Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The surface energy balance of an active ice-covered volcano: Villarrica Volcano, southern Chile

  • Benjamin Brock (a1), Andrés Rivera (a2) (a3), Gino Casassa (a2), Francisca Bown (a2) and César Acuña (a2)...

Abstract

The energy balance of bare snow and tephra-covered ice near the glacier equilibrium line elevation on Villarrica Volcano, southern Chile, was investigated during 2004 and 2005, combining meteorological, surface temperature and ablation measurements with energy balance modelling. A tephra thermal conductivity of 0.35 Wm–1 K–1, and a critical tephra thickness of <5mm at which ablation is reduced compared to bare snow, were obtained from field data. These low values are attributable to the highly porous lapilli particles which make up most of the surface material. Modelled melt totals in the January to March period were 4.95 m and 3.96 m water equivalent (w.e.) in 2004 and 2005, respectively, compared with ∽0.5mw.e. melt for ice buried by >0.1m tephra. Windblown tephra impurities lowered snow albedo, but increased snowmelt by only an estimated 0.28mw.e. over the same period. The net mass balance impact of supraglacial tephra at Villarrica Volcano is therefore positive, as thick ash and lapilli mantle most of the glacier ablation zones, probably reducing annual ablation by several metres w.e. In the accumulation seasons, frequent melting events were recorded with modelled daily snowmelt rates of up to 50 mmw.e.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The surface energy balance of an active ice-covered volcano: Villarrica Volcano, southern Chile
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The surface energy balance of an active ice-covered volcano: Villarrica Volcano, southern Chile
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The surface energy balance of an active ice-covered volcano: Villarrica Volcano, southern Chile
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Adhikary, S., Nakawo, M., Seko, K., and Shakya, B.. 2000. Dust influence on the melting process of glacier ice: experimental results from Lirung Glacier, Nepal Himalayas. IAHS Publ. 264 (Symposium at Seattle 2000 – Debris-Covered Glaciers), 43–52.
Adhikary, S., Yamaguchi, Y. and Ogawa, K.. 2002. Estimation of snow ablation under a dust layer covering a wide range of albedo. Hydrol. Process., 16(14), 2853–2865.
Anderson, E.A. 1976. A point energy and mass balance model of a snow cover. NOAA Technical Report, NWS-19. Washington, DC. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Bown, F. and Rivera, A.. 2007. Climate changes and glacier responses during recent decades in the Chilean Lake District. Glob. Planet. Change. (10.1016/j.gloplacha-2006-11.015.)
Brock, B.W. and Arnold, N.S.. 2000. A spreadsheet-based (Microsoft Excel) point surface energy balance model for glacier and snowmelt studies. Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 25(6), 649–658.
Brock, B.W., Willis, I.C. and Sharp, M.J.. 2000. Measurement and parameterization of albedo variations at Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 46(155), 675–688.
Brock, B.W., Willis, I.C. and Sharp, M.J.. 2006. Measurement and parameterisation of aerodynamic roughness length variations at Haut Glacier D’Arolla, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 52(177), 281–297.
Clark, S.P. Jr., 1966. Section 21. Thermal conductivity. In Clark, S.P. Jr., ed. Handbook of physical constants. Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, 459–482. (GSA Memoir 97.)
Conway, H. and Rasmussen, L.A.. 2000. Summer temperature profiles within supraglacial debris on Khumbu Glacier Nepal. IAHS Publ. 264 (Symposium at Seattle 2000 – Debris Covered Glaciers), 89–97.
Deardorff, J.W. 1968. Dependence of air-sea transfer coefficients on bulk stability. J. Geophys. Res., 73(8), 2549–2557.
Drewry, D.J. 1972. A quantitative assessment of dirt-cone dynamics. J. Glaciol., 11(63), 431–446.
Driedger, C.L. 1981. Effect of ash thickness on snow ablation. In: Lipman, P. and D.R. Mullineaux (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St Helens. USGS Professional Paper, 1250, 757–760.
Evans, D.J.A., Archer, S. and Wilson, D.J.H.. 1999. A comparison of the lichenometric and Schmidt hammer dating techniques based on data from the proglacial area of some Icelandic glaciers. Quat. Sci. Rev., 18(1), 13–41.
Georges, C. and Kaser, G.. 2002. Ventilated and unventilated air temperature measurements for glacier-climate studies on a tropical high mountain site. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D24), 4755.
González-Ferrán, O. 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago, Instituto Geográfico Militar.
Greuell, W. and Genthon, C.. 2004. Modelling land-ice surface mass balance. In Bamber, J.L. and Payne, A.J., eds. Mass balance of the cryosphere: observations and modelling of contemporary and future changes. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Kayastha, R.B., Takeuchi, Y., Nakawo, M., and Ageta, Y.. 2000. Practical prediction of ice melting beneath various thickness of debris cover on Khumbu Glacier, Nepal using a positive degree-day factor. IAHS Publ. 264 (Symposium at Seattle 2000 – Debris-Covered Glaciers), 71–81.
Kirkbride, M.P. and Dugmore, A.J.. 2003. Glaciological response to distal tephra fallout from the 1947 eruption of Hekla, south Iceland. J. Glaciol., 49(166), 420–428.
Lara, L.E. 2004. Overview of Villarrica volcano. In Villarrica volcano (39.5 deg S), Southern Andes, Chile. Santiago, Sernageomin, 5–12. (Bó letín 61.)
Lister, H. 1953. Report on glaciology at Breidamerkurjökull 1951. Jökull, 3, 23–31.
Marcus, M.G., Moore, R.D. and Owens, I.F.. 1985. Short-term estimates of surface energy transfers and ablation on the lower Franz Josef Glacier, South Westland, New Zealand. NZ J. Geol. Geophys., 28(3), 559–567.
Mattson, L.E. and Gardner, J.S.. 1989. Energy exchange and ablation rates on the debris-covered Rakhiot Glacier, Pakistan. Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 25(1), 17–32.
Moore, R.D. and Owens, I.F.. 1984. Controls on advective snowmelt in a maritime alpine basin. J. Climate Appl. Meteorol., 23(1), 135–142.
Munro, D.S. 1990. Comparison of melt energy computations and ablatometer measurements on melting ice and snow. Arct. Alp. Res., 22(2), 153–162.
Müller, F. and Keeler, C.M.. 1969. Errors in short-term ablation measurements on melting ice surfaces. J. Glaciol., 8(52), 91–105.
Nakawo, M. and Young, G.J.. 1982. Estimate of glacier ablation under a debris layer from surface temperature and meteorological variables. J. Glaciol., 28(98), 29–34.
Naruse, R., Oura, H. and Kojima, K.. 1970. [Field studies on snow melt due to sensible heat transfer from the atmosphere]. Low Temp. Sci., A. 28, 191–202. [In Japanese with English summary.]
Oke, T.R. 1987. Boundary layer climates. Second edition. London, Routledge Press.
Paterson, W.S.B. 1994. The physics of glaciers. Third edition. Oxford, Elsevier.
Pellicciotti, F., Brock, B.W., Strasser, U., Burlando, P., Funk, M. and Corripio, J.G.. 2005. An enhanced temperature-index glacier melt model including shortwave radiation balance: development and testing for Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. J. Glaciol., 51(175), 573–587.
Petit-Breuih, M.E. and Lobato, J.. 1994. Análisis comparativo de la cronología eruptiva histó rica de los volcanes Llaima y Villarrica (388-39˚ L.S.). In Congreso Geológico Chileno No 7, Actas, Vol. 1. Concepción, Chile, 366–370.
Rivera, A., Acuña, C., Casassa, G. and Bown, F.. 2002. Use of remotely-sensed and field data to estimate the contribution of Chilean glaciers to eustatic sea-level rise. Ann. Glaciol., 34, 367–372.
Rivera, A. and 8 others. 2006. Ice volumetric changes on active volcanoes in Southern Chile. Ann. Glaciol., 43, 111–122.
Stern, C.R. 2004. Active Andean volcanism: its geologic and tectonic setting. Rev. Geol. Chile, 31(2), 161–206.
Takeuchi, Y., Kayastha, R.B., and Nakawo, M.. 2000. Characteristics of ablation and heat balance in debris-free and debris-covered areas on Khumbu Glacier, Nepal Himalayas in the pre-monsoon season. IAHS Publ. 264 (Symposium at Seattle 2000 – Debris-Covered Glaciers), 53–61.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annals of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0260-3055
  • EISSN: 1727-5644
  • URL: /core/journals/annals-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed