Giezen, Marcel R. and Emmorey, Karen 2016. Semantic Integration and Age of Acquisition Effects in Code-Blend Comprehension. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, Vol. 21, Issue. 2, p. 213.
Reynolds, Michael G. Schlöffel, Sophie and Peressotti, Francesca 2016. Asymmetric Switch Costs in Numeral Naming and Number Word Reading: Implications for Models of Bilingual Language Production. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 6,
Shook, Anthony and Marian, Viorica 2016. The influence of native-language tones on lexical access in the second language. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 139, Issue. 6, p. 3102.
2016. References. Language Learning, Vol. 66, Issue. S1, p. 313.
BJorK, and Kroll, 2015. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning. The American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 128, Issue. 2, p. 241.
Gross, Megan and Kaushanskaya, Margarita 2015. Voluntary language switching in English–Spanish bilingual children. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 27, Issue. 8, p. 992.
Kroll, Judith F. Dussias, Paola E. Bice, Kinsey and Perrotti, Lauren 2015. Bilingualism, Mind, and Brain. Annual Review of Linguistics, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 377.
Van Rinsveld, Amandine Brunner, Martin Landerl, Karin Schiltz, Christine and Ugen, Sonja 2015. The relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals: insights from different stages of language acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 6,
Recent studies have shown that when bilinguals or multilinguals read written words, listen to spoken words, or plan words that they intend to speak in one language alone, information in all of the languages that they know is momentarily active. That activation produces cross-language competition that sometimes converges to facilitate performance and sometimes diverges to create costs to performance. The presence of parallel activation across languages has been documented in comprehension, in studies of word recognition, and also in production, in studies of lexical speech planning. The observation that one of the two or more languages cannot be switched off at will is particularly surprising in production, where the intention to express a thought should be guided by conceptually driven processes. Likewise, in comprehension, recent studies show that placing words in sentence context in one language alone is insufficient to restrict processing to that language. The focus of current research on the multilingual lexicon is therefore to understand the basis of language nonselectivity, to consider how the language in use is ultimately selected, and to identify the cognitive consequences of having a lexical system that is open to influence by the languages not in use. In this article, we review the recent cognitive and neural evidence on each of these issues, with special consideration to the question of how the nature of the evidence itself shapes the conclusions drawn about the organization and access to the lexicon in individuals who speak more than one language.
This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
Full text views reflects the number of PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.
Abstract views reflect the number of visits to the article landing page.
* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd August 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.