Ahlqvist, A. 1982. The early Irish linguist: an edition of the canonical part of the Auraicept na nÉces. Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica.
Alcock, L. 1996. Ur-symbols in the Pictograph-system of the Picts. Pictish Arts Society 9: 2–5.
Alcock, L 2003. Kings and warriors, craftsmen and priests in northern Britain AD 550–850. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
Alcock, L. & Alcock, E.A.. 1992. Reconnaissance excavations on Early Historic fortifications and other royal sites in Scotland, 1974–84. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 122: 215–827.
Allen, R.J. & Anderson, J, J.. 1903 . The Early Christian monuments of Scotland. Balgavies: Pinkfoot.
Armit, I., Schulting, R.J., Knüsel, C.J. & Shepherd, I.A.G.. 2011. Death, decapitation and display: the Bronze and Iron Age human remains from the Sculptor’s Cave, Covesea, northeast Scotland. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 77: 251–78. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0079497X00000694
Barnes, M.P. 2012. Runes: a handbook. Woodbridge: Boydell.
Bhreathnach, E. 2014. Ireland in the medieval world: AD 400–1000. Dublin: Four Courts.
Blackwell, A., Goldberg, M. & Hunter, F.. 2017. Scotland’s early silver. Edinburgh: National Museums Scotland.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 1998. Probability and dating. Radiocarbon 40: 461–474.
Buck, C.E., Cavanagh, W.G. & Litton, C.D.. 1996. Bayesian approach to interpreting archaeological data. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Carver, M., Garner-Lahire, J. & Spall, C.
. 2016. Portmahomack on Tarbat Ness: changing ideologies in north-east Scotland, sixth to sixteenth century AD. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries.
Charles-Edwards, T.M. 2013. Wales and the Britons, 350–1064. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clarke, D.V. & Heald, A.. 2008. A new date for ‘Pictish’ symbols. Medieval Archaeology 52: 291–310.
Close-Brooks, J. 1980. Excavations in the Dairy Park, Dunrobin, Sutherland, 1977. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 110: 328–345.
Diack, F.C. 1944. The inscriptions of Pictland. Aberdeen: Spalding Club.
Driscoll, S.T. 1988. Power and authority in Early Historic Scotland: Pictish symbol stones and other documents, in J. Gledhill, B. Bender & M.T. Larsen (ed.) State and society: the emergence and development of social hierarchy and political centralization: 215–236. London: Taylor & Francis.
Driscoll, S.T 2011. Pictish archaeology: persistent problems and structural solutions, in S.T. Driscoll, J. Geddes & M. Hall (ed.) Pictish progress: 245–280. Leiden: Brill.
Earl of Southesk. 1893. Origins of Pictish symbolism. Edinburgh: David Douglas.
Findell, M. 2014. Runes. London: British Museum
Forsyth, K. 1997. Some thoughts on Pictish symbols as a formal writing system, in I. Henderson & D. Henry (ed.) The worm, the germ and the thorn: 85–98. Brechin: Pinkfoot.
Foster, S. 2014. Picts, Gaels and Scots: Early Historic Scotland. Edinburgh: Birlinn.
Gibson, C. & Stevens, C.. 2007. Iron Age and Pictish activity at Wemyss Caves, Fife. Tayside and Fife Archaeological Journal 13: 91–99.
Goldberg, M. 2015. At the Western edge of the Christian world, c. AD 600–90, in J. Farley & F. Hunter (ed.) Celts: art and identity: 172–205. London: British Museum.
Goody, J, 1968. Introduction, in J. Goody (ed.) Literacy in traditional societies: 1–26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harvey, A. 1987. Early literacy in Ireland: the evidence from ogham. Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 14: 1–15.
Henderson, I. 1967. The Picts. London: Thames & Hudson.
Henderson, G. & Henderson, I.. 2004. The art of the Picts: sculpture and metalwork in early medieval Scotland. London: Thames & Hudson.
Hunter, F. 2007. Beyond the edge of the empire: Caledonians, Picts and Romans. Rosemarkie: Groam House.
Hunter, J., Smith, A.N. & Bond, J.. 2007. Investigations in Sanday, Orkney: excavations at Pool, Sanday. Kirkwall: Orcadian.
Innes, M. 1998. Memory, orality and literacy in an early medieval society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jackson, A. 1984. The symbol stones of Scotland. Stromness: The Orkney Press.
Jackson, K.H. 1950. Notes on the ogham inscriptions of southern Britain, in C. Fox & B. Dickins (ed.) The early cultures of Northwest Europe: 197–213. Cambridge: H.N. Chadwick Memorial Studies.
Jackson, K.H. 1953. Language and history in early Britain: a chronological survey of the Brittonic languages 1st to 12th century AD. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Laing, L. & Laing, J.. 1984. The date and origin of the Pictish symbols. Proceedings of the Scottish Antiquaries Society 114: 261–76.
Laing, L. & Laing, J. 1993. The Picts and the Scots. Stroud: Alan Sutton.
Lee, R. 2010. The use of information theory to determine the language character type of Pictish symbols. Scottish Archaeological Journal 32: 137–176. https://doi.org/10.3366/saj.2010.0014
Lee, R., Jonathan, P. & Ziman, P.. 2010. Pictish symbols revealed as a written language through application of Shannon entropy. Proceedings of the Royal Society 10: 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2010.0041
Mack, A. 2007. Symbols and pictures: the Pictish legacy in stone. Brechin: Pinkfoot.
Nash-Williams, V.E. 1950
. The Early Christian monuments of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales.
Nixon, C.E.V., Rodgers, B.S. & Mynors, R.A.B. (ed.). 1994. In praise of later Roman emperors: the Panegyrici Latini. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Noble, G., Gondek, M., Campbell, E. & Cook, M.. 2013. Between prehistory and history: the archaeological detection of social change among the Picts. Antiquity 87: 1136–1150. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00049917
Noble, G., Gondek, M., Campbell, E., Evans, N., Hamilton, D., Ross, A. & Taylor, S.. Forthcoming. A powerful place of Pictland: interdisciplinary perspectives on a post-Roman power centre. Submitted to Medieval Archaeology.
Odenstedt, B. 1990. On the origin and early history of the runic script. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
RCAHMS. 2007. Pictish symbol stones: an illustrated gazeteer. Edinburgh: RCAHMS.
RCAHMS 2008. The Pictish symbols of Scotland. Edinburgh: RCAHMS.
Reimer, P.J., Bard., E. Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Blackwell, P.G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C.E., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P.M., Guilderson, T.P., Haflidason, H., Hajdas, I., Hatté, C., Heaton, T.J., Hoffmann, D.L., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kaiser, K.F., Kromer, B., Manning, S.W., Niu, M., Reimer, R.W., Richards, D.A., Scott, E.M., Southon, J.R., Staff, R.A., Turney, C.S.M. & van der Plicht, J.. 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55: 1869–1887. https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947
Sproat, R. 2010. Ancient symbols, computational linguistics, and the reviewing practices of the general science journals. Computational Linguistics 36: 585–594. https://doi.org/10.1162/coli_a_00011
Stevenson, R.B.K. 1955. Pictish art, in F.T. Wainwright (ed.) The problem of the Picts: 97–128. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson.
Swift, C. 1997. Ogham stones and the earliest Irish Christians. Maynooth: Department of Old Irish, National University of Ireland.
Thickpenny, C. 2012. Decorative minutiae in the Pictish social landscape. Unpublished MPhil essay, University of Glasgow. Available at: http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/148614/ (accessed 11 September 2018).
Thomas, A. 1858. Notice of sculptured stones found at ‘Dinnacair’, a rock in the sea, near Stonehaven. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 3: 69–75.
Wainwright, F.T (ed.). 1955. The Picts and the problem. The problem of the Picts: 1–53. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson.
Woolf, A. 2007. From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Woolf, A. 2017. On the nature of the Picts. Scottish Historical Review XCVI (2): 214–217.