Skip to main content
×
×
Home

LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: CURRENT ISSUES AND RESEARCH

Abstract

This chapter begins with definitions and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, then summarizes what we have learned from the large number of descriptive studies of strategies reported by language learners. Research on language learning strategies has a history of only about thirty years, and much of this history has been sporadic. The 1980s and early 1990s were a period of substantial research on language learning strategies, much of it descriptive. This period was followed by an apparent loss of interest in language learning strategies, judging by limited reported research and few related conference presentations. Recently, however, a number of new investigations have reinvigorated the field. The focus of the chapter is on the evolution of research on language learning strategy intervention studies, the issues that have emerged from this research, and metacognitive models that can be useful in the language classroom. The discussion concludes by setting out directions for future research.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: CURRENT ISSUES AND RESEARCH
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: CURRENT ISSUES AND RESEARCH
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: CURRENT ISSUES AND RESEARCH
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Anderson N. J. 2002. The role of metacognition in second language teaching and learning. ERIC Digest, April 2002. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Anderson N. J. (in press). L2 learning strategies. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bedell D. A., & Oxford R. L. 1996. Cross-cultural comparisons of language learning strategies in the People's Republic of China and other countries. In R. L. Oxford Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 4760). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Buren J. 2001. Strategies for success: Profiling the effective learner of German. Foreign Language Annals, 34, (3), 216225.
Carrier K. A. 2003. Improving high school English language learners' second language listening through strategy instruction. Bilingual Research Journal 27, 383408.
Carson J. G., & Longhini A. 2002. Focusing on learning styles and strategies: A diary study in an immersion setting. Language Learning, 52 (2), 401438.
Chamot A. U. 1994. A model for learning strategy instruction in the foreign language classroom. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1994 (pp. 323336). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Chamot A. U. 1999. How children in language immersion programs use learning strategies. In M. A. Kassen (Ed.), Language learners of tomorrow: Process and promise! (pp. 2959). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.
Chamot A. U. 2004. Issues in language learning strategy research and teaching. Electronic Journal of Foreign language Teaching, 1 (1), 1225.
Chamot A. U. 2005. The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA): An update. In P. A. Richard-Amato & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Academic success for English language learners: Strategies for K–12 mainstream teachers (pp. 87101). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Chamot A. U., Barnhardt S., El-Dinary P. B., & Robbins J. 1999. The learning strategies handbook. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
Chamot A. U., & El-Dinary P. B. 1999. Children's learning strategies in immersion classrooms. The Modern Language Journal, 83, 3, 319341.
Chamot A. U., & Keatley C. W. 2003. Learning strategies of adolescent low-literacy Hispanic ESL students. Paper presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
Cohen A. D. 1998. Strategies in learning and using a second language. London: Longman.
Cohen A. D. 2003. The learner's side of foreign language learning: Where do style, strategies, and tasks meet? International Review of Applied Linguistics, 41, 279291.
Cohen A. D., & Aphek E. 1981. Easifying second language learning. Studies in Second Language Learning, 3, 22136.
Cohen A. D., & Brooks-Carson A. 2001. Research on direct versus translated writing: Students' strategies and their results. Modern Language Journal, 85 (2), 169188.
Cohen A. D., Weaver S., & Li T-Y. 1998. The impact of strategies-based instruction on speaking a foreign language. In A. D. Cohen (Ed.), gies in learning and using a second language (pp. 107156). London: Longman.
Cummins J. 2000. Language power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
De La Paz S., & Graham S. 2002. Explicitly teaching strategies, skills, and knowledge: Writing instruction in middle school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94 (4), 687698.
Fan M. Y. 2003. Frequency of use, perceived usefulness, and actual usefulness of second language vocabulary strategies: A study of Hong Kong learners. n Language Journal 87, (2), 222241.
Goh C. C. M. 2002a. Learner's self-reports on comprehension and learning strategies for listening. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 12, 4668 [Special issue on learning and teaching English in the Chinese context].
Goh C. C. M. 2002b. Exploring listening comprehension tactics and their interaction patterns. System, 30, 185206.
Graham S. J. 2004. Giving up on modern foreign languages? Students' perceptions of learning French. Modern Language Journal, 33 (2), 171191.
Graham S., & Harris K. R. 2000. The role of self-regulation and transcription skills in writing and writing development. Educational Psychologist, 35, 312.
Green J. M., & Oxford R. 1995. A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency, and gender. TESOL Quarterly, 29 (2), 261297.
Grenfell M., & Harris V. 1999. Modern languages and learning strategies: In theory and practice. London: Routledge.
Gu P. Y. 1996. Robin Hood in SLA: What has the learning strategy researcher taught us? Journal of English Language Teaching 6, 129.
Hsiao T.-Y. 2004. Testing a social psychological model of strategy use with students of English as a foreign language. Psychological Reports, 95, 10591071.
Hsiao T.-Y., & Oxford R. L. 2002. Comparing theories of language learning strategies: A confirmatory factor analysis. Modern Language Journal, 86, (3), 368383.
Hulstijn J. H. 1997. Mnemonic methods in foreign language vocabulary learning. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 203224). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ikeda M., & Takeuchi O. 2003. Can strategy instruction help EFL learners to improve their reading ability?: An empirical study. JACET Bulletin, 37, 4960.
Keatley C., Chamot A. U., Spokane A., & Greenstreet S. 2004. Learning strategies of students of Arabic. The Language Resource, 8 4. Retrieved from http://www.nclrc.org/nectfl04ls.pdf.
Khaldieh S. A. 2000. Learning strategies and writing processes of proficient vs. less-proficient learners of Arabic. Foreign Language Annals, 33, (5), 522533.
Kojic-Sabo I., & Lightbown P. M. 1999. Students' approaches to vocabulary learning and their relationship to success. Modern Language Journal,. 83, (2), 176192.
Macaro E. 2001. Learning strategies in foreign and second language classrooms. London: Continuum.
Naiman N., Fröhlich M., Stern H. H., & Todesco A. 1978/1996 The good language learner. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. (Original work published 1978.)
Nakatani Y. (in press). The effects of awareness-raising training on oral communication strategy use. Modern Language Journal, 89 (1).
National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC). 2003. Elementary immersion learning strategies resource guide. Washington, DC: National Capital Language Resource Center.
National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC). 2004a The secondary education learning strategies resource guide. Washington, DC: National Capital Language Resource Center.
National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC). 2004b. The post-secondary education learning strategies resource guide. Washington, DC: National Capital Language Resource Center.
National Reading Panel 2000. of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read. Retrieved from http:/www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htm.
Nyikos M., & Oxford R. L. 1993. A factor analytic study of language learning strategy use: Interpretations from information-processing theory and social psychology. Modern Language Journal, 77, 1122.
O'Malley J. M., & Chamot A. U. 1990. Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Olivares-Cuhat G. 2002. Learning strategies and achievement in the Spanish writing classroom: A case study. Language Annals, 35, (5), 561570.
Oxford R. L. 1990. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House.
Oxford R. L. 1996. (Ed.) Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Oxford R. L., & Burry-Stock J. A. 1995. Assessing the use of language learning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. System, 23 (2) 153175.
Oxford R. L., & Leaver B. L. 1996. A synthesis of strategy instruction for foreign language learners. In R. L. Oxford Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 227246). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Oxford R., Cho Y., Leung S., & Kim H-J. 2004. Effect of the presence and difficulty of task on strategy use: An exploratory study. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 42, 147.
Ozeki N. 2000. Listening strategy instruction for female EFL college students in Japan. Tokyo: Macmillan Language House.
Pressley M. 1995. More about the development of self-regulation: Complex, long-term, and thoroughly social. Educational Psychologist, 30, (4), 207212.
Pressley M. 2000. What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Volume III, (pp. 545561). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ross S., & Rost M. 1991. Learner use of strategies in interaction: Typology and teachability. Language Learning, 41 (2), 235273.
Rubin J. 1975. What the "good language learner" can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 4151.
Rubin J. 2001. Language learner self-management. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 11, (1), 253737.
Rubin J. 2003. Diary writing as a process: Simple, useful, powerful. Guidelines, 25 (2), 101414.
Rubin J., & Thompson I. 1994. How to be a more successful language learner. Second edition. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Schmitt N. 2000. Vocabulary in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridsge University Press.
Shen H.-J. 2003. The role of explicit instruction in ESL/EFL reading. Foreign Language Annals, 36 (3), 424433.
Stern H. H. 1975. What can we learn from the good language learner? Canadian Modern Language Review, 31, 304318.
Takeuchi O. 2003. What can we learn from good language learners: A qualitative study in the Japanese foreign language context. System, 31, 385392.
Thompson I., & Rubin J. 1996. Can strategy instruction improve listening comprehension? Foreign Language Annals, 29 (3), 331342.
Vandergrift L. 1997a. The comprehension strategies of second language (French) Listeners: A descriptive studyz. Foreign Language Annals, 30 (3), 387409.
Vandergrift L. 1997b. The Cinderella of communication strategies: Reception strategies in interactive listening. Modern Language Journal, 81 (4), 494505.
Vandergrift L. 2003a. Orchestrating strategy use: Towards a model of the skilled L2 listener. Language Learning, 53, 461494.
Vandergrift L. 2003b. From prediction to reflection: Guiding students through the process of L2 listening. Canadian Modern Language Review, 59, 425440.
Weaver S. J., & Cohen A. D. 1997. Strategies-based instruction: A teacher-training manual. Minneapolis: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.
Wenden A. L. 1991. Learner strategies for learner autonomy. London: Prentice-Hall International.
Wenden A. L. 2000. Learner development in language learning. Applied Linguistics, 23 (1), 3255.
Wharton G. 2000. Language learning strategy use of bilingual foreign language learners in Singapore. Language Learning, 50 (2), 203243.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annual Review of Applied Linguistics
  • ISSN: 0267-1905
  • EISSN: 1471-6356
  • URL: /core/journals/annual-review-of-applied-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 746
Total number of PDF views: 5199 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 5119 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.