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Cycladic Lead and Silver Metallurgy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 September 2013

Extract

Interest in the prehistory of the Cyclades may fairly be said to have been awakened in the middle of the nineteenth century when travellers like Walpole or Fiedler were intrigued by what we now regard as one of the characteristic products of ECII times in the Cyclades—the marble folded-arm figurines whose harmony, balance, and economy of artistic expression appeal so much to the admirers of twentieth-century artists such as Mondrian or Modigliani. Reports of other prehistoric material from the Cyclades soon followed from J. T. Bent, U. Köhler, and F. Dümmler, whilst more systematic explorations began with the work of Edgar in Pelos, and Atkinson and others at Phylakopi on Melos.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Council, British School at Athens 1981

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References

Acknowledgements. We are very grateful to Professor C. Renfrew for suggesting that we extend our studies from Archaic times into the Bronze Age and for his subsequent enthusiastic encouragement of our work and for the continual encouragement and assistance which we have received also from Professor C. Doumas. We gratefully acknowledge the help which we have received from Drs. K. Tsakos and H. Zervoudaki, Ephors of the Cyclades. Our thanks are due for continuing assistance in many ways to Drs. H. Catling, R. Jones, J. Carrington-Smith, C. Mee, Mr. A. Spawforth, and Mrs. H. Efthymiades of the British School at Athens, to Drs. O. Tsakos-Alexandri, M. Vlasopoulou, and K. Assimenos of the National Museum, Athens, to Drs. M. Vickers, R. Moorey, H. Brock, C. Kraay, and D. M. Metcalf of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, to M. Warhurst of the Merseyside County Museums, Liverpool, to Drs. B. Cook and P. T. Craddock of the British Museum, to Professor H. Mussche and Dr. P. Spitaels of the Seminarie voor Griekse Archeologie, Ghent, to Drs. J. Bornovas, N. G. Melidonis and S. Papamarinopoulos of IGME, Athens, and to our former colleagues Professor W. Gentner, Drs. O. Müller, G. A. Wagner, and H. Gropengiesser of Heidelberg. For the analytical measurements in Oxford we are grateful to Professor E. T. Hall, Professor K. Allen, and Drs. A. Jones and J. Rose for making available facilities in their Departments. Finally we gratefully acknowledge financial support for this work from the Science Research Council, the British Academy, and the Volkswagen Foundation.

Abbreviations

Aegean World I Doumas, C. (ed.), Thera and the Aegean World Vol. 1 (1978).Google Scholar

Aegean World II Doumas, C. (ed.), Thera and the Aegean World Vol. 2 (1980).Google Scholar

Arkesine Bossert, E. M., ‘Zur Datierung der Gräber von Arkesine auf Amorgos’, Festschrift für Peter Gössler (Stuttgart, 1954).Google Scholar

Art and Culture Thimme, J. (ed.), Art and Culture of the Cyclades (Müller: Karlsruhe, 1977).Google Scholar

BHZ Berg- und hüttenmännische Zeitung.

BSRGB Bulletin Societé Royale Belge de Géographie, Bruxelles.

Burial Habits Doumas, C., ‘Early Bronze Age Burial Habits in the Cyclades’, Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology xlviii (1977).Google Scholar

Civilisation Renfrew, Colin, The Emergence of Civilisation (Methuen: London, 1972).Google Scholar

Davis Davis, Ellen N., The Vapheio Cups and Aegean Gold and Silver Ware (Garland: New York, 1977).Google Scholar

Early Mining Craddock, P. T. (ed.), Scientific Studies in Early Mining and Extractive Metallurgy, British Museum Occasional Paper No. 20 (London, 1980).Google Scholar

Fiedler Fiedler, K. G., Reise durch alle Theile des Königreiches Griechenland, ii (Leipzig, 1841).Google Scholar

Goulandris Doumas, C., The N. P. Goulandris Collection of Early Cycladic Art (1968).Google Scholar

IGME Institute of Geological and Mining Exploration, Athens.

Keos I Coleman, J. E., Keos I: Kephala (Princeton, 1977).Google Scholar

Metalwork Branigan, K., Aegean Metalwork of the Early and Middle Bronze Age (Oxford, 1974).Google Scholar

MMG Metallogenetic Map of Greece, Explanatory Booklet, IGME (Athens, 1973).

Papathanasopoulos Papathanasopoulos, G. A., ‘Kykladika Naxou’, A. Delt. xvii (19611962) 104.Google Scholar

Phylakopi Atkinson, T. D. et al. , Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos, Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, Occasional Paper 4 (1904).Google Scholar

Prehistory Davis, J. L. and Cherry, J. F. (edd.), Papers in Cycladic Prehistory, Monograph XIV, Institute of Archaeology, University of California at Los Angeles (1979).Google Scholar

Roman Mines Davies, O., Roman Mines in Europe (Oxford, 1935).Google Scholar

Technologie Blümner, H., Technologie und Terminologie der Gewerbe und Knste bei Griechern und Römern iv (1887/1969).Google Scholar

Tylecote Tylecote, R. F., A History of Metallurgy, The Metals Society (London, 1976).Google Scholar

1 The choice and definition of a ‘cultural’ or chronological system for the description of the Early Cycladic period is at present a matter of dispute amongst Aegean prehistorians; a dispute into which we do not propose to enter. As a matter of convenience only (and with no implication of preference) we attempt to classify the artefacts which we discuss according to the system EC I, EC II, EC III, MC, whilst admitting that in many cases certainty is impossible since the appropriate stratigraphy or proper description of associated pottery is either wholly missing or inadequately reported. With this in mind it seems adequate for our purposes roughly to equate the Grotta-Pelos phase with EC I, the Keros-Syros phase with EC II, and the Phylakopi I phase with EC III. For recent discussions of terminology see Barber, R. N. L. and MacGillivray, J. A., AJA lxxxiv (1980) 141–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Caskey, J. L., Historia xxvii (1978) 488–91Google Scholar; Coleman, J. E., Prehistory (1979) 4850 and 64–5Google Scholar; Renfrew, C., Prehistory (1979) 5163Google Scholar; Doumas, C., Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology xlviii (1977)Google Scholar; Renfrew, C., Civilisation 53–5 and 135–221.Google Scholar

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6 Phylakopi.

7 Tsountas, C., AE (1898) 137212Google Scholar and AE (1899) 73–134.

8 Recent Cycladic research is summarised in Art and Culture 185–91.

9 Renfrew, C., AJA lxxi (1967) 120CrossRefGoogle Scholar, Plates 1–10.

10 Civilisation 308–38.

11 Metalwork; Art and Culture 117–22.

12 Gale, N. H., Aegean World i 529–45Google Scholar; Aegean World ii 161–95.

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17 Coleman, J. E., AJA lxxviii 333–44.Google Scholar

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45 Gale, Gentner, and Wagner, op. cit. (n. 35), have given analyses of 110 archaic Greek silver coins, the great majority of which will have been produced from silver derived from argentiferous galena.

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56 Tylecote 6, Table 5.

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105 Op. cit. (n. 22).

106 e.g. Metalwork, Catalogue 3288–91.

107 For which we thank Dr. P. T. Craddock.

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118 Published in AJA lxxi (1967) pl. 3: 15 and 16.

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188 Details of the TL measurements are given in Wagner et al. (n. 183).

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62
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