Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-2h7tr Total loading time: 0.304 Render date: 2022-07-01T04:25:33.335Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

A grid-based model of backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 March 2016

Pascal Buri*
Affiliation:
Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Francesca Pellicciotti
Affiliation:
Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland Department of Geography, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Jakob F. Steiner
Affiliation:
Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Evan S. Miles
Affiliation:
Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Walter W. Immerzeel
Affiliation:
Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
*
Correspondence: Pascal Buri <buri@ifu.baug.ethz.ch>
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Ice cliffs might be partly responsible for the high mass losses of debris-covered glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region. The few existing models of cliff backwasting are point-scale models applied at few locations or assume cliffs to be planes with constant slope and aspect, a major simplification given the complex surfaces of most cliffs. We develop the first grid-based model of cliff backwasting for two cliffs on debris-covered Lirung Glacier, Nepal. The model includes an improved representation of shortwave and longwave radiation, and their interplay with the glacier topography. Shortwave radiation varies considerably across the two cliffs, mostly due to direct radiation. Diffuse radiation is the major shortwave component, as the direct component is strongly reduced by the cliffs’ aspect and slope through self-shading. Incoming longwave radiation is higher than the total incoming shortwave flux, due to radiation emitted by the surrounding terrain, which is 25% of the incoming flux. Melt is highly variable in space, suggesting that simple models provide inaccurate estimates of total melt volumes. Although only representing 0.09% of the glacier tongue area, the total melt at the two cliffs over the measurement period is 2313 and 8282 m3, 1.23% of the total melt simulated by a glacio-hydrological model for the glacier’s tongue.

Type
Paper
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2016

References

Benn, DI and 9 others (2012) Response of debris-covered glaciers in the Mount Everest region to recent warming, and implications for outburst flood hazards. Earth-Sci. Rev., 114(1-2), 156174 (doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2012.03.008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolch, T and 11 others (2012) The state and fate of Himalayan glaciers. Science, 336(6079), 310314 (doi: 10.1126/science. 1215828)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dilley, AC and O’Brien, DM (1998) Estimating downward clear sky long-wave irradiance at the surface from screen temperature and precipitable water. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc, 124(549), 13911401 (doi: 10.1002/qj.49712454903)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fujita, K and Sakai, A (2014) Modelling runoff from a Himalayan debris-covered glacier. Hydrol. Earth Syst Sci. Discuss., 11(2), 24412482 (doi: 10.5194/hessd-11-2441-2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fujita, K, Suzuki, R, Nuimura, T and Sakai, A (2008) Performance of ASTER and SRTM DEMs, and their potential for assessing glacial lakes in the Lunana region, Bhutan Himalaya. J. Glaciol., 54(185), 220228 (doi: 10.3189/002214308784886162)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fyffe, CL and 6 others (2014) A distributed energy-balance melt model of an alpine debris-covered glacier. J. Glaciol., 60(221), 587602 (doi: 10.3189/2014jog13j148)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardelle, J, Berthier, E and Arnaud, Y (2012) Slight mass gain of Karakoram glaciers in the early twenty-first century. Nature Geosci., 5(5), 322325 (doi: 10.1038/ngeo1450)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gardelle, J, Berthier, E, Arnaud, Y and Kaab, A (2013) Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999-2011 Cryosphere, 7(4), 12631286 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-1263-2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, H, Wang, J, Wei, J and Liu, S (2010) Backwasting rate on debris-covered Koxkar glacier, Tuomuer mountain, China. J. Glaciol., 56(196), 287296 (doi: 10.3189/002214310791968430)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Immerzeel, WW and 6 others (2014) High-resolution monitoring of Himalayan glacier dynamics using unmanned aerial vehicles. Remote Sens. Environ., 150, 93103 (doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2014.04.025)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Juszak, I and Pellicciotti, F (2013) A comparison of parameterizations of incoming longwave radiation over melting glaciers: model robustness and seasonal variability. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118(8), 30663084 (doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50277)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kääb, A, Berthier, E, Nuth, C, Gardelle, J and Arnaud, Y (2012) Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas. Nature, 488(7412), 495498 (doi: 10.1038/nature11324)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miles, ES, Willis, I, Pellicciotti, F, Steiner, JF, Buri, P and Arnold, N (2016) Refined energy-balance modelling of a supraglacial pond, Langtang Khola, Nepal. Ann. Glaciol, 57(71), 2940 (doi: 10.3189/201 6AoC71A421)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nuimura, T, Fujita, K, Yamaguchi, S and Sharma, RR (2012) Elevation changes of glaciers revealed by multitemporal digital elevation models calibrated by GPS survey in the Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya, 1992-2008. J. Glaciol., 58(210), 648656 (doi: 10.3189/2012jog11j061)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ohmura, A (1968) The computation of direct insolation on a slope. Climatol. Bull., 3, 4253 Google Scholar
Pellicciotti, F, Stephan, C, Miles, ES, Herreid, S, Immerzeel, WW and Bolch, T (2015) Mass-balance changes of the debris-covered glaciers in the Langtang Himal, Nepal, from 1974 to 1999. J. Glaciol., 61(226), 373386 (doi: 10.31 89/201 5jog1 3J237)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petersen L and Pellicciotti, F (2011) Spatial and temporal variability of air temperature on a melting glacier: atmospheric controls, extrapolation methods and their effect on melt modeling, Juncal Norte glacier, Chile. J. Geophys. Res., 116(D23), D23109 (doi: 10.1029/2011jdOl5842)Google Scholar
Plüss, C and Ohmura, A (1997) Longwave radiation on snow-covered mountainous surfaces. J. Appl. Meteorol., 36(6), 818824 (doi: 10.1175/1520-0450-36.6.818)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ragettli, S and 9 others (2015) Unravelling the hydrology of a Himalayan catchment through integration of high resolution in situ data and remote sensing with an advanced simulation model. Adv. Wat. Resour., 78, 94111 (doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.01.013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rana, B (1997) Application of a conceptual precipitation-runoff model (HYCYMODEL) in a debris-covered glacierized basin in the Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalaya. Ann. Glaciol., 25, 226231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reid, TD and Brock, BW (2014) Assessing ice-cliff backwasting and its contribution to total ablation of debris-covered Miage glacier, Mont Blanc massif, Italy. J. Glaciol., 60(219), 313 (doi: 10.3189/2014jog13j045)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reid, TD, Carenzo, M, Pellicciotti, F and Brock, BW (2012) Including debris cover effects in a distributed model of glacier ablation. J. Geophys. Res., 117(D18), D18105 (doi: 10.1029/2012jd017795)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reindl, DT, Beckman, WA and Duffie, JA (1990) Diffuse fraction correlations. Sol. Energy, 45(1), 17 (doi: 10.101 6/0038-092x(90)90060-p)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sakai, A, Nakawo, M and Fujita, K (1998) Melt rate of ice cliffs on the Lirung glacier, Nepal Himalayas, 1996. Bull. Glacier Res., 16, 5766 Google Scholar
Sakai, A, Takeuchi, N, Fujita, K and Nakawo, M (2000) Role of supraglacial ponds in the ablation process of a debris-covered glacier in the Nepal Himalayas. IAHS Publ. 265, 119132 Google Scholar
Sakai, A, Nakawo, M and Fujita, K (2002) Distribution characteristics and energy balance of ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers, Nepal Himalaya. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 34, 1219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shiraiwa, T and Yamada, T (1992) Glacier inventory in the Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalayas. Low Temp. Sci. Ser. A, Data report, 50, 4772 Google Scholar
Steiner, JF, Pellicciotti, F, Buri, P, Miles, ES, Immerzeel, WW and Reid, TD (2015) Modeling ice-cliff backwasting on a debris-covered glacier in the Nepalese Himalaya. J. Glaciol., 61(229), 889907 (doi: 10.3189/2015JoG14J194)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tachikawa, T, Hato, M, Kaku, M and Iwasaki, A (2011) Characteristics of ASTER CDEM version 2. In 2011 International Ceoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Piscataway, NJ (doi: 10.1109/igarss.2011.6050017)Google Scholar
Unsworth, MH and Monteith, JL (1975) Long-wave radiation at the ground I. Angular distribution of incoming radiation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc, 101(427), 1324 (doi: 10.1002/qj.49710142703)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
You have Access Open access
59
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A grid-based model of backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

A grid-based model of backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

A grid-based model of backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *