Skip to main content Accessibility help

Lapita and the temporal geography of prehistory

  • John Edward Terrell (a1) and Robert L. Welsch (a1)


Ambrose (this issue, above) and Sand (this issue, above) reported on Lapita in the specific, without being parochial in their concerns. This paper looks at the largest Lapita picture, but is itself in turn based on new reports in the specific, here from the coast of Papua New Guinea which is key for the relations in space, in time and in cultural affinity of whatever human it is that Lapita is.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Lapita and the temporal geography of prehistory
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Lapita and the temporal geography of prehistory
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Lapita and the temporal geography of prehistory
      Available formats



Hide All
Adams, W.Y., Van Gerven, D.P. & Levy, R.S.. 1978. The retreat from migrationism, Annual Review of Anthropology 7: 483532.
Akazawa, T. & Szathmáry, E.J.E. (ed.). 1996. Prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Allen, J. 1972. The first decade in New Guinea archaeology, Antiquity 46: 180–90.
Allen, J. 1984. In search of the Lapita homeland: reconstructing the prehistory of the Bismarck Archipelago, Journal of Pacific History 19: 186201.
Allen, J. 1991. Introduction, in Allen, & Gosden, (ed.): 18.
Allen, J. 1994. Radiocarbon determinations, luminescence dating and Australian archaeology, Antiquity 68: 339–43.
Allen, J. 1996. The pre-Austronesian settlement of island Melanesia: implications for Lapita archaeology, in Goodenough, W.H. (ed.), Prehistoric settlement of the Pacific: 1127. Philadelphia (PA): American Philosophical Society. Transactions 86(5).
Allen, J., & Gosden, C. (ed.). 1991. Report of the Lapita Homeland Project. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Occasional Papers in Prehistory 20.
Allen, J., & Gosden, C. (ed.). 1996. Spheres of interaction and integration, in Davidson, et al. (ed.): 183–97.
Allen, J. & Holdaway, S.. 1995. The contamination of Pleistocene radiocarbon determinations in Australia, Antiquity 69: 101–12.
Allen, J. & White, J.P.. 1989. The Lapita homeland: some new data and an interpretation, Journal of the Polynesian Society 98: 129–46.
Ambrose, W. 1997. Contradictions in Lapita pottery, a composite clone, Antiquity 70: 525–38 (above, this issue).
Anderson, A. 1995. Current approaches in east Polynesian colonization research, Journal of the Polynesian Society 104: 110–32.
Anderson, A. 1996. Adaptive voyaging and subsistence strategies in the early settlement of east Polynesia, in Akazawa, & Szathmáry, (ed.): 359–73.
Bailey, G. & Parkington, J.. 1988. The archaeology of prehistoric coastlines: an introduction, in Bailey, G. & Parkington, J. (ed.), The archaeology of prehistoric coastlines: 110. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bateson, G. 1936. Naven. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bayliss-SMITH, T. & Golson, J.. 1992. A Colocasian revolution in the New Guinea highlands?: insights from Phase 4 at Kuk, Archaeology in Oceania 27: 121.
Bellwood, P. 1975. The prehistory of Oceania, Current Anthropology 16: 928.
Bellwood, P. 1976. Archaeological research in Minahasa and the Talaud Islands, northeastern Indonesia, Asian Perspectives 19: 240–88.
Bellwood, P. 1978a. Man’s conquest of the Pacific: the prehistory of Southeast Asia and Oceania. Auckland: Collins.
Bellwood, P. 1978b. The Polynesians: prehistory of an island people. London: Thames & Hudson.
Bellwood, P. 1985. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian archipelago. Sydney: Academic Press.
Bellwood, P. 1988. A hypothesis for Austronesian origins, Asian Perspectives 26: 107–17.
Bellwood, P. 1989a. Are there antecedents for Lapita in island southeast Asia? Paper give at the Circum-Pacific Prehistory Conference, Seattle (WA), August.
Bellwood, P. 1989b. The colonization of the Pacific: some current hypotheses, in Hill, A.V.S. & Serjeantson, S.W. (ed.), The colonization of the Pacific: a genetic trail: 159. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bellwood, P. 1991. The Austronesian dispersal and the origin of languages, Scientific American 265(1): 8893.
Bellwood, P. 1992. New discoveries in southeast Asia relevant for Melanesian (especially Lapita) prehistory, in Galipaud, (ed.): 4966.
Bellwood, P. 1993. Crossing the Wallace Line – with style, in Spriggs, et al. (ed.): 152–63.
Bellwood, P. 1995. Comment on ‘Predicting similarity in material culture among New Guinea villages from propinquity and language,’ by Roberts, J.M. et al., Current Anthropology 36: 776–7.
Bellwood, P. 1996. Early agriculture and the dispersal of the southern Mongoloids, in Akazawa, & Szathmáry, (ed.): 287302.
Bellwood, P. 1997a. Ancient seafarers: new evidence of early Southeast Asian sea voyages, Archaeology 50(2): 2022.
Bellwood, P. 1997b. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian archipelago. 2nd edition. Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii Press.
Bellwood, P. & Koon, P.. 1989. ‘Lapita colonists leave boats unhurned!’: the question of Lapita links with Island Southeast Asia, Antiquity 63: 613–22.
Bourke, R.M. 1990. Subsistence food production systems in Papua New Guinea: old changes and new changes, in Yen, & Mummery, (ed.): 148–60.
Brace, G.L. & Hinton, R.J. 1981. Oceanic tooth-size variation as a reflection of biological and cultural mixing, Current Anthropology 22: 549–69.
Bulmer, S. 1996. Revisiting red slip: the Laloki style pottery of southern Papua and its possible relationship to Lapita. Paper (revised, 1997) given at the 3rd Lapita Workshop, Port Vila, Vanuatu, 1–6 August.
Butler, B.M. 1994. Early prehistoric settlement in the Mariana Islands: new evidence from Saipan, Man and Culture in Oceania 10: 1538.
Caldwell, J.R. 1964. Interaction spheres in prehistory, in Caldwell, J.R. & Hall, R.L. (ed.), Hopewellian studies: 135–43. Springfield (IL): Illinois State Museum. Scientific Papers 12.
Chappell, J. 1993. Late Pleistocene coasts and human migrations in the Austral region, in Spriggs, et al. (ed.): 43–8.
Chen, L.Z., Easteal, S., Board, P.G. & Kirk, R.L.. 1992. Genetic affinities of Oceanic populations based on RFLP and haplotype analysis of genetic loci on three chromosomes, Human Biology 64: 115.
Craib, J. 1983. Micronesian prehistory: an archeological overview, Science 219: 922–7.
Davidson, J., Irwin, G., Leach, F., Pawley, A. & Brown, D. (ed.). 1996. Oceanic culture history: essays in honour of Roger Green. Dunedin: New Zealand Journal of Archaeology. Special Publication.
Dickinson, W.R. 1995. The times are always changing: the Holocene saga, Geological Society of America Bulletin 107: 17.
Dickinson, W.R., Burley, D.V. & Shutler, R. JR., 1994. Impact of hydro-isostatic Holocene sea-level change on the geologic context of island archaeological sites, northern Ha’apai group, Kingdom of Tonga, Geoarchaeology 9: 85111.
Egloff, B. 1975. Archaeological investigations in the coastal Madang area and on Eloaue Island of the St Matthias Group. Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea Public Museum and Art Gallery. Records 5.
Flannery, T.F. & White, J.P.. 1991. Zoogeography of New Ireland mammals, Research & Exploration 7: 96113.
Fredericksen, C., Spriggs, M. & Ambrose, W.. 1993. Pamwak rocksheiter: a Pleistocene site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, in Smith, et al. (ed.): 144–52.
Galipaud, J.-C. (ed.). 1992. Poterie Lapita et peuplement. Noumea: ORSTOM.
Gell, A. 1992. The anthropology of time: cultural constructions of temporal maps and images. Oxford: Berg.
Gifford, E.W. & Shutler, R. JR. 1956. Archaeological excavations in New Caledonia. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press. Anthropological Records 18(1).
Glover, I. 1986. Archaeology in eastern Timor, 1966–67. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Terra Australis 11.
Golson, J. 1961. Report on New Zealand, western Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Fiji, Asian Perspectives 5: 166–80.
Golson, J. 1972a. Both sides of the Wallace Line: New Guinea, Australia, island Melanesia and Asian prehistory, in Barnard, N. (ed.), Early Chinese art and its possible influence in the Pacific Basin 3: 533–95. New York (NY): Intercultural Arts Press.
Golson, J. 1972b. The Pacific Islands and their prehistoric inhabitants, in Ward, R.G. (ed.), Man in the Pacific Islands: essays on geographical change in the Pacific Islands: 533. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Golson, J. 1982. Prehistoric movement and mapping, in May, R.J. & Nelson, H. (ed.), Melanesia: beyond diversity 1: 1723. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University.
Gorecki, P. 1992. A Lapita smoke screen?, in Galipaud, (ed.): 2747.
Gorecki, P., Mabin, M. & Campbell, J.. 1991. Archaeology and geomorphology of the Vanimo coast, Papua New Guinea: preliminary results, Archaeology in Oceania 26: 119–22.
Gosden, C. 1992. Production systems and the colonization of the western Pacific, World Archaeology 24: 5569.
Gosden, C. 1995. Arboriculture and agriculture in coastal Papua New Guinea, Antiquity 69: 807–17.
Gosden, C., et al. 1989. Lapita sites of the Bismarck Archipelago, Antiquity 63: 561–86.
Gosden, C. & Pavlides, C.. 1994. Are islands insular? Landscape vs seascape in the case of the Arawe Islands, Papua New Guinea, Archaeology in Oceania 29: 162–71.
Gosden, C. & Webb, J.. 1994. The creation of a Papua New Guinean landscape: archaeological and geomorphological evidence, Journal of Field Archaeology 21: 2951.
Green, R.C. 1968. West Polynesian prehistory, in Yawata, I. & Sinoto, Y.H. (ed.), Prehistoric culture in Oceania: a symposium: 99109. Honolulu (HI): Bishop Museum Press.
Green, R.C. 1973. Lapita pottery and the origins of Polynesian culture, Australian Natural History (June): 332–7.
Green, R.C. 1974. Sites with Lapita pottery: importing and voyaging, Mankind 9: 253–9.
Green, R.C. 1979. Lapita, in Jennings, (ed.): 2860.
Green, R.C. 1985. Comment: Sprigg’s ‘The Lapita cultural complex’, journal of Pacific History 20: 220–24.
Green, R.C. 1987. Obsidian results from Lapita sites of the Reef/Santa Cruz Islands, in Ambrose, W.R. & Mummery, J.M.J. (ed.), Archaeometry: further Australasian studies: 239–49. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Occasional Papers in Prehistory 14.
Green, R.C. 1992. Definitions of the Lapita cultural complex and its non-ceramic component, in Galipaud, (ed.): 720.
Green, R.C. 1994. Changes over time: recent advances in dating human colonization of the Pacific Basin area, in Sutton, D.G. (ed.), The origins of the first New Zealanders: 1951. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
Green, R.C. 1995. Comment on ‘Predicting similarity in material culture among New Guinea villages from propinquity and language,’ by Roberts, J.M. et al, Current Anthropology 36: 778–9.
Green, R.C. 1996. Prehistoric transfers of portable items during the Lapita horizon in remote Oceania: a review, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 15: 119–30.
Groube, L.M. 1967. Models in prehistory: a consideration of the New Zealand evidence, Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 2: 127.
Haantjens, H.A. et al. 1972. Lands of the Aitape-Ambunti area, Papua New Guinea. Melbourne: CSIRO. Land Research Series 30.
Haggett, P. 1966. Locational analysis in human geography. New York (NY): St Martin’s Press.
Harding, T.G. 1967. Voyagers of the Vitiaz Strait: a study of a New Guinea trade system. Seattle (WA): University of Washington Press.
Harris, D. 1995. Early agriculture in New Guinea and the Torres Strait divide, Antiquity 69: 848–54.
Hather, J.G. 1992. The archaeobotany of subsistence in the Pacific, World Archaeology 24: 7081.
Hawking, S.W. 1988. A brief history of time: from the big bang to black holes. New York (NY): Bantam.
Hope, G. & Golson, J.. 1995. Late Quaternary change in the mountains of New Guinea, Antiquity 69: 818–30.
Hunt, T.L. 1987. Patterns of human interaction and evolutionary divergence in the Fiji Islands, journal of the Polynesian Society 96: 299334.
Hunt, T.L. 1988. Graph theoretic network models for Lapita exchange: a trial application, in Kirch, & Hunt, (ed.): 135–55.
Irwin, G.J. 1983. Chieftainship, kula and trade in Massim prehistory, in Leach, J.W. & Leach, E. (ed.), The kula: new perspectives on Massim exchange: 2972. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Irwin, G.J. 1985. The emergence of Mailu as a central place in coastal Papuan prehistory. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Terra Australis 10.
Irwin, G.J. 1989. Against, across and down the wind: a case for the systematic exploration of the remote Pacific Islands, Journal of the Polynesian Society 98: 167206.
Irwin, G.J. 1992. The prehistoric exploration and colonization of the Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Irwin, G.J., Bickler, S. & Quirke, P.. 1990. Voyaging by canoe and computer: experiments in the settlement of the Pacific Ocean, Antiquity 64: 3450.
Irwin, G.J. & Holdaway, S.. 1996. Colonization, trade and exchange: from Papua to Lapita, in Davidson, et al. (ed.): 225–35.
Jennings, J.D. (ed.). 1979. The prehistory of Polynesia: 352–77. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
Kennedy, J. 1982. Archaeology in the Admiralties: some excursions, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 3: 2235.
Kirch, P.V. 1984. The evolution of the Polynesian chiefdoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kirch, P.V. 1987. Lapita and Oceanic cultural origins: excavations in the Mussau Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, 1985, Journal of Field Archaeology 14: 163–80.
Kirch, P.V. 1988a. Long-distance exchange and island colonization: the Lapita case, Norwegian Archaeological Review 21: 103–17.
Kirch, P.V. 1988b. Problems and issues in Lapita archaeology, in Kirch, & Hunt, (ed.): 157–65.
Kirch, P.V. 1988c. The Talepakemalai Lapita site and Oceanic prehistory, National Geographic Research 4: 328–42.
Kirch, P.V. 1990. Specialization and exchange in the Lapita complex of Oceania (1600–500 BC), Asian Perspectives 29: 117–33.
Kirch, P.V. 1991. Prehistoric exchange in western Melanesia, Annual Review of Anthropology 20: 141–65.
Kirch, P.V. 1995. The Lapita culture of western Melanesia in the context of Austronesian origins and dispersal, in Li, P. et al. (ed.) Austronesian studies relating to Taiwan: 255–94. Taipei: Academia Sinica. Symposium Series of the Institute of History and Philology 3.
Kirch, P.V. 1997. The Lapita people: ancestors of the Oceanic world. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kirch, P.V. et al. 1991. Mussau Islands prehistory: results of the 1985–86 excavations, in Allen, & Gosden, (ed.): 144–63.
Kirch, P.V. & Hunt, T.L. (ed.). 1988. Archaeology of the Lapita cultural complex: a critical review. Seattle (WA): Burke Museum. Research Report 5.
Kirch, P.V. & Weisler, M.I.. 1994. Archaeology in the Pacific Islands: an appraisal of recent research, Journal of Archaeological Research 2: 285328.
Lesser, A. 1961. Social fields and the evolution of society, American Anthropologist 17: 4048.
Lilley, I. 1986. Prehistoric exchange in the Vitiaz Strait, Papua New Guinea. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Loy, T.H., Spriggs, M. & Wickler, S.. 1992. Direct evidence for human use of plants 28,000 years ago: starch residues on stone artefacts from the northern Solomon Islands, Antiquity 66: 898912.
Nei, M. & Takezali, N. 1996. The root of the phylogenetic tree of human populations, Molecular Biology and Evolution 13: 170–77.
Pavlides, C. & Gosden, C.. 1994. 35,000-year-old sites in the rainforests of West New Britain, Papua New Guinea, Antiquity 68: 604–10.
Poulsen, J. 1987. Early Tongan prehistory: the Lapita period on Tongatapu and its relationships. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Terra Australis 12.
Roscoe, P. 1989. The pig and the long yam: the expansion of a Sepik cultural complex, Ethnology 28: 219–31.
Ross, M. 1988. Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian languages of western Melanesia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Pacific Linguistics C-98.
Ross, M. 1989. Early Oceanic linguistic prehistory, Journal of Pacific History 24: 135–49.
Ross, M. 1991. How conservative are sedentary languages?: evidence from western Melanesia, in Blust, R. (ed.), Currents in Pacific linguistics: papers on Austronesian languages and ethnolinguistics in honour of George W. Grace: 433–51. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Pacific Linguistics C-117.
Rouse, I. 1986. Migrations in prehistory: inferring population movement from cultural remains. New Haven (CT): Yale University Press.
Sapir, E. 1916. Time perspective in aboriginal American culture, a study in method. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau. Memoir 90, Geological Survey, Department of Mines. Anthropological Series 13.
Sheppard, P. 1996. Hard rock: archaeological implications of chert soLircing in near and remote Oceania, in Davidson, et al. (ed.): 99115.
Sherratt, A. 1993. The relativity of theory, in Yoffee, N. & Sherratt, A. (ed.), Archaeological theory: who sets the agenda?: 119–30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shutler, R. JR, & Margk, J.C.. 1975. On the dispersal of the Austronesian horticulturalists. Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania 10: 81113.
Siorat, J.P. 1990. A technological analysis of Lapita pottery decoration, in Spriggs (ed.): 5982.
Smith, A. 1995. The need for Lapita: explaining change in the Late Holocene Pacific archaeological record, World Archaeology 26: 366–79.
Smith, M.A., Spriggs, M. & Fankhauser, B. (ed.). 1993. Sahul in review: Pleistocene archaeology in Australia, New Guinea and Island Melanesia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Occasional Papers in Prehistory 24.
Solheim, W.G. 1964. Further relationships of the Sa-Huynh-Kalanay pottery tradition, Asian Perspectives 8: 196211.
Spriggs, M. 1984. The Lapita cultural complex: origins, distribution, contemporaries and successors, Journal of Pacific History 29: 202–23.
Spriggs, M. 1989. The dating of the Island Southeast Asian Neolithic: an attempt at Chronometrie hygiene and linguistic correlation, Antiquity 63: 587613.
Spriggs, M. (ed.). 1990. Lapita design, form, and composition:proceed-ings of the Lapita design workshop, Canberra, December 1988. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Occasional Papers in Prehistory 19.
Spriggs, M. 1993a. Island Melanesia: the last 10,000 years, in Spriggs, et al. (ed.): 187205.
Spriggs, M. 1993b. Pleistocene agriculture in the Pacific: why not?, in Smith, et al. (ed.): 137–43.
Spriggs, M. 1996a. Chronology and colonization in island southeast Asia and the Pacific: new data and an evaluation, in Davidson, et al. (ed.): 3350.
Spriggs, M. 1996b. What is Southeast Asian about Lapita?, in Akazawa, & Szathmáry, (ed.): 324–48.
Spriggs, M. & Chippindale, C.. 1989. Introduction to Special section, ‘Early settlement of Island Southeast Asia and the western Pacific’, Antiquity 63: 547.
Spriggs, M., Yen, D.E., Ambrose, W., Jones, R., Thorne, A. & Andrews, A. (ed.). 1993. A community of culture: the people and prehistory of the Pacific. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. Occasional Papers in Prehistory 21.
Suggs, R.C. 1960. The island civilizations of Polynesia. New York (NY): New American Library.
Summerhayes, G. 1998. Interaction in Pacific prehistory: an approach based on the production, distribution, and use of pottery. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, LaTrobe University.
Swadlng, P. 1990. Sepik prehistory, in Lutkehaus, N. et al. (ed.), Sepik heritage: tradition and change in Papua New Guinea: 7186. Durham (NC): Carolina Academic Press.
Swadlng, P. 1996. Plumes from paradise: trade cycles in outer Southeast Asia and their impact on New Guinea and nearby islands until 1920. Boroko: Papua New Guinea National Museum and Robert Brown & Associates.
Swadlinc, P., Araho, N. & Ivuyo, B.. 1991. Settlements associated with the inland Sepik-Ramu Sea, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 11: 92112.
Swadling, P. et al. 1988. The Sepik-Ramu: an introduction. Boroko (NCT): National Museum and Art Gallery.
Swadling, P. 1989. A Late Quaternary inland sea and early pottery in Papua New Guinea, Archaeology in Oceania 24: 106–9.
Swadling, P. & Hope, G.. 1992. Environmental change in New Guinea since human settlement, in Dodson, J.R. (ed.), The naive lands: prehistory and environmental change in Australia and the southwest Pacific: 1342. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.
Terrell, J.E. 1974. Comparative study of human and lower animal biogeography in the Solomon Islands. Chicago (IL): Department of Anthropology, Field Museum of Natural History. Solomon Island Studies in Human Biogeography 3.
Terrell, J.E. 1986. Prehistory in the Pacific Islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Terrell, J.E. 1988. History as a family tree, history as an entangled bank: constructing images and interpretations of prehistory in the south Pacific, Antiquity 62: 642–57.
Terrell, J.E. 1989. Commentary: what Lapita is and what Lapita isn’t, Antiquity 63: 623–6.
Terrell, J.E. 1990. Storytelling and prehistory, Archaeological Method and Theory 2: 129.
Terrell, J.E. 1996. Lapita as history and culture hero, in Davidson, et al. (ed.): 5166.
Terrell, J.E., Hunt, T.L. & Gosden, C.. 1997. The dimensions of social life in the Pacific: human diversity and the myth of the primitive isolate, Current Anthropology 38: 155–95.
Terrell, J.E. & Irwin, G.J.. 1972. History and tradition in the northern Solomons: an analytical study of the Torau migration to southern Bougainville in the 1860s, Journal of the Polynesian Society 81: 317–49.
Terrell, J.E. & Welsch, R.L.. 1990. Trade networks, areal integration, and diversity along the north coast of New Guinea, Asian Perspectives 29: 156–65.
Tokrence, R. 1986. Production and exchange of stone tools. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tokrence, R. 1994. Processes and events: differential rates of change in the Talasea region of West New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Paper given at the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 15th Congress, January.
Torrence, R. & Summerhayes, G.R.. 1997. Sociality and the short distance trader: intra-regional obsidian exchange in the Willaumetz region, Papua New Guinea, Archaeology in Oceania 32: 7484.
Torrence, R. & Victor, K.L.. 1995. The relativity of density, Archaeology in Oceania 30: 121–31.
Tykot, R.H. & Chia, S.. 1997. The longest Stone Age trade route in the world: southwest Pacific obsidian reached Borneo (Malaysia) in the 5th Millennium BC. Paper given at the annual meetings, Society for American Archaeology, Nashville (TN), April 5.
Welsch, R.L. 1996. Language, culture, and data on the north coast of New Guinea, Quantitative Anthropology 6: 209–34.
Welsch, R.L. In press a. An American anthropologist in Melanesia before the Great War: the field diaries of Albert B. Lewis during the J.N. Field South Pacific Expedition, 1909–1913. Honolulu (III): University of Hawaii Press.
Welsch, R.L. In press b. Collaborative regional anthropology in New Guinea: from the New Guineu micro-evolution project to the A.B. Lewis project and beyond. Pacific Studies.
Welsch, R.L. N.d. Historical ethnology: the context and meaning of the A.B. Lewis collection. MS.
Welsch, R.L. & Terrell, J.E.. 1991. Continuity and change in economic relations along the Aitape coast of Papua New Guinea, 1909–1990, Pacific Studies 14: 113–28.
Welsch, R.L. & Terrell, J.E. 1994. Reply to Moore and Romney, American Anthropologist 96: 392–6.
Welsch, R.L. In press. Material culture, social fields, and social boundaries on the Sepik coast of New Guinea, in Stark, M. (ed.), Technical choices and social boundaries in material culture patterning. Washington (DC): Smithsonian Institution Press.
Welsch, R.L., Terrell, J.E. & Nadolski, J.. 1992. Language and culture on the north coast of New Guinea, American Anthropologist 94: 568600.
White, J.P. 1979. Melanesia, in Jennings, (ed.): 352–77.
White, J.P. & Allen, J.. 1980. Melanesien prehistory: some recent advances. Science 207: 728–34.
White, J.P., Downie, J.E. & Ambrose, W.R.. 1978. Mid-Recent human occupation and resource exploitation in the Bismarck Archipelago, Science 199: 877–9.
Williams, G.C. 1966. Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.
Yen, D.E. 1990. Environment, agriculture and the colonization of the Pacific, in Yen, & Mummery, (ed.): 258–77.
Yen, D.E. 1995. The development of Sahul agriculture with Australia as bystander, Antiquity 69: 831–47.
Yen, D.E. & Mummery, J.M.J. (ed.). 1990. Pacific production systems: approaches to economic prehistory. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies. Australian National University. Occasional Papers in Prehistory 18.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Lapita and the temporal geography of prehistory

  • John Edward Terrell (a1) and Robert L. Welsch (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.