Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The structure and chemistry of 94 m Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice

  • Ian Baker (a1) and Daniel Cullen (a1)
Abstract

Optical microscopy, X-ray topography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy have been used for microstructural analysis of ice from 94 m depth from Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2. the ice had a high density of air bubbles, a 2 mm grain-size and contained a high dislocation density in most grains (>1×1010 m–2), although a few lower-dislocation-density grains were present. the main impurities, Na and Cl, were found in several grain boundaries and triple points, often as filaments. Na and Cl were also found in the lattice, but to a lesser extent, along with S, Mg, K and Ca. These observations are compared to previous studies of dislocations and impurity locations in natural ice.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The structure and chemistry of 94 m Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The structure and chemistry of 94 m Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The structure and chemistry of 94 m Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Baker, I. and Gaydosh., D.J. 1987. Dynamic recrystallization and grain boundary migration in B2 FeAl. Metallography, 20, 347357.
Baker, I. and Liu, F.. 1994. O. in-situ study of dislocation/grain boundary interactions using X-ray topography and TEM. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 319, 203214.
Baker, I., Viens, D.V. and Schulson., E.M. 1984. Metallographic observations of dynamic recrystallization in Ni3Al. Scripta Metall., 18, 237240.
Buchanan, J.Y., 1887. on ice and brines. Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, 14, 129149.
Cross, J.D. 1969. Scanning electron microscopy of evaporating ice. Science, 164(3876), 174175.
Cullen, D. and Baker, I.. 2000. Correspondence. the chemistry of grain boundaries in Greenland ice. J. Glaciol., 46(155), 703706.
Cullen, D. and Baker, I.. In press. Observation of impurities in ice. Microscopy Res. Techn.
Fukazawa, H., Sugiyama, K., S.Mae, H. Narita andHondoh, T.. 1998. Acid ions at triple junction of Antarctic ice observed by Raman scattering. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(15), 28452848.
Fukuda, A. and Shoji, H.. 1988. Dislocations in natural ice crystals. In Higashi, A., ed. Lattice defects in ice crystals; X-ray topographic observations. Sapporo, Hokkaido University Press, 1325.
Gow, A.J. and 6 others. 1997. Physical and structural properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice cores: a review. J. Geophys. Res., 102(C12), 26,559– 26,575.
Harrison, W.D. and Raymond., C.F. 1976. Impurities and their distribution in temperate glacier ice. J. Glaciol., 16(74), 173181.
Hayes, C.E. and W.W.Webb. 1965. Dislocations in ice. Science, 147(3653), 4445.
Ketcham, W.M. and Hobbs., P.V. 1969. An experimental determination of the surface energies of ice. Philos. Mag., 19(162), 11611173.
Liu, F., Baker, I., Yao, G. and Dudley, M.. 1992. Dislocations and grain boundaries in polycrystalline ice: a preliminary study by synchrotron X-ray topography. J.Mater. Sci., 27(10), 27192725.
Maccagnan, M. 1981. Contribution à l’étude des propriétés diélectriques de la glace Antarctique, application géochimique. (Thèse de 3ième cycle, Grenoble, Laboratoire de Glaciologie du CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier.) (Publ. 373.)
Mader, H.M. 1992a. Observations of the water-vein system in polycrystalline ice. J. Glaciol., 38(130), 333347.
Mader, H.M. 1992b. the thermal behaviour of the water-vein system in polycrystalline ice. J. Glaciol., 38(130), 359374.
Mayewski, P.A. and 7 others. 1993. the atmosphere during the Younger Dryas. Science, 261(5118), 195197.
Mayewski, P.A. and 6 others. 1997. Major features and forcing of high-latitude Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation using a 110,000 year-long glaciochemical series. J. Geophys. Res. ,102(C12), 26,345–26,366.
Mulvaney, R., Wolff, E.W. and Oates, K.. 1988. Sulphuric acid at grain boundaries in Antarctic ice. Nature, 331(6153), 247249.
National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). 1997. The Greenland Summit ice cores. Boulder, CO, University of Colorado. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Distributed Active Archive Center.
Nye, J.F. 1989. The geometry of water veins and nodes in polycrystalline ice. J. Glaciol., 35(119), 1722.
Nye, J.F. 1991. Thermal behaviour of glacier and laboratory ice. J. Glaciol., 37(127), 401413.
Nye, J.F. and Frank., F.C. 1973. Hydrology of the intergranular veins in a temperate glacier. International Association of Scientific Hydrology Publication 95 (Symposium at Cambridge 1969−Hydrology of Glaciers), 157–161.
Nye, J.F. and Mae, S.. 1972. The effect of non-hydrostatic stress on intergranular water veins and lenses in ice. J. Glaciol., 11(61), 81101.
Paren, J.G. and F., J.C. Walker. 1971. Influence of limited solubility on the electrical and mechanical properties of ice. Nature, 230(12), 7779.
Raymond, C.F. and Harrison, W.D.. 1975. Some observations on the behavior of the liquid and gas phases in temperate glacier ice. J.Glaciol., 14(71), 213233.
Steinemann, A. 1957. Dielektrische Eigenschaften von Eiskristallen II. Teil Dielektrische Untersuchungen an Eiskristallen mit Eingelagerten Fremdatomen. Helv. Phys. Acta, 30, 553610.
Wolff, E.W. and Paren, J.G.. 1984. Atwo-phasemodel of electrical conduction in polar ice sheets. J. Geophys. Res. , 89(B11), 94339438.
Wolff, E.W., Mulvaney, R. and Oates, K.. 1988. The location of impurities in Antarctic ice. Ann. Glaciol., 11, 194197.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annals of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0260-3055
  • EISSN: 1727-5644
  • URL: /core/journals/annals-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed