Skip to main content

Migrant farmers and the Neolithic colonization of Crete

  • Cyprian Broodbank (a1) and Thomas F. Strasser (a2)

When did a human presence reach Crete, largest of the Aegean islands, and invitingly joined to the mainland by intervening stepping-stones? Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, or only in the Neolithic, when the deep sequence of occupations under the site of the later palace at Knossos began. How many sailed to Crete? What did they bring with them?

Hide All
Adams, J. & Kasakoff, A.B. 1976. Factors underlying endogamous group size, in Smith, C.A. (ed.), Regional analysis II: social systems: 149–3. London: Academic Press.
Akkkrmans, P.A. et al. 1983. Bouqras revisited: preliminary report on a project in eastern Syria, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 49: 335372.
Ammerman, A.J. 1989. On the Neolithic transition in Europe: a comment on Zvelebil & Zvelebil (1988), Antiquity 63: 162–5.
Ammerman, A.J. & Cavalli-SFORZA, L.L. 1984. The Neolithic transition and the genetics of population in Europe. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.
Barker, G. 1985. Prehistoric farming in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bate, O. 1905. Four and a half months in Crete in search of Pleistocene mammalian remains, Geological Magazine (new series) 2: 192203.
Black, S. 1978. Polynesian outliers: a study in the survival of small populations, in Hodder, I. (ed.), Simulation studies in archaeology: 6376. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boessneck, J. 1962. Die Tierreste aus der Argissa-Magula vom Prakeramischen Neolithikum bis zur Mittleren Bronzezeit, in Milojcic, V., Boessneck, J. & Hopf, M., Die Deutschen Ausgrabungen auf der Argissa-Magula in Thessalien I: Das Prdkeramische Neolithikum sowie die Tier- und Pflanzenreste: 2799. Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag.
Bökönyi, S. 1989. Animal remains, in Gimbutas, M. (ed.), Achilleion: a Neolithic settlement in Thess-aly, Greece 6400-5600 BC: 315325 Los Angeles (CA): UCLA Institute of Archaeology. Monumenta Archaeologica XIV.
Broodbank, C. 1989. The longboat and society in the Cyclades in the Keros-Syros culture, American Journal of Archaeology 9: 319–37.
Case, H. 1969. Neolithic explanations, Antiquity 43: 176–86.
Cherry, J.F. 1981. Pattern and process in the earliest colonisation of the Mediterranean islands, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 47: 4168.
Cherry, J.F. 1985. Islands out of the stream: isolation and interaction in early East Mediterranean insular prehistory, in Knapp, A.B. & Stech, T. (ed.), Prehistoric production and exchange: the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean: 1229. Los Angeles (CA): UCLA Institute of Archaeology. Monograph 25.
Cherry, J.F. 1990. The first colonization of the Mediterranean islands: a review of recent research, journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 3.
Cherry, J.F., Bennet, D.L.J. & Wilson, A.N. In preparation. A gazetteer of Neolithic and Bronze Age civilisation in the Aegean II: Crete.
Childe, V.G. 1950. Prehistoric migrations in Europe. Oslo: Aschehoug.
Childe, V.G. 1957. The dawn of European civilisation. 6th edition. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Clark, C. & Hasvvell, M. 1970. The economics of subsistence agriculture. London: Macmillan.
Davis, S.J.M. 1984. Khirokitia and its mammal remains: a Neolithic Noah’s Ark, in Le Brun, A., Fouilles récentes à Khirokitia (Chypre) 19771981. Paris: CNRS.
Dennell, R. 1978. Early farming in Bulgaria from the VI to ill millennia BC. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports. International Series S45.
Dennell, R. 1983. European economic prehistory: a neiv approach. London: Academic Press.
Dennell, R. 1984. The expansion of exogenous-based economies across Europe: the Balkans and Central Europe, in De Atley, S.P. & Findlow, F.J. (ed.), Exploring the limits: frontiers and boundaries in prehistory: 93115. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports. British Series 223.
Dennell, R. 1985. The hunter-gatherer/agricultural frontier in prehistoric temperate Europe, in Green, S.W & Perlman, S.M. (ed.), The archaeology of frontiers and boundaries: 113–39. London: Academic Press.
Dermitzakis, M.D. & De Vos, J. 1987. Faunal succession and the evolution of mammals in Crete during the Pleistocene, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paldontologie, Abhandlungen 173: 377408.
De Vos, J. 1984. The endemic Pleistocene deer of Crete. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.
Evans, J.D. 1964. Excavations in the Neolithic settlement at Knossos, 1957–60, Part I, Annual of the British School at Athens 59: 132240.
Evans, J.D. 1968. Knossos Neolithic part II: summary and conclusions, Annual of the British School al Athens 63: 267276.
Evans, J.D. 1971. Neolithic Knossos: growth of a settlement, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 37: 95117.
Foose, T.J. 1983. The relevance of captive populations to the conservation of biotic diversity, in Schonewald-Cox, C.M., Chambers, S.M., Macbryde, B. & Thomas, W.L. (ed.), Genetics and conservation: a reference for managing wild animals and plant populations: 374401. Menlo Park (CA): Benjamin & Cummings.
Foose, T.J. & Foose, E. 1983. Demographic and genetic status and management, in Beck, B.B. & Wemmer, C. (ed.), The biology and management of an extinct species: Père David’s Deer: 133–86. Park Ridge (NJ): Noyes Publications.
Groves, C.P. 1989. Feral animals of the Mediterranean: documents of early domestication, in Clutton-Brock, J. (ed.). The walking larder: 4658. London: Unwin Hyman.
Halstead, P.L.J. 1981. Counting sheep in Neolithic and Bronze Age Greece, in Hodder, I., Isaac, G. & Hammond, N. (ed.), Pattern of the past: 307–39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hassan, F.A. 1988. The predynastic of Egypt, Journal of World Prehistory 2: 135–85.
Held, S.O. 1989. Colonization cycles on Cyprus I: the biogeographic and palaeontological foundations of early prehistoric settlement, Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus 1989: 728.
Irwin, G., Bickler, S. & Quirke, P. 1990. Voyaging by canoe and computer: experiments in the settlement of the Pacific ocean, Antiquity 64: 3450.
Jarman, M.R. & Jarman, H.N. 1968. The fauna and economy of early Neolithic Knossos, Annual of the British Schooi at Athens 63: 241–64.
Johnstone, P. 1988. The seacraft of prehistory. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.
Jones, R. 1977. Man as an element of a continental fauna: the case of the sundering of the Bassian bridge, in Allen, J., Golson, J. & Jones, R. (ed.), Sunda and Sahui: prehistoric studies in Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Australia: 317–86. London: Academic Press.
Keegan, W.F. & Diamond, J.M. 1987. Colonisation of islands by humans: a biogeographical perspective, Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 10: 4992.
Lewthwaite, J.G. 1986. The transition to food production: a Mediterranean perspective, in Zvelebil 1986: 5366.
>Lewthwaite, J.G. 1989. Isolating the residuals: the Mesolithic basis of man-animal relationships on the Mediterranean islands, in Bonsall, C. (ed.), The Mesolithic in Europe: 541–55. Edinburgh: John Donald.
McArthur, N., Saunders, I.W. & Tweedie, R.L. 1976. Small population isolates: a micro-simulation study, Journal of the Polynesian Society 85: 307–26.
McGeehan LIRITZIS, V. 1988. Seafaring, seacraft and cultural contact in the Aegean during the third millennium BC, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 17: 237–56.
McGrail, S. 1988. Foreword to the second edition, in Johnstone, 1988: xiii–xviii.
Macarthur, R.H. & Wilson, E.O. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.
MacCluer, J.N. & Dyke, B. 1976. On the minimum size of endogamous populations, Social Biology 23: 112.
Mellaart, J. 1975. The Neolithic of the Near East. London: Thames & Hudson.
Osborne, R. 1987. Classical landscape with figures: the Ancient Greek city and its countryside. London: George Philip.
Payne, S. 1975. Faunal change at Franchthi cave from 20,000 BCto 3000 BC, in Clason, A.T. (ed.), Archaeozoological studies: 120–31. Amsterdam: North-Holland & American Elsevier.
Perles, C. 1987. Les industries lithiques taillées de Franchthi (Argolide, Grèce] I: Présentation générale et industries Paléolithiques. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University Press. Excavations at Franchthi Cave, Greece. Fascicle 3.
Protsch, R. & Bercer, R. 1973. Earliest radiocarbon dates for domesticated animals, Science 179: 235–9.
Renfrew, A.C., Cann, J.R. & Dixon, J.E.. 1965. Obsidian in the Aegean, Annual of the British School at Athens 60: 22547.
Renfrew, J.M. 1973. Palaeoethnobotany: the prehistoric food plants of the Near East and Europe. London: Methuen.
Roberts, N. 1979. The location and environment of Knossos, Annual of the British School at Athens 74: 231–41.
Rodden, R.J. 1962. Excavations at the early Neolithic site at Nea Nikomedeia, Greek Macedonia (1961 season), Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 28: 267–88.
Runnels, C. 1988. A prehistoric survey of Thessaly: new light on the Greek Middle Palaeolithic, Journal of Field Archaeology 15: 277–90.
Runnels, C. & Van ANDEL, T.H.. 1988. Trade and the origins of agriculture in the eastern Mediterranean, Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 1: 83109.
Simmons, A.H. 1988. Test excavation at Akrotiri-Aetokremnos (Site E), an early prehistoric occupation in Cyprus: preliminary report, Report to the Director of Antiquities, Cyprus 1988: 1524.
Simmons, A.H. 1989. Preliminary report on the 1988 test excavations at Akrotiri-Aetokremnos, Report to the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus 1989: 16.
Sondaar, P.Y. 1971. Palaeozoogeography of the Pleistocene mammals from the Aegean, in Strid, A. (ed.), Evolution in the Aegean: proceedings of a symposium held at the Department of Plant Taxonomy, Lund Sweden on January 22-23 1971 (Opera Botanica) 30: 6570.
Sondaar, P.Y. 1986. The island sweepstakes, Natural History 95 (9): 5057.
Sondaar, P.Y. & Boekschoten, G.L. 1967. Quaternary mammals in the southern Aegean island arc: with notes on other fossil mammals from the coastal regions of the Mediterranean I & II, Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Series B Physical Science 70 (5): 556–76.
Tzalas, C. 1989. O dromos tou opsidianou me ena papyrenio skaphos stis Kyklades, Archaiologia 32: 1120.
Tzedakis, Y. 1970. Archaiotites kai mnimeia Dytikis Kritis, ArchaioJogikon Deltion 25B(2) (1970) Cronika: 465–78.
Van Andel, T.J. 1989. Late Quaternary sea-level changes and archaeology, Antiquity 63: 733–45.
Van Andel, T.J. & Shackleton, J.C. 1982. Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic coastlines of Greece and the Aegean, Journal of Field Archaeology 9: 445–54.
Washburn, D.K. 1983. Symmetry analysis of ceramic design: two tests of the method on Neolithic material from Greece and the Aegean, in Washburn, D.K. (ed.), Structure and cognition in art: 138–64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
White, J.P. & O’CONNELL, J.F. 1982. A prehistory of Australia, New Guinea and Sahul. Sidney: Academic Press.
Williams, E. 1989. Dating the introduction of food production into Britain and Ireland, Antiquity 63: 510–21.
Williamson, I. & Sabath, M.D.. 1984. Small population instability and island settlement patterns, Human Ecology 12: 2134.
Zohary, D. & Hopf, M. 1988. Domestication of plants in the Old World: the origins and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe and the Nile valley. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Zohary, D. & Orschan, G. 1965. An outline of the geobotany of Crete, Israel Journal of Botany (supplement) 14: 149.
Zvelebil, M. (ed.) 1986. Hunters in transition: Mesolithic societies of temperate Eurasia and their transition to farming. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed