The teuthoid fauna of the Prydz Bay region of the Southern Ocean (Indian Ocean sector) has been studied based on the material collected from 1981–1991 using a rectangular midwater trawl (RMT-8), pelagic trawl (IYGPT), and bottom trawl. Eight species of squid have been recognized: Brachioteuthis sp., Kondakovia longimana, Bathyteuthis abyssicola, Psychroteuthis glacialis, Alluroteuthis antarcticus, Mastigoteuthis psychrophila, Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni and Galiteuthis glacialis. Size frequency distribution, geographical and vertical distributions of each species as well as diets of common species are analysed. There is no evidence of a diel vertical migration but ontogenetic descent appears to occur in P. glacialis and G. glacialis. Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba and the Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarcticum are important prey for most species with cannibalism occurring in P. glacialis, A. antarcticus and M. hamiltoni. Equations for calculating total weight from mantle length, and mantle length and total weight from upper and lower rostral length are provided for B. abyssicola, P. glacialis, A. antarcticus, M. psychrophila, and G. glacialis.