Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Evaluating Chaco migration scenarios using dynamic social network analysis

  • Barbara J. Mills (a1), Matthew A. Peeples (a2), Leslie D. Aragon (a1) (a3), Benjamin A. Bellorado (a1), Jeffery J. Clark (a3), Evan Giomi (a1) and Thomas C. Windes (a4)...
Abstract

Migration was a key social process contributing to the creation of the ‘Chaco World’ between AD 800 and 1200. Dynamic social network analysis allows for evaluation of several migration scenarios, and demonstrates that Chaco’s earliest ninth-century networks show interaction with areas to the west and south, rather than migration to the Canyon from the Northern San Juan. By the late eleventh century, Chaco Canyon was tied strongly to the Middle and Northern San Juan, while a twelfth-century retraction of networks separated the Northern and Southern San Juan areas prior to regional depopulation. Understanding Chaco migration is important for comprehending both its uniqueness in U.S. Southwest archaeology and for comparison with other case studies worldwide.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Evaluating Chaco migration scenarios using dynamic social network analysis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Evaluating Chaco migration scenarios using dynamic social network analysis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Evaluating Chaco migration scenarios using dynamic social network analysis
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-ncnd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence (Email: bmills@email.arizona.edu)
References
Hide All
Akins, N.J. 1986. The burials of Pueblo Bonito, in J.E. Neitzel (ed.) Pueblo Bonito: center of the Chacoan World: 94106. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
Anthony, D.W. 1990. Migration in archeology: the baby and the bathwater. American Anthropologist 92: 895914. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1990.92.4.02a00030
Birch, J. 2012. Coalescent communities: settlement aggregation and social integration in Iroquoian Ontario. American Antiquity 77: 646670. https://doi.org/10.7183/0002-7316.77.4.646
Clark, J.J. & Reed., P.F. 2011. Chacoan immigration and influence in the Middle San Juan. Kiva 77: 251274. https://doi.org/10.1179/kiv.2011.77.2.006
Crabtree, S.A., Bocinsky, R.K., Hooper, P.L., Ryan, S.C. & Kohler., T.A. 2017. How to make a polity (in the Central Mesa Verde region). American Antiquity 82: 7195. https://doi.org/10.1017/aaq.2016.18
Crown, P.L. (ed.). 2016. The Pueblo Bonito mounds of Chaco Canyon: material culture and fauna. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Crown, P.L. & Hurst., W.J. 2009. Cacao use in the Prehispanic American Southwest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106: 21102113. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0812817106
Crown, P.L. & Wills., W.H. 2003. Modifying pottery and kivas at Chaco: pentimento, restoration, or renewal. American Antiquity 68: 511532. https://doi.org/10.2307/3557106
Crown, P.L. & Wills, W.H. 2018. The complex history of Pueblo Bonito and its interpretation. Antiquity 92: 890904.
Duff, A.I. & Nauman., A.L. 2010. Engendering the landscape: resource acquisition, artifact manufacture, and household organization in a Chacoan great house community, in B. Roth (ed.) Engendering landscapes in the prehistoric Southwest: 1233. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Fowler, A.P. 1991. Brown ware and red ware pottery: an Anasazi ceramic tradition. Kiva 56: 123144. https://doi.org/10.1080/00231940.1991.11758161
Guiterman, C.H., Swetnam, T.W. & Dean, J.S. 2015. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 113: 11861190. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1514272112
Hays-Gilpin, K.A. & van Hartesveldt., E. 1998. Prehistoric ceramics of the Puerco Valley: the 1995 Chambers-Sanders Trust Lands Ceramic Conference (Museum of Northern Arizona Ceramic Series 7). Flagstaff: Museum of Northern Arizona.
Judge, W.J. & Cordell., L.S. 2006. Society and polity, in S.H. Lekson (ed.) The archaeology of Chaco Canyon: an eleventh century Pueblo regional center: 189210. Santa Fe (NM): SAR.
Kennett, D.J., Plog, S., George, R.J., Culleton, B.J., Watson, A.S., Skoglund, P., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Stewardson, K., Kistler, L., LeBlanc, S.A., Whiteley, P.M., Reich, D. & Perry., G.H. 2017. Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty. Nature Communications 8: 14115.https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14115
Lekson, S.H. 1984. Great Pueblo architecture of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (Publications in Archaeology 18B). Albuquerque (NM): National Park Service.
Lekson, S.H. 2015. The Chaco meridian: one thousand years of political and religious power in the ancient Southwest (2nd edition). Lanham (MD): Rowman & Littlefield.
Lekson, S.H. & Cameron., C.M. 1995. The abandonment of Chaco Canyon, the Mesa Verde migrations, and the reorganization of the Pueblo World. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14: 184202. https://doi.org/10.1006/jaar.1995.1010
Mills, B.J. 2008. Remembering while forgetting: depositional practice and social memory at Chaco, in B.J. Mills & W.H. Walker (ed.) Memory work: archaeologies of material practices: 81108. Santa Fe (NM): SAR.
Mills, B.J. 2016. Communities of consumption: cuisines as networks of situated practice, in A.P. Roddick & A.B. Stahl (ed.) Knowledge in motion, constellations of learning across time and place: 248270. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Mills, B.J., Clark, J.J., Peeples, M., Haas, W.R. Jr, Roberts, J.M. Jr, Hill, J.B., Huntley, D.L., Borck, L., Breiger, R.L., Clauset, A. & Shackley., M.S. 2013a. Transformation of social networks in the Late Prehispanic U.S. Southwest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110: 57855790. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1219966110
Mills, B.J., Roberts, J.M. Jr, Clark, J.C., Haas, W.R. Jr, Huntley, D.L., Peeples, M., Borck, L., Ryan, S.C., Trowbridge, M. & Breiger., R.L. 2013b. The dynamics of social networks in the late Prehispanic US Southwest, in C. Knappett (ed.) Regional network analysis in archaeology: 181202. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mills, B.J., Peeples, M.A., Haas, W.R. Jr, Borck, L., Clark, J.J. & Roberts, J.M. , J.M. Roberts Jr. 2015. Multiscalar perspectives on social networks in the Late Prehispanic Southwest. American Antiquity 80: 224. https://doi.org/10.7183/0002-7316.79.4.3
Morris, E. 1919. The Aztec Ruins (Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History XXVI) . New York: American Museum of Natural History.
Naranjo, T. 1995. Thoughts on migration by Santa Clara Pueblo. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14: 247250. https://doi.org/10.1006/jaar.1995.1013
Ortman, S.G. 2016. Uniform probability density analysis and population history in the northern Rio Grande. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 23: 95126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10816-014-9227-6
Ortman, S.G. & Cameron., C.M. 2011. A framework for controlled comparisons of ancient Southwestern movement, in M. Nelson & C. Strawhacker (ed.) Movement, connectivity, and landscape change in the ancient Southwest: 233252. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.
Peeples, M.A. & Roberts, J.M. Jr. 2013. To binarize or not to binarize: relational data and the construction of archaeological networks. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 3001–303010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.03.014
Peeples, M.A., Mills, B.J., Clark, J.J., Aragon, L.D., Giomi, E.C. & Bellorado., B.A. 2016. Chaco Social Networks Database, Version 1.0. Tucson (AZ): Archaeology Southwest.
Plog, S. & Heitman., C. 2010. Hierarchy and social inequality in the American Southwest, A.D. 800–1200. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107: 1961919626. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014985107
Pons, P. & Latapy., M. 2005. Computing communities in large networks using random walks, in P. Yolum, T. Güngör, F. Gürgen & C. Özturan (ed.) Computer and information sciences—ISCIS 2005. 20 th International Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, October 26–28, 2005, proceedings: 284–93. Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/11569596_31
Price, T.D., Plog, S., LeBlanc, S.A. & Krigbaum., J. 2016. Great House origins and population stability at Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico: the isotopic evidence. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 11: 261273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.043
Reed, P.F. 2011. Middle San Juan settlement patterns: searching for Chacoan immigrants and evidence of local emulation on the landscape. Kiva 77: 225250. https://doi.org/10.1179/kiv.2011.77.2.005
Roberts, J.M. Jr, Mills, B.J., Clark, J.J., Haas, W.R. Jr, Huntley, D.L. & Trowbridge., M.A. 2012. A method for chronological apportioning of ceramic assemblages. Journal of Archaeological Science 39: 15131520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.12.022
Toll, H.W. 2006. Organization of production, in S.H. Lekson (ed.) The archaeology of Chaco Canyon: an eleventh century Pueblo regional center: 117152. Santa Fe (NM): SAR.
Van Dyke, R., Lekson, S. & Heitman, C. (with a contribution by J. Thomas). 2016. Chaco landscapes: data, theory and management. Available online at: http://www.chacoarchive.org/media/pdf/VanDykeEtAl_2016_ChacoLandscapeWP.pdf (accessed 10 July 2018).
Vivian, R.G. 1990. The Chacoan prehistory of the San Juan Basin. San Diego (CA): Academic.
Watson, A.S., Plog, S., Culleton, B.J., Gilman, P.A., LeBlanc, S.A., Whiteley, P.M., Claramunt, S. & Kennett., D.J. 2015. Early procurement of scarlet macaws and the emergence of social complexity in Chaco Canyon, NM. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112: 82388243. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1509825112
Webster, L.D. 2011. Perishable ritual artifacts at the West Ruin of Aztec, New Mexico: evidence for a Chacoan migration. Kiva 77: 139172. https://doi.org/10.1179/kiv.2011.77.2.002
Webster, L.D., Cordell, L.S., Hays-Gilpin, K. & Jolie., E.A. 2014. In praise of collections research: Basketmaker roots of Chacoan ritual practices, in N.J. Parezo & J.C. Janetski (ed.) Archaeology in the Great Basin and Southwest: papers in honor of Don D. Fowler: 322335. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Wills, W.H. 2009. Cultural identity and the archaeological construction of historical narratives: an example from Chaco Canyon. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 16: 283319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10816-009-9064-1
Wilshusen, R.H. 2015. Chaco’s beginnings: what we know now, and what to do next, in T.C. Windes (ed.) Early Puebloan occupations in the Chaco region, volume I: excavations and survey of Basketmaker III and Pueblo I sites, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series 210): 745761. Tucson: Arizona State Museum.
Wilshusen, R.H. & Ortman., S.G. 1999. Rethinking the Pueblo I period in the San Juan drainage: aggregation, migration, and cultural diversity. Kiva 64: 369399. https://doi.org/10.1080/00231940.1999.11758389
Wilshusen, R.H. & Van Dyke., R.M. 2006. Chaco’s beginning, in S.H. Lekson (ed.) The archaeology of Chaco Canyon: an eleventh-century Pueblo regional center: 211259. Santa Fe (NM): SAR.
Windes, T.C. 2007. Gearing up and piling on: early great houses in the Chaco Basin, in S.H. Lekson (ed.) Architecture of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico: 4592. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Windes, T.C. 2015. Early great house beginnings, in T.C. Windes (ed.) Early Puebloan occupations in the Chaco region, volume I: excavations and survey of Basketmaker III and Pueblo I sites, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series 210): 663744. Tucson: Arizona State Museum.
Windes, T.C. & Van Dyke., R.M. 2012. Pueblo I settlement in the greater Chaco Basin, in R.H. Wilshusen, G. Schachner & J.R. Allison (ed.) Crucible of Pueblos: the Early Pueblo Period in the northern Southwest (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph 71): 72100. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Mills et al. supplementary material
Mills et al. supplementary material 1

 PDF (1.8 MB)
1.8 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 815
Total number of PDF views: 448 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1552 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 22nd August 2018 - 18th September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.