Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

3. RESEARCH ON TEACHING READING

Abstract

This chapter builds on prior reviews of reading theory, research, and assessment published in the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics and uses them and additional current research to develop a set of 10 instructional implications for second language reading. The review draws upon both L1 and L2 research to demonstrate support for instructional approaches that (1) ensure fluency in word recognition; (2) emphasize the learning of vocabulary; (3) activate background knowledge; (4) ensure acquisition of linguistic knowledge and general comprehension; (5) teach recognition of text structures and discourse organization; (6) promote development of strategic readers rather than mechanical application of strategy checklists; (7) build reading fluency and rate; (8) promote extensive reading; (9) develop intrinsic motivation for reading; and (10) contribute to a coherent curriculum for student learning. There is empirical support for each of these implications, although at the same time, additional research related to many is needed to further identify aspects of effective L2 reading instruction in particular settings. While further research alone does not guarantee improved reading pedagogy, it provides one means of identifying specific aspects of reading abilities and testing alternative instructional practices and is thus a crucial component in the search for more effective outcomes.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Akamatsu N. 2002 A similarity in word-recognition procedures among second language readers with different first language backgrounds. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23, 117133.
Akamatsu N. 2003 The effects of first language orthographic features on second language reading in texts. Language Learning, 53, 207231.
Anderson N. 1999 Exploring second language reading. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Alderson C. 1993 The relationship between grammar and reading in an English for academic purposes test battery. In D. Douglas & C. Chapelle (Eds.), A new decade of language testing research: Selected papers from the 1990 Language Testing Research Colloquium (pp. 203219). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
Baker L. 2002 Metacognition in comprehension instruction. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 7795). New York: Guilford Press.
Bamford J., & Day R. 1998 Teaching reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 124141.
Beck I., Perfetti C., & McKeown M. 1982 The effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 506521.
Bernhardt E. B. 1991 Reading development in a second language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Bernhardt E. B. 2003 Challenges to reading research from a multilingual world. Reading Research Quarterly, 38, 112117.
Breznitz Z. 1997 Enhancing the reading of dyslexic children by reading acceleration and auditory masking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 103113.
Breznitz Z., & Share D. 1992 Effects of accelerated reading rate on memory for text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 193199.
Brown R. 2002 Straddling two worlds: Self-directed comprehension instruction for middle schoolers. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 337350). New York: Guilford Press.
Brown R., Pressley M., Van Meter P., & Schuder T. 1996 A quasi-experimental validation of transactional strategy instruction with low-achieving secondgrade readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 1837.
Carrell P. 1984 The effects of rhetorical organization on ESL readers. TESOL Quarterly, 18, 441469.
Carrell P., Pharis B., & Liberto J. 1989 Metacognitive strategy training for ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 647678.
Carver R. 2000 The causes of high and low reading achievement. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Carver R. 2003 The highly lawful relationships among pseudoword decoding, word identification, spelling, listening, and reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7, 127154.
Chamot A., & O'Malley M. 1994 The CALLA handbook. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Chiappe P., Siegal L., & Wade-Woolley L. 2002 Linguistic diversity and the development of reading skills: A longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 6, 369400.
Chen H-C., & Graves M. 1995 Effects of previewing and providing background knowledge on Taiwanese college students' comprehension of American short stories. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 663686.
Chu H. J., Swaffar J., & Charney D. 2002 Cultural representations of rhetorical conventions: The effects on reading recall. TESOL Quarterly, 36, 511541.
Cohen A. D. 1998 Strategies in learning and using a second language. New York: Longman.
Comings J., Garner B., & Smith C. (Eds.). 2000–2002 Annual Review of Adult Learning & Literacy [3 vols]. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Curtis M., & Longo A. 1999 When adolescents can't read: Methods and materials that work. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
Davidson R., & Strucker J. 2002 Patterns of word recognition errors among adult basic education native and non-native speakers of English. Scientific Studies of Reading, 6, 299316.
Day R., & Bamford J. 1998 Extensive reading in the second language. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dörnyei Z. 2001 Teaching and researching motivation. New York: Longman.
Droop M., & Verhoeven L. 2003 Language proficiency and reading ability in first and second language learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 38, 78103.
Duke N., & Pearson P. D. 2002 Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. In A. Farstrup & S. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed.) (pp. 205242). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Dymock S. 1999 Learning about text structure. In G. B. Thompson & T. Nicholson (Eds.), Learning to read: Beyond phonics and whole language (pp. 174192). New York: Teachers College Press.
El-Dinary P. B. 2002 Challenges of implementing transactional strategies instruction for reading comprehension. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 201215). New York: Guilford Press.
Elley W. 2001 Literacy in the present world: Realities and possibilities. In. L. Verhoeven & C. Snow (Eds.), Literacy and motivation (pp. 225242). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Enright M., Bridgeman B., Cline M., Eignor D., Lee Y. W., & Powers D. (2002, April). Evaluating measures of communicative language abilities. Paper presented at annual TESOL Convention. Salt Lake City, UT.
Fender M. 2001 A review of L1 and L2/ESL word integration skills and the nature of L2/ESL word integration development involved in lower-level text processing. Language Learning, 51, 319396.
Fender M. 2003 English word recognition and word integration skills of native Arabic- and Japanese-speaking learners of English as a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 289315.
Fukkink R., Hulstijn J., & Simis A. 2003 Does training of second-language word recognition skills affect reading comprehension? An experimental study. Submitted manuscript.
Geva E., & Siegal L. 2000 Orthographic and cognitive factors in the concurrent development of basic reading skills in two languages. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 130.
Geva E., & Verhoeven L. 2000 Introduction: The development of second language reading in primary children—Research issues and trends. Scientific Studies in Reading, 4, 261266.
Geva E., & Wang M. 2001 The development of basic reading skills in children: A cross-language perspective. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 182204.
Goldman S., & Rakestraw J. 2000 Structural aspects of constructing meaning from text. In M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research. Volume III (pp. 311335). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Grabe W. 1997 Discourse analysis and reading instruction. In T. Miller (Ed.), Functional approaches to written texts: Classroom applications (pp. 215). Washington, DC: USIA.
Grabe W. 2000 Reading research and its implications for reading assessment. In A. Kunnan (Ed.), Fairness and validation in language assessment (Studies in Language Testing 9, pp. 226–262). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grabe W. 2003 Using discourse patterns to improve reading comprehension. In K. Hill (Ed.), Proceeding of the 2002 JALT Conference (pp. 916). Tokyo: JALT Publications.
Grabe W., & Stoller F. 2002 Teaching and researching reading. New York: Longman.
Guthrie J., & McCann A. 1997 Characteristics of classrooms that promote motivations and strategies for learning. In J. Guthrie & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp. 128148). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Guthrie J., & Ozgungor S. 2002 Instructional contexts for reading engagement. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 275288). New York: Guilford Press.
Guthrie J., Van Meter P., Hancock G., McCann A., Anderson E., & Alao S. 1998 Does Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction increase strategy use and conceptual learning from text? Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 261278.
Guthrie J., Van Meter P., McCann A., Wigfield A., Bennett L., Poundstone C., Rice M., Faibisch F., Hunt B., & Mitchell A. 1996 Growth in literacy engagement: Changes in motivations and strategies during Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 31, 306332.
Guthrie J., Wigfield A., Metsala J., & Cox K. 1999 Motivational and cognitive predictors of text comprehension and reading amount. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 231256.
Guthrie J., Wigfield A., & Von Secker C. 2000 Effects of integrated instruction on motivation and strategy use in reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 331341.
Hudson T. 1998 Theoretical perspectives on reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 4360.
Hulstijn J. 1997 Mnemonic methods in foreign language vocabulary learning. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 203224). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hulstijn J. 2001 Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary learning: A reappraisal of elaboration, rehearsal and automaticity. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 258286). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Janzen J. 1996 Teaching strategic reading. TESOL Journal, 6 (1), 69.
Janzen J. 2001 Strategic reading on a sustained content theme. In J. Murphy & P. Byrd (Eds.), Understanding the courses we teach: Local perspectives on English language teaching (pp. 369389). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Janzen J., & Stoller F. 1998 Integrating strategic reading into L2 instruction. Reading in a Foreign Language, 12 (1), 251269.
Kamil M., Mosenthal P., Pearson P. D., & Barr R. (Eds.). 2000 Handbook of reading research, Volume III. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kern R. 2000 Literacy and language teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.
Klingner J., & Vaughn S. 2000 The helping behaviors of fifth graders while using collaborative strategic reading during ESL content classes. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 6998.
Koda K. 1996 L2 word recognition research: A critical review. Modern Language Journal, 80, 450460.
Koda K. 2004 Insights into second language reading. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kroll J., Michael E., Tokowicz N., & Dufour R. 2002 The development of lexical fluency in a second language. Second Language Research, 18, 137171.
Laufer B. 1997 The lexical plight in second language reading: Words you don't know, words you think you know, and words you can't guess. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 2034). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Levy B., Abello B., & Kysynchuk L. 1997 Transfer from word training to reading in context: Gains in reading fluency and comprehension. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20, 173188.
McKeown M., Beck I., Omanson R., & Pople M. 1985 Some effects of the nature and frequency of vocabulary instruction on the knowledge and use of words. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 522535.
Meyer B., Talbot A., & Florencio D. 1999 Reading rate and prose retrieval. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 303329.
Meyer B., & Poon L. 2001 Effects of structure strategy training and signaling on recall of texts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 141159.
Mohan B. 1986 Language and content. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Muter V., & Diethelm K. 2001 The contribution of phonological skills and letter knowledge to early reading development in a multilingual population. Language Learning, 51, 187219.
Nation I. S. P. 2001 Learning vocabulary in another language. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nation I. S. P. 2002 Vocabulary. In D. Nunan (Ed.), Practical English language education (pp. 129152). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nicholson T., & Tan A. 1999 Proficient word identification for comprehension. In G. Thompson & T. Nicholson (Eds.), Learning to read: Beyond phonics and whole language (pp. 150173). New York: Teachers College Press.
Noordman L., & Vonk W. 1999 Discourse comprehension. In A. Friederici (Ed.), Language comprehension: A biological perspective (pp. 229263). New York: Springer.
Pearson P. D., & Duke N. 2002 Comprehension instruction in the primary grades. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Researchbased best practices (pp. 247258). New York: Guilford Press.
Perfetti C. 1985 Reading ability. New York: Oxford University Press.
Perfetti C. 1999 Comprehending written language: A blueprint for the reader. In C. Brown & P. Hagoort (Eds.), Neurocognition of language (pp. 167208). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Perfetti C., Van Dyke J., & Hart L. 2001 The psycholinguistics of basic literacy. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 127149.
Perkins K. 1998 Assessing reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 208218.
Pichette F., Segalowitz N., & Connors K. 2003 Impact of maintaining L1 reading skills on L2 reading skill development in adults: Evidence from speakers of Serbo-Croatian learning French. Modern Language Journal, 87, 391403.
Pike L. 1979 An evaluation of alternative item formats for testing English as a foreign language. TOEFL Research Reports, No. 2. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Pressley M. 2000 What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 545–561). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Pressley M. 2002a Comprehension strategy instruction: A turn-of-the-century status report. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 1127). New York: Guilford Press.
Pressley M. 2002b Metacognition and self-regulated instruction. In A. Farstrup & S. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed.) (pp. 291309). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Pressley M. 2002c Reading instruction that works (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Qian D. 2002 Investigating the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic reading performance: An assessment perspective. Language Learning, 52, 513536.
Read J. (this volume). Research in teaching vocabulary.
Robinson P. (Ed.). 2001 Cognition and second language instruction. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ruddell R., & Unrau N. 1997 The role of responsive teaching in focusing reader intention and developing reading motivation. In J. Guthrie & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp. 102125). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Samuels S. 2002 Reading fluency: Its development and assessment. In A. Farstrup & S. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed.), (pp. 166183). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Schiefele U. 1999 Interest and learning from text. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 257279.
Schoonen R., Hulstijn J., Bossers B. 1998 Metacognitive and language-specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension: An empirical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Language Learning, 48, 71106.
Segalowitz N. 1991 Does advanced skill in a second language reduce automaticity in the first language. Language Learning, 41, 5983.
Segalowitz N. 2000 Automaticity and attentional skill in fluent performance. In H. Riggenbach (Ed.), Perspectives on fluency (pp. 200219). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Segalowitz N. 2003 Automaticity and second language development. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 382408). Oxford: Blackwell.
Segalowitz N., & Hulstijn J. (In press). Automaticity in bilingualism and second language learning. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. De Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches.
Segalowitz S., Segalowitz N., & Wood A. 1998 Assessing the development of automaticity in second language word recognition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 19, 5367.
Shanahan T. 2002 What reading research says: The promises and limitations of applying research to reading education. In S. Samuels & A. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (2nd ed.), (pp. 824). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Shaywitz S. 2003 Overcoming dyslexia. New York: Knopf.
Snow C., Burns S., & Griffin P. 1998 Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Stahl S., Heubach K., & Cramond P. 1997 Fluency-oriented reading instruction (Reading Research Report No. 79). Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center.
Stanovich K. 2000 Progress in understanding reading: Scientific foundations and new frontiers. New York: Guilford Press.
Stoller F. (this volume). Content-based instruction: Perspectives on curriculum. planning.
Tan A., & Nicholson T. 1997 Flashcards revisited: Training poor readers to read words faster improves their comprehension of texts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 276288.
Tang G. 1992 The effect of graphic representation of knowledge structures on ESL reading comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 177195.
Thorndike R. L. 1973 Reading comprehension education in 15 countries. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell.
Torgesen J. 2002 The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology, 40, 726.
Torgesen J., Alexander A., Wagner R., Rashotte C., Voeller K., Conway T., et al. 2001 Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 3358.
Trabasso T., & Bouchard E. 2002 Teaching readers how to comprehend text strategically. In C. Collins & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 176200). New York: Guilford Press.
Vacca R. 2002 Making a difference in adolescent school lives: Visible and invisible aspects of content area reading. In A. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed.), (pp. 124139). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
van Gelderen A., Schoonen R., Hulstijn J., Snellings P., Simis A., & Stevenson M. 2002 Roles of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and processing speed in L3, L2 and L1 reading comprehension. Submitted manuscript.
Verhoeven L. 2000 Components of early second language reading and spelling. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4, 313330.
Wade-Woolley L. 1999 First language influences on second language word reading: All roads lead to Rome. Language Learning, 49, 447471.
Wagner D., & Venezky R. 1999 Adult literacy: The next generation. Educational Researcher, 28 (1), 19.
Walczyk J., Kelly K., Meche S., & Braud H. 1999 Time limitations enhance reading comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 156165.
Wigfield A., & Guthrie J. 1997 Relations of children's motivations for reading to the amount and breadth of their reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 420432.
Wolf M. (Ed.). 2001 Time, fluency and dyslexia. Parkton, MD: York.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annual Review of Applied Linguistics
  • ISSN: 0267-1905
  • EISSN: 1471-6356
  • URL: /core/journals/annual-review-of-applied-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 24
Total number of PDF views: 362 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1868 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.