Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

The BAS ice-shelf hot-water drill: design, methods and tools

  • Keith Makinson (a1) and Paul G.D. Anker (a1)
Abstract

The 2011/12 Antarctic field season saw the first use of a new British Antarctic Survey (BAS) ice-shelf hot-water drill system on the Larsen C and George VI ice shelves. Delivering 90 L min−1 at 80°C, a total of five holes >30 cm in diameter at three locations were successfully drilled through almost 400 m of ice to provide access to the underlying ocean, including the first access beneath the Larsen C ice shelf. These access holes enabled the deployment of instruments to measure sea-water conductivity, temperature, depth and microstructure, the collection of water samples and up to 2.9 m long sediment cores, before long-term oceanographic moorings were deployed. The simple modular design allowed for Twin Otter aircraft deployment, rapid assembly and commissioning of the system, which proved highly reliable with minimal supervision. A number of novel solutions to various operational sub-ice-shelf profiling and mooring deployment issues were successfully employed through the hot-water drilled access holes to aid the positioning, recovery and deployment of instruments. With future activities now focusing on the Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf, the drill has been upgraded from its current 500 m capability to 1000 m with additional drill hose and further generator, pumping and heating modules.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The BAS ice-shelf hot-water drill: design, methods and tools
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The BAS ice-shelf hot-water drill: design, methods and tools
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The BAS ice-shelf hot-water drill: design, methods and tools
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Cooper, S, Nicholls, KW, Morris, EM and Talbot, MH (1988) Ice/ocean studies on George VI Ice Shelf 1987/88. (BAS Field Rep. R/1987-88/S1) British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge
Craven, M, Allison, I, Fricker, HA and Warner, R (2009) Properties of a marine ice layer under the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 55(192), 717-728 (doi: 10.3189/002214309789470941)
Dutrieux, P and 9 others (2014) Strong sensitivity of Pine Island Ice-Shelf melting to climatic variability. Science, 343(6167), 174-178 (doi: 10.1126/science.1244341)
Engelhardt, H, Kamb, B and Bolsey, R (2000) A hot-water ice-coring drill. J. Glaciol., 46(153), 341-345 (doi: 10.3189/172756500781832873)
Hellmer, H, Kauker, F, Timmermann, R, Determann, J and Rae, J (2012) Twenty-first-century warming of a large Antarctic ice-shelf cavity by a redirected coastal current. Nature, 485(7397), 225-228 (doi: 10.1038/nature11064)
Humphrey, N and Echelmeyer, K (1990) Hot-water drilling and borehole closure in cold ice. J. Glaciol., 36(124), 287298 (doi: 10.3189/002214390793701354)
Jenkins, A and Holland, DM (2002) A model study of ocean circulation beneath Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica: implications for bottom water formation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(8), 1193 (doi: 10.1029/2001GL014589)
Jenkins, A and 6 others (2010) Observations beneath Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica and implications for its retreat. Nature Geosci., 3(7), 468472 (doi: 10.1038/ngeo890)
Makinson, K (1993) The BAS hot water drill: development and current design. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 22(1), 121132 (doi: 10.1016/0165-232X(93)90051-9)
Makinson, K (1994) BAS hot water drilling on Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Mem. Natl Inst. Polar Res., Special Issue 49, 192202
Makinson, K (2003) Future hot water drilling on Rutford Ice Stream 2004/05. FRISP Rep. 14, 163166
Nicholls, KW and Makinson, K (1998) A ‘light weight’ hot water drill for use on Ronne Ice Shelf. In Hall, J ed. Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Antarctic Logistics and Operations, August 1996, Cambridge, UK. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, 193202
Nicholls, KW, Makinson, K and Robinson, AV (1991) Direct oceanographic observations from under the Rutford flowline, Ronne Ice Shelf. FRISP Rep. 5, 2731
Nicholls, KW, Østerhus, S, Makinson, K and Johnson, MR (2001) Oceanographic conditions south of Berkner Island, beneath Filchner–Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 106(C6), 1148111492 (doi: 10.1029/2000JC000350)
Nicholls, KW, Makinson, K and Venables, EJ (2012a) Ocean circulation beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica from in situ observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39(19), L19608 (doi: 10.1029/2012GL053187)
Nicholls, KW, Corr, HFJ, Makinson, K and Pudsey, CJ (2012b) Rock debris in an Antarctic ice shelf. Ann. Glaciol., 53(60 Pt 2), 235240 (doi: 10.3189/2012AoG60A014)
Orsi, AH, Johnson, GC and Bullister, JL (1999) Circulation, mixing, and production of Antarctic Bottom Water. Progr. Oceanogr., 43(1), 55109 (doi: 10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00004-X)
Payne, AJ, Vieli, A, Shepherd, A, Wingham, DJ and Rignot, E (2004) Recent dramatic thinning of largest West Antarctic ice stream triggered by oceans. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(23), L23401 (doi: 10.1029/2004GL021284)
Roberts, D, Craven, M, Cai, M-H, Allison, I and Nash, G (2007) Protists in the marine ice of the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. Polar Biol., 30(2), 143153 (doi: 10.1007/s00300-006-0169-7)
Schoof, C (2007) Ice sheet grounding line dynamics: steady states, stability, and hysteresis. J. Geophys. Res., 112(F3), F03S28 (doi: 10.1029/2006JF000664)
Smith, AM (2007) Field report 2004/05 season. Basal conditions on Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica: hot-water drilling and down hole instrumentation. (AFI 1-05, R/2004/53) British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge
Vaughan, DG and 9 others (1995) Subglacial and seabed topography, ice thickness and water column thickness in the vicinity of Filchner-Ronne-Shelfeis, Antarctica. Polarforschung, 64(2), 7588
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annals of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0260-3055
  • EISSN: 1727-5644
  • URL: /core/journals/annals-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed