Skip to main content
×
Home

Multiple melt plumes observed at the Breiðamerkurjökull ice face in the upper waters of Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland

  • Mark Brandon (a1), Richard Hodgkins (a2), Helgi Björnsson (a3) and Jón Ólafsson (a3)
Abstract
ABSTRACT

Breiðamerkurjökull flows from the Vatnajökull ice cap and calves into the Jökulsárlón proglacial lagoon. The lagoon is connected to the North Atlantic Ocean through a 6 m deep narrow channel. Four hydrographic surveys in spring 2012, and a 2011 4-month long temperature and salinity time series of lagoon inflow show that the lake has significantly changed since 1976. Warm saline ocean water enters each tidal cycle and descends below the maximum sampled depths. The lagoon has a surface layer of ice melt, freshwater and Atlantic derived water. Beneath 10 m depth an advective/diffusive balance is responsible for determining the temperature and salinity of the lagoon waters down to ~90 m. To maintain the observed hydrographic structure, we calculate an upwelling of deep water of ~0.2 m d−1. A survey within 30 m of Breiðamerkurjökull showed that the warmest and most saline waters sampled within the lagoon below 10 m depth were adjacent to the glacier face, along with multiple interleaved warm and cold layers. A heat and salt balance model shows that submarine melting along the ice face generates multiple meltwater plumes that are mixed and diluted within 200 m of the ice face.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Multiple melt plumes observed at the Breiðamerkurjökull ice face in the upper waters of Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Multiple melt plumes observed at the Breiðamerkurjökull ice face in the upper waters of Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Multiple melt plumes observed at the Breiðamerkurjökull ice face in the upper waters of Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
Hide All
Baines PG (2001) Mixing in flows down gentle slopes into stratified environments. J. Fluid Mech., 443, 237270 (doi: 10.1017/S0022112001005250)
Björnsson H (1996) 300 m deep trench created beneath Breiðamerkurjökull during the Little Ice Age. Ann. Glaciol., 111(22), 141146
Björnsson H, Pálsson F and Gudmundsson S (2001) Jökulsárlón at Breiðamerkurjökull, Vatnajökull, Iceland: 20th century changes and future outlook. Jökull, 50, 118
Carroll D and 5 others (2015) Modeling turbulent subglacial meltwater plumes: implications for Fjord-Scale Buoyancy-driven circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45(8), 21692185 (doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0033.1)
Craig H (1969) Abyssal carbon and radiocarbon in the Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 74(23), 54915506 (doi: 10.1029/JC074i023p05491)
Gade HG (1979) Melting of ice in Sea water: a primitive model with application to the Antarctic ice shelf and icebergs. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9(1), 189198 (doi: 10.1175/1520-0485)
Glover DM, Jenkins WJ and Doney SC (2011) Modeling methods for marine science. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK
Harris PWV (1976) The seasonal temperature-salinity structure of a glacial lake: Jökulsarlon, south-east Iceland. Geogr. Ann. A, 58(4), 329336
Hodgkins R, Bryant R, Darlington E and Brandon M (2016) Pre-melt-season sediment plume variability at Jökulsárlón, Iceland, a preliminary evaluation using in-situ spectroradiometry and satellite imagery. Ann. Glaciol. 57 (73), 3946 (doi: 10.1017/aog.2016.20)
Jenkins A (2011) Convection-driven melting near the grounding lines of ice shelves and tidewater glaciers. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41(12), 22792294 (doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-11-03.1)
Landl B, Björnsson H and Kuhn M (2003) The energy balance of calved ice in Lake Jökulsarlon, Iceland. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 35(4), 475481 (doi: 10.1657/1523-0430)
Mortensen J and 6 others (2013) On the seasonal freshwater stratification in the proximity of fast-flowing tidewater outlet glaciers in a sub-Arctic sill fjord. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118(3), 13821395 (doi: 10.1002/jgrc.20134)
Mottram RH and Benn DI (2009) Testing crevasse-depth models: a field study at Breiðamerkurjökull, Iceland. J. Glaciol., 55(192), 746752 (doi: 10.3189/002214309789470905)
Motyka RJ, Hunter L, Echelmeyer KA and Connor C (2003) Submarine melting at the terminus of a temperate tidewater glacier, LeConte Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. Ann. Glaciol., 36(1), 5765 (doi: 10.3189/172756403781816374)
Motyka RJ, Dryer WP, Amundson J, Truffer M and Fahnestock M (2013) Rapid submarine melting driven by subglacial discharge, LeConte Glacier, Alaska. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40(19), 51535158 (doi: 10.1002/grl.51011)
Ólafsson J and 7 others (2013) Jökulsárlón á Breiðamerkursandi: towards water and heat budgets of a glacier terminal lagoon with an ocean connection. In Northern Hemisphere Glaciers: Past, Present and their Future Fate’ Helgi Björnsson 70th Year Anniversary
Pawlowicz R, Beardsley B and Lentz S (2002) Classical tidal harmonic analysis including error estimates in MATLAB using T_TIDE. Computat. Geosci., 28(8), 929937 (doi: 10.1016/S0098-3004(02)00013-4)
Voytenko D and 7 others (2015a) Instruments and methods multi-year observations of Breiðamerkurjökull, a marine-terminating glacier in southeastern Iceland, using terrestrial radar interferometry. J. Glaciol., 61(225), 4254 (doi: 10.3189/2015JoG14J099)
Voytenko D and 5 others (2015b) Observations of inertial currents in a lagoon in southeastern iceland using terrestrial radar interferometry and automated iceberg tracking. Computat. Geosci., 82, 2330 (doi: 10.1016/j.cageo.2015.05.012)
Zóphóníasson S and Freysteinsdóttir R (1999) Vatnshædarmælingar í Jökulsárlóni a Breiðamerkursandi 1991–1998. Technical Report. Orkustofnun National Energy Authority Internal Report OS-99048 (in Icelandic), 55 p
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annals of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0260-3055
  • EISSN: 1727-5644
  • URL: /core/journals/annals-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 21
Total number of PDF views: 115 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 215 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 14th June 2017 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.