In archaeology as in other branches of science we are only at the beginning of discoveries. New vistas are opening up to us and we are beginning to realize how little we know about the origin and early history of civilized man. Theories and presumptions, chronologies and criticisms, all are being revolutionized. In Egypt, in Babylonia, in India and in Asia Minor discoveries are being made which teach us that we are still only upon the threshold of knowledge about what is called “the remote past” and how insecure are the foundations upon which most of our assumptions in regard to the earlier history of culture really rest. Many of our assumptions, in fact, have nothing behind them except want of evidence, and excavation in Egypt alone has proved, time after time, how archaeologically valueless negative evidence must be. All that it shows is that scientifically conducted excavation and archaeological exploration are still in their infancy. Negative evidence has been a favourite weapon of argument, especially among German scholars, and we need not be surprised that theory after theory based or partially based upon it has broken down. It is merely a survival of the early Victorian belief that science had mastered all the secrets of the material universe.
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