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Alpine ice and the annual political economy of the Angevin Empire, from the death of Thomas Becket to Magna Carta, c. AD 1170–1216

  • Christopher P. Loveluck (a1), Alexander F. More (a2) (a3) (a4), Nicole E. Spaulding (a3), Heather Clifford (a3), Michael J. Handley (a3), Laura Hartman (a3), Elena V. Korotkikh (a3), Andrei V. Kurbatov (a3), Paul A. Mayewski (a3), Sharon B. Sneed (a3) and Michael McCormick (a2)...

Abstract

High-resolution analysis of the ice core from Colle Gnifetti, Switzerland, allows yearly and sub-annual measurement of pollution for the period of highest lead production in the European Middle Ages, c. AD 1170–1220. Here, the authors use atmospheric circulation analysis and other geoarchaeological records to establish that Britain was the principal source of that lead pollution. The comparison of annual lead deposition at Colle Gnifetti displays a strong similarity to trends in lead production documented in the English historical accounts. This research provides unique new insight into the yearly political economy and environmental impact of the Angevin Empire of Kings Henry II, Richard the Lionheart and John.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: ✉ christopher.loveluck@nottingham.ac.uk

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Alpine ice and the annual political economy of the Angevin Empire, from the death of Thomas Becket to Magna Carta, c. AD 1170–1216

  • Christopher P. Loveluck (a1), Alexander F. More (a2) (a3) (a4), Nicole E. Spaulding (a3), Heather Clifford (a3), Michael J. Handley (a3), Laura Hartman (a3), Elena V. Korotkikh (a3), Andrei V. Kurbatov (a3), Paul A. Mayewski (a3), Sharon B. Sneed (a3) and Michael McCormick (a2)...

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