlabeled or intrinsically labelled casein. The American Journal of Physiology 278, E1000-E1009.
Mosoni, L and Patureau-Mirand, P 2003. Type and timing of protein feeding to optimize anabolism. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 6, 301-306.
Müller, HL and Kirchgessner, M 1996. Effect of chronological separation of protein and carbohydrates by up to 48 h on the energy metabolism [in German]. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 76, 1-8.
Munro, HN 1949. The relationship of carbohydrate metabolism to protein metabolism. The Journal of Nutrition 39, 375-391.
Munro, HN 1964. General aspects of the regulation of protein metabolism by diet and by hormones. In Mammalian protein metabolism (ed. Munro, HN and Allison, JB), pp. 381-481. Academic Press, London.
Randles, WG, 2001 The effects of different temporal patterns of post-ruminal energy and protein supply on nitrogen metabolism in growing lambs, , University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
Rijnen, MMJA, Verstegen, MWA, Heetkamp, MJW and Schrama, JW 2001. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on energy metabolism in group-housed sows. Journal of Animal Science 79, 148-154.
Soeters, PB, Dejong, CH and Deutz, NEP 2001. The protein sparing function of the gut and the quality of food protein. Clinical Nutrition 20, 97-99.
Van Dam-Bakker, AWI, De Groot, AP and Luyken, R 1958. The influence of alternate high-protein and low-protein feeding on growth and reproduction and on regeneration of haemoglobin in rats. The British Journal of Nutrition 12, 259-266.
Van den Borne, JJGC, Verstegen, MWA, Alferink, SJJ, Van Ass, FHM and Gerrits, WJJ 2006. Synchronizing the availability of amino acids and glucose decreases fat retention in heavy preruminant calves. The Journal of Nutrition 136, 2181-2187.
Van der Meulen, J, Bakker, JGM, Smits, B and De Visser, H 1997. Effect of source of starch on net portal flux of glucose, lactate, volatile fatty acids and amino acids in the pig. The British Journal of Nutrition 78, 533-544.
Van Kleef, DF, Deuring, K and Van Leeuwen, P 1994. A new method for faeces collection in the pig. Laboratory Animals 28, 78-79.
Verstegen, MWA, Van der Hel, W, Brandsma, H, Henken, AM and Bransen, AM 1987. The Wageningen respiration unit for animal production research: a description of the equipment and its possibilities. In Energy metabolism in farm animals: effects of housing, stress and disease (ed. Verstegen, MWA and Henken, AM), pp. 21-48. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Wenk, C and Van Es, AJH 1976. Eine Methode zur Bestimmung des Energieauswandes für die körperlich Aktivität von wachsenden Küken. Schweizerische Landwirtschaftliche Monatshefte 54, 232.
Yeo, ML and Chamberlain, AG 1966. Delayed protein supplementation of barley diets for weanling pigs. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 25, 41.