Skip to main content

Early multi-resource nomadism: Excavations at the Camel Site in the central Negev

  • Steven A. Rosen (a1)

Excavations at the Camel Site, in the Negev, provide evidence of desert cottage industries making (and probably trading) beads and millstones in the Early Bronze Age. But these were people for whom nomadism was the ‘default lifestyle’.

Hide All
Amiran, R. 1978. Early Arad. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.
Amiran, R., Beit Arieh, I. & Glass, J.. 1973. The Interrelationship between Arad and Sites in the southern Sinai in the Early Bronze II. Israel Exploration Journal 23: 3338.
Amiran, R., Ilan, O. & Sebbane, M.. 1997. Canaanite Arad gateway city to the wilderness. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority (Hebrew).
Avner, U. 1990. Ancient agricultural settlement and religion in the Uvda Valley in southern Israel. Biblical A rchaeologgist 53: 125141.
Bar-Yosef, O., & Phillips, J. L.. 1977. Introduction. Bar-Yosef, O. & Phillips, J. L. (ed.) Prehistoric investigations in Gebel Maghara, northern Sinai: 110. Jerusalem: Qedem 7, Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University.
Bar-yosef, O., & Khazanov, A. M. (ed.). 1992. Pastoralism in the Levant. Madison: Prehistory Press.
Bates, D. G. 1973. Nomads and farmers: a study of the Yoruk of southeastern Turkey. Ann Arbor: Anthropological Papers of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan 52.
Betts, A. V. G. 1992. Tell el-Hibr: a rock shelter occupation of the fourth millennium B.C.E. in the Jordanian Badiya. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 287: 523.
Betts, A. V. G. 1989. The Solubba: non-pastoral nomads in Arabia. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 274: 6170.
Black-Michaud, J. 1986. Sheep and Land. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Brochier, J., Villa, P., Giacomarra, M. & Tagliacozzo, A., A. 1992. Shepherds and sediments: geo-ethnoarchaeology of pastoral sites. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 11: 47102.
Burian, F. & Friedman, E.. 1985. Flint borers: methods of production and use. Mitekufat Haeven 18: 6366.
Clark, J. D. 1975–77. Interpretation of prehistoric technology from ancient Egypt and other sources, part 2: prehistoric arrow forms in Africa as shown by surviving examples of traditional arrows from ancient Egypt and other sources. Paleorient 3: 127150.
Cohen, R. 1999. Ancient settlement of the central Negev. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority Reports 6 (Hebrew).
Cribb, R. 1991. Nomads in archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Eddy, F. W. & Wendorf, F.. 1998. Prehistoric nomads in the Sinai. Sahara 10: 720.
Finkelstein, I. 1995. Living on the fringe. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic.
Finkelstein, I. & Perevoletsky, A.. 1990. Processes of sedentarization and nomadization in the history of the Negev and Sinai. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 279: 6788.
Goodfriend, G. A. 1990. Rainfall in the Negev desert during the middle Holocene based on C13 of organic matter in land snail shells. Quaternary Research 34: 186197.
Haiman, M. 1991. A site of the Early Bronze Age at the foot of Har Horsha. Atiqot 20: 120. (Hebrew with English abstract).
Haiman, M. 1992. Sedentism and pastoralism in the Negev Highlands in the Early Bronze Age: results of the western Negev Highlands emergency survey, in Bar-Yosef & Khazanov (ed.): 93–105.
Henry, D. O. 1992. Seasonal movements of fourth millennium pastoral nomads in Wadi Hisma. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan IV: 137141.
Horwitz, L. & Tchernov, E.. 1989. Animal exploitation in the Early Bronze Age of the southern Levant — an overview. de Miroschedji, P. (ed.) L’Urbanisation de la Palestine à l’Age du Bronz Ancien: 27998. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports international Series 527.
Ilan, O. & Sebbane, M.. 1989. Copper metallurgy, trade and the urbanization of southern Canaan in the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. de Miroschedji, P. (ed.) L’Urbanisation de la Palestine à l’Age du Bronz Ancien: 139162. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 527.
Johnson, D. L. 1969. The nature of nomadism: a comparative study of pastoral migrations in southwestern Asia and northern Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Dept. of Geography Research Paper 118.
Kempinski, A. 1989. Urbanization and metallurgy in southern Canaan. de Miroschedji, P. (ed.). L’Urbanisation de la Palestine à I’Age du Bronz Ancien: 16368. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series. 527.
Khazanov, A. M. 1984. Nomads and the outside world. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Kozloff, B. 1981. Pastoral nomadism in Sinai: an ethnoarchaeological study. Production pastorales et societe: bulletin d’ecologie et d’anthropologie des societies pastorales 8: 1924.
Mair, V. H. (ed.) 1998. The Bronze and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia. Vol. 1. Washington DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
Marks, A. E. 1976. Introduction, in Marks, A. E. (ed.) Prehistory and Paleoenvironments in the Central Negev, Israel II: 38. Dallas: Southern Methodist University.
Ramsey, C. B. 1999. OxCal 3.3.
Robertshaw, P. 1990. Early Pastoralists of Southwestern Kenya. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa Memoire 11.
Rosen, A. M. 1995. The social response to environmental change in Early Bronze Age Canaan. Journal of Anthropological A rchaeology 14: 2644.
Rosen, S. A. 1988. Notes on the origins of pastoral nomadism: a case study from the Negev and Sinai. Current Anthropology 29: 498506.
Rosen, S. A. 1992. Nomads in archaeology: a response to Finkelstein and Perevoletsky. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 287: 7585.
Rosen, S. A. 1997a. Lithics after the Stone Age: a handbook of stone tools from the Levant. Walnut Creek (CA): Altamira Press.
Rosen, S. A. 1997b. Beyond milk and meat: lithic evidence for economic specialization in the Early Bronze Age pastoral periphery in the Levant. Lithic Technology 22: 105115.
Rosen, S. A. & Schneider, J.. 2001. Early Bronze Age milling stone production and exchange in the Negev: preliminary conclusions. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 31: 201212.
Saidel, B 2002a. The excavations at Rekhes Nafha 396 in the Negev Highlands, Israel. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 325: 3763.
Saidel, B 2002b. Pot luck? Variation and function in the ceramic assemblages of pre-camel pastoralists in the Negev Highlands, Israel. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 32: 175196.
Salzman, P. C. 1972. Multi-resource nomadism in Iranian Baluchistan, in Irons, W. and Dyson-Hudson, N (ed.), Perspectives on Nomadism: 6068. Leiden: Brill.
Sebbane, M., Ilan, O., Avner, U. & Ilan, D.. 1993. The dating of Early Bronze Age settlements in the Negev and Sinai. Tel Aviv 20: 4154.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Related content

Powered by UNSILO


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed