Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Current Issues in Multilingual First Language Acquisition

  • Sharon Unsworth
Abstract

Multilingual first language acquisition refers to the language development of children exposed to two or more languages from birth or shortly thereafter. Much of the research on this topic adopts a comparative approach. Bilinguals are thus compared with their monolingual peers, and trilinguals with both bilinguals and monolinguals; within children, comparisons are made between a child's two (or more) languages, and between different domains within those languages. The goal of such comparisons is to determine the extent to which language development proceeds along similar paths and/or at a similar rate across groups, languages, and domains, in order to elaborate upon the question of whether these different groups acquire language in the same way, and to evaluate how language development in multilingual settings is influenced by environmental factors. The answers to these questions have both theoretical and practical implications.

The goal of this article is to discuss the results of some of this recent research on multilingual first language acquisition by reviewing (a) properties of the developing linguistic system in a variety of linguistic domains and (b) some of the characteristics of multilingual first language acquisition that have attracted attention over the past five years, including cross-linguistic influence, dominance, and input quantity/quality. Trilingual first language acquisition is covered in a dedicated section.

Copyright
References
Hide All

Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K. F., & Yang, S. (2010). Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 525531.

This article examines the receptive vocabulary development of a large (n = 1738) sample of bilingual (English plus another language) children. Analyzing children's scores on the standardized PPVTs, the authors reported consistent bilingual-monolingual differences with monolinguals outperforming bilinguals in English. This difference was largely restricted to words associated with a home rather than school context, and it was not affected by the specific other language being acquired by the bilingual children.

Paradis, J. (2011). Individual differences in child English second language acquisition: Comparing child-internal and child-external factors. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1, 213237.

This article investigates the impact of a variety of internal (e.g., age, language aptitude) and external (e.g., length of exposure, richness of language environment) factors on early successive bilingual acquisition. Using a series of regression analyses to analyze the relative contribution of each of these factors on children's acquisition of English vocabulary and verbal morphology, Paradis found that child-internal factors explained more variance in outcomes than child-external factors and, in particular, language aptitude as measured by phonological short-term memory and the specific properties of the children's other language were found to be significant predictors.

Place, S., & Hoff, E. (2011). Properties of dual language exposure that influence two-year-olds’ bilingual proficiency. Child Development, 82, 18341849.

This article is one of the few studies up to now that systematically explore the role of input quality in bilingual language acquisition. It examines how 2-year-old bilingual English-Spanish children's morphosyntactic and vocabulary development data collected using parental report relate to language environment data collected using a language diary. In line with previous work, the results show that relative amount of input is a significant predictor of (some of the) children's outcomes and in addition, specific properties of the input were also found to affect children's language development. These properties were the number of conversational partners with whom the children spoke English, the number of different speakers providing English input, and the proportion of English input provided by native speakers.

Yip, V., & Matthews, S. (2007). The bilingual child: Early development and language contact. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

This book consists of a detailed longitudinal investigation of the language development of a group of bilingual English-Cantonese children growing up in Hong Kong. It looks at a number of linguistic phenomena where the two languages differ, including wh- questions, null objects, and relative clauses, and considers whether this affects the bilingual children's development relative to monolinguals. The study is couched in generative linguistic terms, and in addition to the detailed data analysis, more general issues related to bilingual language development, including cross-linguistic influence, dominance, and how to measure it, are also discussed.

Albareda-Castellot, B., Pons, F., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2011). The acquisition of phonetic categories in bilingual infants: New data from an anticipatory eye movement paradigm. Developmental Science, 14, 395401.
Argyri, E., & Sorace, A. (2007). Crosslinguistic influence and language dominance in older bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 7999.
Austin, J. (2009). Delay, interference and bilingual development: The acquisition of verbal morphology in children learning Basque and Spanish. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13, 447479.
Austin, J. (in press). Markedness, input frequency, and the acquisition of inflection: Evidence from Basque/Spanish bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism.
Barnes, J. (2006). Early trilingualism: A focus on questions. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Barnes, J. (2011). The influence of child-directed speech in early trilingualism. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8, 4262.
Barnes, J., & García, I. (in press). Vocabulary growth and composition in monolingual and bilingual Basque infants and toddlers. International Journal of Bilingualism.
Barreña, A., & Almgren, M. (in press). Object-verb and verb-object in Basque and Spanish monolinguals and bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism.
Becker, M. (2004). Copula omission is a grammatical reflex. Language Acquisition, 12, 157167.
Bedore, L. M., Pena, E. D., Summers, C. L., Boerger, K. M., Resendiz, M. D., Greene, K., . . . Gillam, R. B. (2012). The measure matters: Language dominance profiles across measures in Spanish-English bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 616629.
Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K. F., & Yang, S. (2010). Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 525531.
Bianchi, G. (2013). Gender in Italian-German bilinguals: A comparison with German L2 learners of Italian. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 538557.
Blom, E. (2007). Modality, infinitives and finite bare verbs in Dutch and English child language. Language Acquisition, 14, 75113.
Blom, E. (2010). Effects of input on the early grammatical development of bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14, 422446.
Bohman, T. M., Bedore, L. M., Pena, E. D., Mendez-Perez, A., & Gillam, R. B. (2010). What you hear and what you say: Language performance in Spanish-English bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13, 325344.
Bonnesen, M. (2008). On the “vulnerability” of the left periphery in French/German balanced bilingual language acquisition. In Guijarro-Fuentes, P., Larrañaga, P., & Clibbens, J. (Eds.), First language acquisition of morphology and syntax: Perspectives across languages and learners (pp. 161182). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Bosch, L., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2001). Evidence of early language discrimination abilities in infants from bilingual environments. Infancy, 2, 2949.
Bosch, L., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2003). Simultaneous bilingualism and the perception of a language-specific vowel contrast in the first year of life. Language and Speech, 46, 217243.
Brasileiro, I. (2009). The effects of bilingualism on children's perception of speech sounds (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Burns, T. C., Yoshida, K. A., Hill, K., & Werker, J. F. (2007). The development of phonetic representation in bilingual and monolingual infants. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 455474.
Byers-Heinlein, K. (2013). Parental language mixing: Its measurement and the relation of mixed input to young bilingual children's vocabulary size. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 3248.
Byers-Heinlein, K., Burns, T. C., & Werker, J. F. (2010). The roots of bilingualism in newborns. Psychological Science, 21, 343348.
Byers-Heinlein, K., Fennell, C. T., & Werker, J. F. (2013). The development of associative word learning in monolingual and bilingual infants. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 198205.
Byers-Heinlein, K., & Werker, J. F. (2009). Monolingual, bilingual, trilingual: Infants’ language experience influences the development of a word learning heuristic. Developmental Science, 12, 815823.
Cantone, K. F., Müller, N., Schmitz, K., & Kupisch, T. (2008). Rethinking language dominance. Linguistische Berichte, 215, 307343.
Chomsky, N. (1959). A review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal behaviour. Language, 35, 2658.
Chondrogianni, V., & Marinis, T. (2011). Differential effects of internal and external factors on the development of vocabulary, tense morphology and morpho-syntax in successive bilingual children. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1, 318342.
Conboy, B. T., & Thal, D. J. (2006). Ties between the lexicon and grammar: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of bilingual toddlers. Child Development, 77, 712735.
Cornips, L., & Hulk, A. (2008). Factors of success and failure in the acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch. Second Language Research, 28, 267296.
Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
David, A., & Wei, L. (2008). Individual differences in the lexical development of French-English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11, 598618.
De Houwer, A. (1990). The acquisition of two languages from birth: A case study. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
De Houwer, A. (1995). Bilingual language acquisition. In Fletcher, P. & MacWhinney, B. (Eds.), The handbook of child language (pp. 219250). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
De Houwer, A. (2004). Trilingual input and children's language use in trilingual families in Flanders. In Hoffman, C. & Ytsma, J. (Eds.), Trilingualism in family, school and community (pp. 118137). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
De Houwer, A. (2007). Parental language input patterns and children's bilingual use. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 411424.
De Houwer, A. (2011). Language input environments and language development in bilingual acquisition. Applied Linguistics Review, 2, 221240.
De Houwer, A., & Bornstein, M. (2003, April). Balancing on the tightrope: Language use patterns in bilingual families with young children. Paper presented at the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, Tucson, Arizona.
Dixon, L. Q. (2011). The role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among bilingual kindergarten children in Singapore. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 141168.
Döpke, S. (1998). Competing language structures: The acquisition of verb placement by bilingual German-English children. Journal of Child Language, 25, 555584.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-4) (4th ed). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson.
Eichler, N., Jansen, V., & Müller, N. (in press). Gender acquisition in bilingual children: French-German, Italian-German, Spanish-German and Italian-French. International Journal of Bilingualism.
Fabiano-Smith, L., & Barlow, J. A. (2010). Interaction in bilingual phonological acquisition: Evidence from phonetic inventories. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13, 8197.
Fabiano-Smith, L., & Goldstein, B. A. (2010). Phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53, 160178.
Fennell, C. T., Byers-Heinlein, K., & Werker, J. F. (2007). Using speech sounds to guide word learning: The case of bilingual infants. Child Development, 78, 15101525.
Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Thal, D. J., Bates, E., Hartung, J. P., . . . Reilly, J. S. (1993). The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories: User's guide and technical manual. San Diego, CA: Singular.
Foroodi-Nejad, F., & Paradis, J. (2009). Crosslinguistic transfer in the acquisition of compound nouns in Persian-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 411427.
Gathercole, V. C. M. (2007). Miami and north Wales, so far and yet so near: Constructivist account of morpho-syntactic development in bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10, 224246.
Gathercole, V. C. M., & Thomas, E. M. (2009). Bilingual first-language development: Dominant language takeover, threatened minority language take-up. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 213237.
Gawlitzek-Maiwald, M., & Tracy, R. (1996). Bilingual bootstrapping. Linguistics, 34, 901926.
Genesee, F., & Nicoladis, E. (2007). Bilingual first language acquisition. In Hoff, E., & McCardle, P. (Eds.), Handbook of language development (pp. 324342). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Genesee, F., Nicoladis, E., & Paradis, J. (1995). Language differentiation in early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 22, 611631.
Genesee, F., Paradis, J., & Crago, M. (2004). Dual language development and disorders: A handbook on bilingualism and second language learning. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Kester, E. S., David, B. L., & Peña, E. D. (2008). English speech sound development in preschool-aged children from bilingual English-Spanish environments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Sciences in Schools, 39, 314328.
Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., & Wright, K. L. (2010). English speech acquisition in 3- to 5-year-old children learning Russian and English. Language, Speech, and Hearing Sciences in Schools, 41, 429444.
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F., & Kreiter, J. (2003). Understanding child bilingual acquisition using parent and teacher reports. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 267288.
Hacohen, A., & Schaeffer, J. C. (2007). Subject realization in early Hebrew/English bilingual acquisition: The role of crosslinguistic influence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 333344.
Halberda, J. (2003). The development of a word-learning strategy. Cognition, 87, B23B34.
Hammer, C. S., Davison, M. D., Lawrence, F. R., & Miccio, A. W. (2009). The effect of maternal language on bilingual children's vocabulary and emergent literacy development during head start and kindergarten. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13, 99121.
Hammer, C. S., Komaroff, E., Rodriguez, B. L., Lopez, L. M., Scarpino, S. E., & Goldstein, B. (2012). Predicting Spanish-English bilingual children's abilities. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 55, 12511264.
Hauser-Grüdl, N., Arencibia Guerra, L., Witzmann, F., Leray, E., & Müller, N. (2010). Cross-linguistic influence in bilingual children: Can input frequency account for it? Lingua, 120, 26382650.
Hoff, E. (2006). How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26, 5588.
Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Señor, M., & Parra, M. (2012). Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 39, 127.
Hoffman, C. (2001). Towards a description of trilingual competence. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5, 117.
Holm, S., & Dodd, B. (1999). A longitudinal study of the phonological development of two Cantonese-English bilingual children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 349376.
Houston-Price, C., Caloghiris, Z., & Raviglione, E. (2010). Language experience shapes the development of the mutual exclusivity bias. Infancy, 15, 125150.
Hulk, A., & Müller, N. (2000). Bilingual first language acquisition at the interface between syntax and pragmatics. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 227244.
Jia, G., & Fuse, A. (2007). Acquisition of English grammatical morphology by native mandarin speaking children and adolescents: Age-related differences. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 50, 12801299.
Kazzazi, K. (2011). Ich brauch mix-cough: Cross-linguistic influence involving German, English and Farsi. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8, 6379.
Kupisch, T. (2007). Determiners in bilingual German-Italian children: What they tell us about the relation between language influence and language dominance. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 5778.
Kupisch, T. (2008). Dominance, mixing and cross-linguistic influence: On their relation in bilingual development. In Guijarro-Fuentes, P., Larrañaga, P., & Clibbens, J. (Eds.), First language acquisition of morphology and syntax: Perspectives across languages and learners (pp. 209234). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Lanvers, U. (1999). Lexical growth patterns in a bilingual infant: The occurrence and significant of equivalents in the bilingual lexicon. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2, 3052.
Larrañaga, P., & Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (2012). Clitics in L1 bilingual acquisition. First Language, 32, 151175.
Larrañaga, P., & Guijarro-Fuentes, P. (in press). The linguistic competence of early Basque-Spanish bilingual children and a Spanish monolingual child. International Journal of Bilingualism.
Lee, M., Kwak, H., Lee, S., & O'Grady, W. (2010). Processing, pragmatics, and scope in Korean and English. Proceedings of 19th Japanese-Korean Linguistics Conference. Stanford, CA: CSLI.
Liceras, J. M., Fernández Fuertes, R., & Alba de la Fuente, A. (2011). Overt subjects and copula omission in the Spanish and the English grammar of English-Spanish bilinguals: On the locus and directionality of interlinguistic influence. First Language, 32, 88105.
Lillo-Martin, D., Koulidobrova, H., de Quadros, R. M., & Chen Pichler, D. (2012). Bilingual language synthesis: Evidence from WH-questions in bimodal bilinguals. In Biller, A. K., Chung, E. Y., & Kimball, A. E. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 36th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 302314). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Lleó, C., & Kehoe, M. (2002). On the interaction of phonological systems in child bilingual acquisition. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6, 233237.
Mancilla-Martinez, J., Pan, B. A., & Vagh, S. B. (2011). Assessing the productive vocabulary of Spanish-English bilingual toddlers from low-income families. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 333357.
Marchman, V., Fernald, A., & Hurtado, N. (2010). How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, 37, 817840.
Marchman, V., & Martinez-Sussman, C. (2002). Concurrent validity of caregiver/parent report measures of language for children who are learning both English and Spanish. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 45, 983997.
Marchman, V., Martinez-Sussman, C., & Dale, P. S. (2004). The language-specific nature of grammatical development: Evidence from bilingual language learners. Developmental Science, 7, 212224.
Mattock, K., Polka, L., Rvachew, S., & Krehm, M. (2010). The first steps in word learning are easier when the shoes fit: Comparing monolingual and bilingual infants. Developmental Science, 13, 229243.
McLaughlin, B. (1978). Second-language acquisition in childhood. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mehler, J., Jusczyk, P. E., Lambertz, G., Halsted, N., Bertonicini, J., & Amiel-Tison, C. (1988). A precursor of language acquisition in young infants. Cognition, 29, 143178.
Meisel, J. M. (1989). Early differentiation of languages in bilingual children. In Hyltenstam, K., & Obler, L. (Eds.), Bilingualism across the lifespan: Aspects of acquisition, maturity and loss (pp. 1340). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Meisel, J. M. (2004). The bilingual child. In Bhatia, T. K. & Ritchie, W. C. (Eds.), The handbook of bilingualism (pp. 91113). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Meroni, L., Unsworth, S., & Smeets, L. (2013). Crosslinguistic influence in scope ambiguity: Evidence for acceleration. In Baiz, S., Goldman, N., & Hawkes, R. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 265279). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Montanari, S. (2009a). Multi-word combinations and the emergence of differentiated ordering patterns in early trilingual development. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 503519.
Montanari, S. (2009b). Pragmatic differentiation in early trilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 36, 597627.
Montanari, S. (2010). Translation equivalents and the emergence of multiple lexicons in early trilingual development. First Language, 30, 102125.
Montanari, S. (2011). Phonological differentiation before age two in a Tagalog-Spanish-English trilingual child. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8, 521.
Müller, N., & Hulk, A. (2001). Crosslinguistic influence in bilingual language acquisition: Italian and French as recipient languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 121.
Mykhaylyk, R., & Ko, H. (2010). Optional scrambling is not random: Evidence from English-Ukrainian acquisition. In Anderssen, M., Bentzen, K., & Westergaard, M. (Eds.), Variation in the input: Studies in the acquisition of word order (pp. 207240). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer-Verlag.
Nicoladis, E., & Marchak, K. (2011). Le carte blanc or la carte blanche? Bilingual children's acquisition of French adjective agreement. Language Learning, 61, 734758.
Nicoladis, E., Palmer, A., & Marentette, P. (2007). The role of type and token frequency in using past tense morphemes correctly. Developmental Science, 10, 237254.
Nicoladis, E., & Paradis, J. (2011). Learning to liaise and elide comme il faut: Evidence from bilingual children. Journal of Child Language, 38, 701730.
O'Grady, W., Kwak, H., Lee, O., & Lee, M. (2011). An emergentist perspective on heritage language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 223245.
Oller, D. K. (2010). All-day recordings to investigate vocabulary development: A case study of a trilingual toddler. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 31, 213222.
Oller, D. K., Pearson, B. Z., & Cobo-Lewis, A. B. (2007). Profile effects in early bilingual language and literacy. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 191230.
Paradis, J. (2010). Bilingual children's acquisition of English verb morphology: Effects of language exposure, structure complexity, and task type. Language Learning, 60, 651680.
Paradis, J. (2011). Individual differences in child English second language acquisition: Comparing child-internal and child-external factors. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1, 213237.
Paradis, J., & Genesee, F. (1996). Syntactic acquisition in bilingual children: Autonomous or independent? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 125.
Paradis, J., & Nicoladis, E. (2007). The influence of dominance and sociolinguistic context on bilingual preschoolers’ language choice. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10, 277297.
Paradis, J., Nicoladis, E., Crago, M., & Genesee, F. (2011). Bilingual children's acquisition of the past tense: A usage-based approach. Journal of Child Language, 38, 544578.
Pearson, B. Z. (2007). Social factors in childhood bilingualism in the United States. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 399410.
Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, S. C., Lewedeg, V., & Oller, D. K. (1997). The relation of input factors to lexical learning by bilingual infants. Applied Psycholinguistics, 18, 4158.
Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, S. C., & Oller, D. K. (1993). Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers: Comparison to monolingual norms. Language Learning, 43, 93120.
Pérez-Leroux, A. T., Cuza, A., & Thomas, D. (2011). Clitic placement in Spanish-English bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 221232.
Pérez-Leroux, A. T., Pirvulescu, M., & Roberge, Y. (2009). Bilingualism as a window into the language faculty: The acquisition of objects in speaking-speaking children in bilingual and monolingual contexts. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 97112.
Petitto, L. A., Katerelos, M., Levy, B. G., Guana, K., Tétreault, K., & Ferraro, V. (2001). Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: Implications for the mechanisms underlying early bilingual language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 28, 453496.
Place, S., & Hoff, E. (2011). Properties of dual language exposure that influence two-year-olds’ bilingual proficiency. Child Development, 82, 18341849.
Quay, S. (2008). Dinner conversations with a trilingual two-year-old: Language socialization in a multilingual context. First Language, 28, 533.
Quay, S. (2010). Trilingual toddlers at daycare centres: The role of caregivers and peers in language development. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8, 2241.
Ramón-Casas, M., Swingley, D., Sebastián-Gallés, N., & Bosch, L. (2009). Vowel categorization during word recognition in bilingual toddlers. Cognitive Psychology, 59, 96121.
Ramus, F., Hauser, M. D., Miller, C., Morris, D., & Mehler, J. (2000). Language discrimination by human newborns and by cotton-top tamarin monkeys. Science, 288, 349351.
Rothweiler, M. (2006). The acquisition of V2 and subordinate clauses in early successive acquisition of German. In Lleó, C. (Ed.), Interfaces in multilingualism: Acquisition, representation, and processing (pp. 93115). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Scheele, A. F., Leseman, P. P. M., & Mayo, A. Y. (2010). The home language environment of monolingual and bilingual children and their language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 117140.
Schmitz, K., Patuto, M., & Müller, N. (2012). The null-subject parameter at the interface between syntax and pragmatics: Evidence from bilingual German-Italian, German-French, and Italian-French children. First Language, 32, 205238.
Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2010). Bilingual language acquisition: Where does the difference lie? Human Development, 53, 245255.
Sebastián-Gallés, N., Albareda-Castellot, B., Weikum, W. M., & Werker, J. F. (2012). A bilingual advantage in visual language discrimination in infancy. Psychological Science, 23, 994999.
Sebastián-Gallés, N., & Bosch, L. (2009). Developmental shift in the discrimination of vowel contrasts in bilingual infants: Is the distributional account all there is to it? Developmental Science, 12, 874887.
Serratrice, L., Sorace, A., Filiaci, F., & Baldo, M. (2009). Bilingual children's sensitivity to specificity and genericity: Evidence from metalinguistic awareness. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 239257.
Sheng, L., Lu, Y., & Kan, P. F. (2011). Lexical development in Mandarin-English bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 579587.
Singh, L. (2008). Influences of high and low variability on infant word recognition. Cognition, 106, 833870.
Sorace, A. (2011). Pinning down the concept of “interface” in bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1, 133.
Sorace, A., & Serratrice, L. (2009). Internal and external interfaces in bilingual language development: Beyond structural overlap. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13, 195210.
Sorace, A., Serratrice, L., Filiaci, F., & Baldo, M. (2009). Discourse conditions on subject pronoun realization: Testing the linguistic intuitions of bilingual children. Lingua, 119, 460477.
Sundara, M., Polka, L., & Genesee, F. (2006). Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-d/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English. Cognition, 100, 369388.
Sundara, M., Polka, L., & Molnar, M. (2008). Development of coronal stop perception: Bilingual infants keep pace with their monolingual peers. Cognition, 108, 232242.
Thordardottir, E. (2011). The relationship between bilingual exposure and vocabulary development. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 426445.
Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language. London, UK: Harvard University Press.
Tucker, G. R. (1998). A global perspective on multilingualism and multilingual education. In Cenoz, J. & Genesee, F. (Eds.), Beyond bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education (pp. 315). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Unsworth, S. (2012). Testing for crosslinguistic influence and exposure effects in the bilingual acquisition of specific indefinite objects. In Biller, A. K., Chung, E. Y., & Kimball, A. E. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 36th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 633645). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Unsworth, S. (2013). Assessing the role of current and cumulative exposure in simultaneous bilingual acquisition: The case of Dutch gender. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 86110.
Vihman, M. M., Thierry, G., Lum, J., Keren-Portnoy, T., & Martin, P. (2007). Onset of word form recognition in English, Welsh, and Welsh-Welsh bilingual infants. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 475493.
Volterra, V., & Taeschner, T. (1978). The acquisition of and development of language by bilingual children. Journal of Child Language, 5, 311326.
Weikum, W. M., Vouloumanos, A., Navarra, J., Soto-Faraco, S., Sebastián-Gallés, N., & Werker, J. F. (2007). Visual language discrimination in infancy. Science, 316, 1159.
Werker, J. F. (2012). Perceptual foundations of bilingual acquisition in infancy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1251, 5061.
Werker, J. F., & Byers-Heinlein, K. (2008). Bilingualism in infancy: First steps in perception and comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 144151.
Yang, C. (2002). Knowledge and learning in natural language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Yang, H., & Zhu, H. (2010). The phonological development of a trilingual child: Facts and factors. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14, 105126.
Yip, V. (2013). Simultaneous language acquisition. In Grosjean, F. & Ping, L. (Eds.), The Psycholinguistics of Bilingualism (pp. 119136). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Yip, V., & Matthews, S. (2006). Assessing language dominance in bilingual acquisition: A case for mean length utterance differentials. Language Assessment Quarterly, 3, 97116.
Yip, V., & Matthews, S. (2007). The bilingual child: Early development and language contact. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annual Review of Applied Linguistics
  • ISSN: 0267-1905
  • EISSN: 1471-6356
  • URL: /core/journals/annual-review-of-applied-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed