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Excavations at Sparta, 1924—28: § 3.—Terracottas, Plastic Vases, Reliefs

  • J. M. Woodward
Extract

The terracottas described below are limited to the moulded archaic and the hand-made of all periods; the later moulded ones are fragmentary and have no special local significance. Several of the heads are not, strictly speaking, terracottas, having been attached to vases, but they are included here as they are so much a part of the subject.

The clay, as it varies a good deal, has been described in some detail, for though most of it is local, the varieties may throw some light on the problems of the different styles. Where the quality of the clay is not specially noticed, it is the hard, pink-buff kind that is most common at Sparta.

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page 75 note 1 They are mostly from the later excavations; Nos. 1, 11, 18, 20, 30, 39, 52 and 59 were found in 1907–8; cf. the reports, B.S.A. xiii. pp. 137 ff. and B.S.A. xiv. pp. 142 ff.

page 75 note 2 Ibid. xv. p. 136; Fig. 9, 10–13.

page 76 note 1 B.S.A. xiv. pp. 48 fl. (Throughout this article the “sanctuary of Orthia” is written as “the Orthia.”)

page 76 note 2 Ibid. xv. pp. 116 ff.

page 76 note 3 Ibid. xiv. p. 56, Fig. 3, c, d, e.

page 76 note 4 Ibid. Fig. 3, g.

page 76 note 5 Cf. ibid, xxviii. p. 55.

page 77 note 1 B.S.A. xiv. p. 50, Fig. 1, c, and p. 53, Fig. 2, a.

page 77 note 2 Ibid. xv. p. 120, Fig. 3; 36, 40.

page 77 note 3 For horses of a somewhat similar type cf. Argive Heraeum, ii. Pl. XLVIII. Fig. 2, and Tiryns, i. p. 83, Fig. 20; also Thera, ii. p. 307, Fig. 494, d.

page 77 note 4 E.g. another type found at the Menelaion, B.S.A. xv. p. 120, Fig. 3; 41, 46.

page 77 note 5 Ibid. xii. p. 334, Fig. 1.

page 77 note 6 E.g. ibid. xiii. p. 78, Fig. 17, a.

page 78 note 1 E.g. Meyer, Reich u. Kultur der Chetiter, Pl. VI.

page 78 note 2 E.g. below, Nos. 6, 18, 25.

page 78 note 3 E.g. Genouillac, , Louvre, La Céramique Cappadocienne, ii. Nos. 51, 66, 67; Macalister, , Gezer, ii. p. 232, Fig. 382 : also Délégation en Perse, xiii. p. 22, Fig. III.

page 79 note 1 Cf. Olympia, iv. Pl. XLIV. Fig. 787.

page 79 note 2 Cf. Mayer, , Jahrb. xxii. pp. 217 ff.

page 79 note 3 Cf. preliminary publication, B.S.A. xxvi. p. 275, Fig. 7, 3.

page 79 note 4 Contrast the small ivory gryphon's head, ibid. Fig. 7, 1–2.

page 79 note 5 Maraghiannis, , Antiquités Créoises, i. Pl. XXIX. 35.

page 80 note 1 Another example appears on the metope from the Treasury of the Sicyonians at Delphi, , Fouilles de Delphes, iv. Pl. IV. 1.

page 80 note 2 Cf. J.H.S. xxix. p. 290, Figs. 5, 6.

page 80 note 3 Cf. Filow, and Schkorpil, , Die Arch. Nekropole von Trebenischte, p. 56, Fig. 56.

page 80 note 4 Cf. below, Plastic Vases, No. 2, and B.S.A. xxviii. p. 64, Fig. 8.

page 80 note 5 Cf. below, Nos. 39–46.

page 80 note 6 Annuario della Scuola Arch. di Atene, i. 1914, p. 50, Fig. 19. Cf. also Poulsen, , Der Orient u. die Frühgriech. Kunst, p. 115.

page 81 note 1 B.S.A. xiv. p. 49.

page 81 note 2 Similar cross-bands appear on the dancing figures of the kylix, ibid. Pl. III., and on the Caryatides at Delphi, , Fouilles de Delphes, iv. Pl. LXI.

page 82 note 1 Cf. a similar zigzag line on a lead figurine, B.S.A. xv. p. 128, Fig. 6, 33.

page 82 note 2 Cf. Gerhard, Akad. Abhand. Pl. XXII.

page 83 note 1 Cf. also Argive Heraeum, ii. Pl. XLVIII. 3.

page 83 note 2 Excavations in Cyprus, 1900, p. 70, Fig. 112.

page 84 note 1 Cf. B.S.A. xiv. p. 51.

page 84 note 2 Farnell, , Cults of the Greek States, ii. p. 628.

page 84 note 3 This type of pendant is often copied in lead throughout the Laconian periods I–IV; cf. B.S.A. xv. p. 140, Fig. 11, 20–23, and below. No. 32.

page 84 note 4 Cf. Farnell, , Cults, ii. p. 429.

page 84 note 5 Cf. Boetticher, , Der Baumkultus der Hellenen, pp. 140 ff.

page 85 note 1 Paus. iii. XVI. 7.

page 85 note 2 Theocr. xviii. 43.

page 85 note 3 Cf. Svoronos, , Britomartis, Rev. Beige de Numismatique, 1894.

page 85 note 4 Zeus, i. p. 528, The willow plays an important part among tree-cults : cf. Athenaeus, xv. 672, for the willow in the cult of Hera at Samos, also Boetticher, op. cit. pp. 333–5.

page 85 note 5 It is not essential to his theory that the tree should be the oak he claims it to be. Cf. Svoronos, op. cit., p. 25.

page 86 note 1 Paus. iii. XII. 7.

page 86 note 2 Paus. iii. XIV. 2. “ἐπανελθοῦσι ὀπίσω πρὸς τὴν λέσχην Κροτανῶν . . .ὲπονομάζουσι δὲ αὐτὴν καὶ Λιμνάιαν, οὖσαν οὐκ ᾿´Αρτεμιν, Βριτόμαρτιν δὲ τὴν Κρητῶν” Cf. also Paus. iii. XXIV. 6 for another sanctuary of Artemis-Diktynna at Hypsa.

page 86 note 3 B.M. Coins, Crete, Pl. IX. 9.

page 86 note 4 Cf. Svoronos, op. cit. p. 22.

page 86 note 5 Cf. Harrison, J. E., Themis, pp. 180 ff.

page 86 note 6 B.S.A. xxvi. pp. 250–1.

page 87 note 1 Cf. B.S.A. xiv. p. 56, Fig. 3, a, also Heuzey, op. cit. Pl. XIII. 1, 3.

page 87 note 2 Gardner, E. A., Naukratis, ii. Pl. VI.

page 87 note 3 Cf. Poulsen, op. cit. p. 158; also Studniczka, in Antike Plastik (W. Amelung z. 60 en Geburtstag), p. 249.

page 87 note 4 Cf. Müller, , Der Polos, p. 19; also the ivory plaque from Sparta with a sphinx wearing this stephane, B.S.A. xiii. p. 87, Fig. 22 b.

page 87 note 5 For the curls cf. Poulsen, op. cit. p. 150, Fig. 177 and p. 156.

page 87 note 6 The pendant d, p. 88, shews a more complete specimen than those figured in B.S.A. xv. p. 140, Fig. 11, with the prominent crown of leaves set above the bead which is reproduced on the terracotta; cf. Koch, , Dachterrakotten, p. 44, Fig. 58.

page 88 note 1 Cf. B.S.A. xxviii. p. 56, Fig. 3, n, and p. 66, Fig. 10.

page 88 note 2 Ibid. xv. Pl. III. Cf. also Pfuhl, , Malerei u. Zeichnung. iii. p. 46, Fig. 198.

page 88 note 3 The fact that this head is Janiform makes it, as far as I know, unique among the terracottas of Sparta and points to Eastern influence—perhaps from Syria (cf. Jahrb. xxvi. p. 236)—though I do not think there is any question of its being imported, for the clay is the same as that used for many Spartan hand-made figurines.

page 88 note 4 Cf. the features of the protome No. 42 below.

page 89 note 1 B.S.A. xxviii. pp. 39 ff.

page 89 note 2 Cf. below, Plastic vases, No. 1.

page 89 note 3 This narrow band on the forehead appears also on a vase from Crete, Pfuhl, op. cit. iii. p. 10, Fig. 56. Cf. also Maximova, Vases Plastiques, Pl. XXIV. 95, and Pl. XXX. 112.

page 90 note 1 Cf. Myres, , J.H.S. xvii. p. 165.

page 90 note 2 For the curious straight, heavy lips, cf. B.S.A. xiii. p. 80, Fig. 18, a.

page 90 note 3 Cf. Langlotz, , Frühgr. Bildhauerschulen, p. 92.

page 90 note 4 B.S.A. xiii. p. 106, Fig. 32.

page 90 note 5 Cf. ibid. xiv. p. 60.

page 90 note 6 ibid. p. 59, Fig. 4, b.

page 90 note 7 Cf. ibid. p. 67 f.

page 91 note 1 Poulsen, op. cit. p. 167, Figs. 193–4.

page 91 note 2 The style is closely copied on a sherd from Naukratis, B.S.A. v. Pl. VIII. 1, and appears elsewhere, e.g. A.Z. 1881, Pls. XI, 2a, XIII, 6.

page 92 note 1 In this and other details the head has much in common with the Janiform head mentioned in connection with No. 32 above.

page 92 note 2 Cf. B.S.A. xiv. p. 59, Fig. 4, c, k, n, p.

page 92 note 3 Cf. ibid. xv. p. 120, Fig. 3, 32, 37, 39.

page 92 note 4 Cf. ibid. xiii. p. 108. The fact that examples of the figurine occur at the Menelaion and on the Acropolis as well as at the Orthia does not weaken this theory; dedications are so haphazard, without regard to the cult, E.g. the lead figurines of Athena which are found at all three shrines.

page 92 note 5 Cf. ibid. p. 107, Fig. 33.

page 93 note 1 Cf. Lowy, , Jahresh. xii. 1909, pp. 243 ff.

page 94 note 1 The features of the heads, Nos. 39 and 42, with the long chin and thin lips of the later Sparta group (cf. B.S.A. xv. p. 123) are extraordinarily like those of the statuette from Auxerre (Mon. Piot, xx. 1913, Pl. 1). They have not, however, the curls on the forehead.

page 94 note 2 I have counted in the Sparta Museum thirty examples of the heads of statuettes and protomai from the Orthia and eight from the Menelaion. With these should be considered the male figures with the “beaded locks” coiffure (B.S.A. xiv. p. 66, Fig. 7, i, and ibid. xv. p. 122, Fig. 4, 60), the bronze protomai (ibid, xxviii. Pl. X.), a number of lead figurines (ibid. xv. p. 128, Fig. 6, 1) and the varieties (ibid. xiv. p. 59, Fig.4, i, m, and ibid. xv. p. 120, Fig. 3, 33).

page 94 note 3 Poulsen, op. cit. p. 142, Fig. 159.

page 94 note 4 Op. cit. p. 166 ff.

page 94 note 5 He regards them only as figures with “senkrechten Flechten,” p. 156, note 18.

page 94 note 6 As E.g. in the terracotta, Poulsen, op. cit. p. 157, Fig. 186.

page 94 note 7 The ivory plaque from Sparta, , B.S.A. xiii. p. 80, Fig. 18, b, shews a slight variation, with the ends of the beaded locks attached to the ribbed hair.

page 95 note 1 Cf. Kunstgeschichte in Bildern, i. p. 18, Fig. 4.

page 95 note 2 Though the polos is combined with a freer type of the “beaded locks” coiffure, cf. B.S.A. xiv. p. 59, Fig. 4, i, m.

page 95 note 3 C.V. France, fasc. 9, III Ca, Pl. 11.

page 95 note 4 B.S.A. xiv. p. 23, Fig. 8.

page 95 note 5 Cf. note 2 above.

page 95 note 6 B.S.A. xv. p. 128, Fig. 6, 26.

page 95 note 7 Cf. Müller, , Der Polos, pp. 27–8.

page 96 note 1 For a similar head, though with a smooth polos, cf. Mon. Piot, xxii. Pl. XIV.

page 96 note 2 Cf. Cesnola, , Atlas, ii. 1, Pl. XXVIII. 231.

page 96 note 3 For a polos with similar double rim cf. B.S.A. xiv. p. 23, Fig. 8.

page 97 note 1 It seems to be an oriental style; cf. Poulsen, op. cit. p. 105. The treatment of the side-locks is characteristic of Syrian work; cf. Hogarth, , B.S.A. xiv. p. 190, Fig. 3, and Ronzevalle, , Mélanges de L'Univ. Saint-Joseph, xii. Pl. XXII. 3, 4.

page 98 note 1 B.S.A. xiv. p. 56, Fig. 3, a.

page 98 note 2 Ibid. xii. p. 328, Fig. 5, b.

page 98 note 3 Cf. ibid. xiv. p. 66, Fig. 7, b; cf. also a and c.

page 98 note 4 Cf. ibid, xxviii. p. 64, Fig. 8; also Maximova, op. cit. i. pp. 153 ff., and there is a miniature bronze version, B.S.A. xxviii. Pl. VIII. 23.

page 99 note 1 B.S.A. xii. Pl. IX.

page 99 note 2 For another example from Italy, cf. B.M. Terracottas, B 576, and cf. below. Reliefs, 1.

page 99 note 3 Cf. Winter, , Terrakotten, III. i. p. 205, Fig. 2, and p. 209, Figs. 1, 3.

page 99 note 4 For other terracotta shields, cf. Robinson, , A.J.A. 1906, p. 170.

page 100 note 1 Münchner Arch. Studien (1909), p. 445.

page 100 note 2 Artemis Orthia (1929), Pl. XXII. and p. 123, Fig. 92.

page 100 note 3 Cf. B.S.A. xv. p. 138, Fig. 10, 18. Cf. also the relief, below. No. 1.

page 100 note 4 Cf. ibid, xxviii. p. 72.

page 101 note 1 Winter, , Terrakotten, iii. I, p. 135, 1.

page 101 note 2 Cf. B.M. Terracottas, B 172, Pl. IX.

page 101 note 3 Cf. the similar clay of the Plastic vases Nos. 5 and 6.

page 101 note 4 B.S.A. xxviii. p. 64, Fig. 8.

page 102 note 1 For an example of a vase without slip, cf. the pyxis, B.S.A. xxviii. Pl. VI.

page 102 note 2 E.g. the terracottas, Nos. 6, 15, 40, above.

page 102 note 3 Cf. B.S.A. xv. p. 118, Fig. 2, 9; also Sparta Museum (No. 5182 in Excavation Register).

page 102 note 4 Though Maximova, op. cit. p. 189, groups the lions with Proto-Corinthian examples.

page 102 note 5 Cf. Johansen, Les Vases Sicyoniens, Pl. XXXI. 1, b, Pl. XLI. 5.

page 102 note 6 B.S.A. xxviii. p. 67, Fig. 11, a.

page 102 note 7 Cf. ibid. p. 63.

page 103 note 1 Cf. B.M. Terracottas, B 281, Pl. XVIII.

page 104 note 1 Cf. Maximova, op. cit. Pl. XVI. 64.

page 104 note 2 Cf. some similar fragments found at the Orthia, B.S.A. xiv. p. 64.

page 104 note 3 This is not an unusual method of avoiding the difficulty of shewing the crest from the front on vases and reliefs. Cf. Rumpf, Chalkidische Vasen, Pl. XIII.

page 105 note 1 Olympia, iv. Pl. XXXIX. 706.

page 105 note 2 B.S.A. xv. p. 138, Fig. 10, 18.

page 105 note 3 Cf. the Aristonothos vase, Pfuhl, op. cit. iii. p. 14, Fig. 65, and the Macmillan lekythos, J.H.S. xi. Pl. II.

page 105 note 4 Cf. the head of the figure on the kylix, Arch. Zeit. 1881, Pl. XII. 3.

page 105 note 5 Cf. the plastic vase, B.M. Terracottas, No. B 289, best figured in Maximova, op. cit. Pl. XV. 61; also the plate B.M. No. A 750, figured in Zervos, Rhodes, Capitale de Dodécanèse, Fig. 227.

page 106 note 1 Also on the jug from Aegina, , Ath. Mitt. xxii. Pl. 8. An exhaustive list of representations of the scene appears in Müller, Franz, Die Antiken Odyssee-Illustrationen, pp. 2530.

page 106 note 2 Shewing the ram to left are: The situla, Chiusi, Boehlau, , Aus Ion. u. Ital. Nekropolen, p. 119; an amphora from Vulci, , Die Königliche Vasen-Sammlung zu München, i. p. 92, Fig. 89; two ‘Kleinmeister’ cups, B.M. Vases, ii. No. B 407; Munich, Jahn, Münchn. Vasen, 26 (though Jahn makes no mention of the Odysseus under the ram). Cf. also the ram alone to left on the plate noticed above, p. 105, note 5.

page 106 note 3 Wide, , Lak. Kulte, p. 347.

page 106 note 4 Cf. a terracotta figurine of Odysseus beneath the ram from Tegea, Martha, Cat. des Figurines en T.-C. p. 121, No. 604, and the Aristonothos vase.

page 106 note 5 Perrot & Chipiez, ix. p. 498, Fig. 244.

page 107 note 1 Cf. the handle set in a similar way on a circular lid, B.S.A. xv. p. 151, Fig. 15, g.

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