Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 12
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lee, Jin Sook 2015. The Handbook of Bilingual and Multilingual Education.

    van der Walt, Christa 2015. The Handbook of Bilingual and Multilingual Education.

    Swanson, Lauren Honeycutt Bianchini, Julie A. and Lee, Jin Sook 2014. Engaging in argument and communicating information: A case study of english language learners and their science teacher in an urban high school. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 31.

    van der Walt, Christa and Dornbrack, Jacqui 2011. Academic biliteracy in South African higher education: strategies and practices of successful students. Language, Culture and Curriculum, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 89.

    Warriner, Doris S. 2007. Language Learning and the Politics of Belonging: Sudanese Women RefugeesBecomingandBeing"American". Anthropology & Education Quarterly, Vol. 38, Issue. 4, p. 343.

    Petrovic, John E. 2005. The Conservative Restoration and Neoliberal Defenses of Bilingual Education. Language Policy, Vol. 4, Issue. 4, p. 395.

    Petrovic, John E. and Olmstead, Susan 2001. Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire, by J. Cummins. Bilingual Research Journal, Vol. 25, Issue. 3, p. 405.

    Freeman, Rebecca 2000. Contextual Challenges to Dual-Language Education: A Case Study of a Developing Middle School Program. Anthropology <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&amp;"/> Education Quarterly, Vol. 31, Issue. 2, p. 202.

    Cizek, Gregory J. and Ramaswamy, Vidya 1999. Handbook of Educational Policy.

    Craig, Barbara A. 1996. Parental Attitudes Toward Bilingualism in a Local Two-Way Immersion Program. Bilingual Research Journal, Vol. 20, Issue. 3-4, p. 383.

    Ruiz, Richard 1995. Language Planning Considerations in Indigenous Communities. Bilingual Research Journal, Vol. 19, Issue. 1, p. 71.

    Silentman, Irene 1995. Revaluing Indigenous Language Resources Through Language Planning. Bilingual Research Journal, Vol. 19, Issue. 1, p. 179.

  • Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Volume 14
  • 1994, pp. 111-125

Language Policy and Planning in the United States


While the United States has never declared a national official language, the primacy of English in public affairs has been well-established since the time of the earliest colonies (Crawford 1992a, Ruiz 1988). This is so in spite of the reluctance on the part of the British colonial authorities and, later, leaders of the early republic, to legislate matters of language—considered traditionally one of the most fundamental freedoms of civilized societies (Heath 1992). English even at that time was considered a language of political, economic, and social power and prestige; its preeminence in the United States, as elsewhere, has been reinforced in recent times by its establishment as a language of technology.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

T. Amorose 1989. The official-language movement in the United States: Contexts, issues and activities. Language Problems and Language Planning. 13.264279.

P. Trudgill 1991. Language maintenance and language shift: Preservation versus extinction. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. 1.1.6169.

J. A. Vélez and C. W. Schweers . 1993. A U.S. colony at a linguistic crossroads: The decision to make Spanish the official language of Puerto Rico. Language Problems and Language Planning.17.2.117139.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annual Review of Applied Linguistics
  • ISSN: 0267-1905
  • EISSN: 1471-6356
  • URL: /core/journals/annual-review-of-applied-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *