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The Holy Mountain

  • J. H. Dunbar

It seems amazing that an African negro should ever have been able with any sort of justification to style himself – Emperor of the World ', and perhaps even more so that he should have been an enlightened prince ruling a people who were in many ways quite as civilized as we are today. For though it might be easy to imagine a native military genius, it is difficult to picture him as a patron of the finer arts.

From the very earliest recorded times what is now the northern Sudan-in those days described variously as Nubia, Ethiopia, or Kushwas in close relation with Egypt; and between the two countries there was a continuous exchange, not only of produce and material, but also of ideas and customs.

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Lepsius, Richard visited Gebel Barkal in 1844. and describes it in letter 23 of his Letters from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sinai, (Bohn, 1853).
A report of the OXFORD NUBIAN EXPEDITION of 1910–13. is printed in Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, (University of Liverpool Press vol. 9 (chapters 910 Napata, Barkal, and Sanam).
Wallis Budge, E.A. Annals of the Nubian Kings. (Kegan Paul, 1911. Contains a translation of the stelae from the great temple of Gebel Barkal.
Reisner, G.A. Historical Inscriptions from Gebel Barkal. Sudan Notes and Records Gordon College, Khartoum), July 1921. An account of the work of the Harvard-Boston Expedition, 1919-21. Dr Reisner discovered six stelae dating between 1454 B.C. and A.D. 100, the earliest of Thothmes 111 and the last an inscription in the Meroitic character ‘ the contents of which are hidden by our ignorance of that language . . . A series of statues have also been found to aid our knowledge of the history of Ethiopian art ’, the earliest being a ‘ seated life-size statue of the first known Governor General of the Sudan, Hepzefa, prince of Assiut ’, dating about 2000 B.C. A full translation is given of the stelae of Thothmes 111, in which the king addresses the people of southern Ethiopia ‘ which is in the Holy Mountain ’.
Moret, Alexander The Nile and Egyptian Civilization. (History of Civilization, edited by Ogden, C.K. Kegan, Paul, 1927). Dr Reisner’s excavations are referred to on p. 342 and also the Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, nos. 80 (1915), 89 (1917), 97 (1918) and especially 112-113 (1921) [Moret’s, book was reviewed in ANTIQUITY, 11, 233–41.
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  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
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