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Heat transfer in volcano–ice interactions on Mars: synthesis of environments and implications for processes and landforms

  • James W. Head (a1) and Lionel Wilson (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

We review new advances in volcano–ice interactions on Mars and focus additional attention on (1) recent analyses of the mechanisms of penetration of the cryosphere by dikes and sills; (2) documentation of the glacial origin of huge fan-shaped deposits on the northwest margins of the Tharis Montes and evidence for abundant volcano–ice interactions during the later Amazonian period of volcanic edifice construction and (3) the circumpolar Hesperian-aged Dorsa Argentea Formation, interpreted as an ice sheet and displaying marginal features (channels, lakes and eskers) indicative of significant melting and interior features interpreted to be due to volcano–ice interactions (e.g. subglacial volcanic edifices, pits, basins, channels and eskers). In this context, we describe and analyse several stages and types of volcano–ice interactions: (1) magmatic interactions with ice-rich parts of the cryosphere; (2) subglacial volcanism represented by intrusion under and into the ice and formation of dikes and moberg-like ridges, intrusion of sills at the glacier–volcano substrate interface and their evolution into subglacial lava flows, formation of subglacial edifices, marginal melting and channels; (3) synglacial (ice contact) volcanism represented by flows banking up against glacier margins, chilling and forming remnant ridges and (4) post-glacial volcanism and interactions with ice deposits.

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References
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