Seasonal variations in radiative and turbulent fluxes at the surface of, and in the heat transfer within, sea ice are discussed from results of energy balance studies at a site of annual ice cover near Mawson, Antarctica. In mid-summer, the open water gains heat mostly by radiation but by early February the ocean is cooling predominantly by strong turbulent losses, with some radiative heat loss occurring also by March. When an ice cover forms, turbulent fluxes decrease from several 100 W m−2 over open water to only 40 w m−2 over ice less than 0.2 m thick and even less over thicker ice.Net radiative losses over mature ice in mid-winter are balanced mostly by conduction through the ice cover but with some turbulent heat gain at the surface. By mid-spring, there is a net radiative gain, the turbulent fluxes are again outgoing, and there is little total heat transfer through the ice. At break-out, the albedo increase from ice to open water causes a large increase in the net radiative gain.
At the lower boundary of the ice, the oceanic heat flux provides an important contribution. A net advection of heat into the region is shown from temperature profiles in the water under the ice. Salinity changes in the water during the period of ice melt are also discussed.
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