ANTIQUITY, 1937, XI, 133-51
ANTIQUITY, 1938, XII, 151. According to Prof. R. A. S. Macalister saddle-querns had not yet been superseded by rotary querns in Palestine in the time of Christ (A Century of Excavation in Palestine (1925), 233), and yet the donkey-mill was already known, for it is referred to in Matthew, XVIII, 6 (μύλoς ỏvικς)
It is difficult to see how a quern with an obliquely set spindle-socket like that of Fig. 6 could have revolved at all. The whole thing looks amateurish.
Lower stones that are tilted at an angle to the horizontal are not infrequent ; a possible explanation is that they may have been the result of an attempt to encourage the meal to emerge on one side of the quern, instead of all round it.
The Welsh have a special term, breuan dinfoel, for a round-bottomed quern.
These four querns are illustrated in my former article, loc. cit., figs. 14, 17-19 (p. 143), and plate 11, 5, 6.
Exceptions to this rule may occur : a 3rd-4th century quern (fragment) from Thundersbarrow Hill, Sussex, originally 30-32 inches in diameter and 3¼ inches thick, preserves part of the socket for a vertical handle (Ant. Journ. 1933, XIII, 123-4). In this case the diameter of the quern was sufficient to allow a handle so placed to exert the necessary leverage ; in most Roman querns the diameter was so small that the handle had to extend radially beyond the edge of the stone.
H. O’N. Hencken, Cahercommaun (Roy. Soc. Ant. Ireland, 1938), p. 49 and fig. 29, no. 698.
ANTIQUITY, 1938, XII, 151-2. On p. 152 a printer’s extraordinary ‘mishap’ has made nonsense of the second line, which should read : ‘When dried in an oven there was less flattening but no angular fragments’. (See also p. 365 of the same volume.— EDITOR).
See plate III of former article.