Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The importance of diurnal processes for the Seasonal cycle of Sea-ice microwave brightness temperatures during early Summer in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

  • Sascha Willmes (a1), Jörg Bareiss (a1), Christian Haas (a2) and Marcel Nicolaus (a2)

Abstract

Over the perennial Sea ice in the western and central Weddell Sea, Antarctica, the onset of Summer is accompanied by a Significant decrease of Sea-ice brightness temperatures (Tb) as observed by passive-microwave radiometers Such as the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The Summer-specific Tb drop is the dominant feature in the seasonal cycle of Tb data and represents a conspicuous difference to most Arctic Sea-ice regions, where the onset of Summer is mostly marked by a rise in Tb. Data from a 5 week drift Station through the western Weddell Sea in the 2004/05 austral Summer, Ice Station POLarstern (IsPOL), helped with identifying the characteristic processes for Antarctic Sea ice. In Situ glaciological and meteorological data, in combination with SSM/I Swath Satellite data, indicate that the cycle of repeated diurnal thawing and refreezing of Snow (‘freeze–thaw cycles’) is the dominant process in the Summer Season, with the absence of complete Snow wetting. The resulting metamorphous Snow with increased grain Size, as well as the formation of ice layers, leads to decreasing emissivity, enhanced volume Scattering and increased backscatter. This causes the Summer Tb drop.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The importance of diurnal processes for the Seasonal cycle of Sea-ice microwave brightness temperatures during early Summer in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The importance of diurnal processes for the Seasonal cycle of Sea-ice microwave brightness temperatures during early Summer in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The importance of diurnal processes for the Seasonal cycle of Sea-ice microwave brightness temperatures during early Summer in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abdalati, W. and K. Steffen, . 1997. Snowmelt on the Greenland ice Sheet as derived from passive microwave Satellite data. J. Climate, 10(2), 165–175.
Ackley, S.F. and Sullivan, C.W.. 1994. Physical controls on the development and characteristics of Antarctic Sea ice biological communities: a review and Synthesis. Deep-sea Res. I, 41(10), 1583–1604.
Anderson, M.R. 1997. Determination of a melt-onset date for Arctic Sea-ice regions using passive-microwave data. Ann. Glaciol., 25, 382–387.
Andreas, E.L. and Ackley, S.F.. 1982. On the differences in ablation Seasons of Arctic and Antarctic Sea ice. J. Atmos. Sci., 39(2), 440–447.
Barber, D.G., Thomas, A. and Papakyriakou, T.N.. 1998. Role of SAR in Surface energy flux measurements over Sea ice. In Tsatsoulis, C. and Kwok, R., eds. Analysis of SAR data of the polar oceans: recent advances. Berlin, etc., Springer-Verlag, 35–67.
Belchansky, G.I., C.Douglas, D., N.Mordvintsev, I. and G.Platonov, N.. 2004. Estimating the time of melt onset and freeze onset over Arctic Sea-ice area using active and passive microwave data. Remote Sens. Environ., 92(1), 21–39.
Colbeck, S.C. 1974. The capillary effects on water percolation in homogeneous Snow. J. Glaciol., 13(67), 85–97.
Davis, R.E., Dozier, J. and A.T.C., . 1987. Snow property measurements correlative to microwave emission at 35 GHz. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 25(6), 751–757.
Drinkwater, M.R. 1998. Active microwave remote Sensing observations of Weddell Sea ice. In Jeffries, M.O., ed. Antarctic Sea ice: physical processes, interactions and variability. Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 187–212. (Antarctic Research Series 74.)
Drinkwater, M.R. and Liu, X.. 2000. Seasonal to interannual variability in Antarctic Sea-ice Surface melt. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 38(4), 1827–1842.
Drobot, s.D. and Anderson, M.R.. 2001. An improved method for determining Snowmelt onset dates over Arctic Sea ice using Scanning multichannel microwave radiometer and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D20), 24,033–24,050.
Eicken, H. 1998. Deriving modes and rates of ice growth in the Weddell Sea from microstructural, Salinity and Stable-isotope data. In Jeffries, M.O., ed. Antarctic Sea ice: physical processes, interactions and variability. Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 89–122. (Antarctic Research Series 74.)
Garrity, K. 1992. Characterization of Snow on floating ice and case Studies of brightness temperature change during the onset of melt. In Carsey, F.D. and 7 others, eds. Microwave remote Sensing of Sea ice. Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 313–328. (Geophysical Monograph Series 68.)
Gow, A.J., F.Ackley, S., R.Buck, K. and M.Golden, K.. 1987. Physical and Structural characteristics of Weddell Sea pack ice. CRREL Rep. 87-14.
Haas, C. 2001. The Seasonal cycle of ERs Scatterometer Signatures over perennial Antarctic Sea ice and associated Surface ice properties and processes. Ann. Glaciol., 33, 69–73.
Haas, C., N.Thomas, D. and Bareiss, J.. 2001. Surface properties and processes of perennial Antarctic Sea ice in Summer. J. Glaciol., 47(159), 613–625.
Hanesiak, J.M., G.Barber, D. and M.Flato, G.. 1999. The role of diurnal processes in the Seasonal evolution of Sea ice and its Snow cover. J. Geophys. Res., 104(C6), 13,593–13,603.
Hellmer, H.H., Dieckmann, G.S., Haas, C. and Schröder, M.. 2006. Drift Station observes atmosphere–ice–ocean interaction in the western Weddell Sea. Eos, 87(18), 173–184.
Jeffries, M.O., A.Shaw, R., Morris, K., L.Veazey, A. and R.Krouse, H.. 1994. Crystal Structure, Stable isotopes (δ18O), and development of Sea ice in the Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen Seas, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 99(C1), 985–995.
Kern, S. and Heygster, G.. 2001. Sea-ice concentration retrieval in the Antarctic based on the SsM/I 85.5 GHz polarization. Ann. Glaciol., 33, 109–114.
Nicolaus, M., Haas, C., Bareiss, J. and Willmes, S.. 2006. A model Study of differences of Snow thinning on Arctic and Antarctic first-year Sea ice during Spring and Summer. Ann. Glaciol., 44 (see paper in this volume).
shivola, A. and Tiuri, M.. 1986. Snow fork for field determination of the density and wetness profiles of a Snow pack. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 24(5), 717–721.
Ulaby, F.T., K.Moore, R. and K.Fung, A.. 1986. Microwave remote Sensing, active and passive. Vol. 3. From theory to applications. Norwood, MA, Artech House.
Winebrenner, D.P., G.Long, D. and Holt, B.. 1998. Mapping the progression of melt onset and freeze-up on Arctic Sea ice using SAR and Scatterometry. In Tsatsoulis, C. and Kwok, R., eds. Analysis of SAR data of the polar oceans: recent advances. Berlin, etc., Springer-Verlag, 129–144.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The importance of diurnal processes for the Seasonal cycle of Sea-ice microwave brightness temperatures during early Summer in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

  • Sascha Willmes (a1), Jörg Bareiss (a1), Christian Haas (a2) and Marcel Nicolaus (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.